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Power System Protection

Fundamentals

Dr. Youssef A. Mobarak


y.a.Mobarak@Gmail.com
2014
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Topic_1

AGENDA

Why protection is needed


Principles and elements of the protection system
Basic protection schemes
Digital relay advantages and enhancements

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DISTURBANCES: LIGHT OR SEVERE

The power system must maintain acceptable operation


24 hours a day
Voltage and frequency must stay within certain limits
Small disturbances
The control system can handle these
Example: variation in transformer or generator load
Severe disturbances require a protection system
They can jeopardize the entire power system
They cannot be overcome by a control system
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POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

Operation during severe disturbances:


System element protection
System protection
Automatic reclosing
Automatic transfer to alternate power supplies
Automatic synchronization

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TYPICAL BULK POWER SYSTEM
Generation-typically at 4-35kV

Transmission-typically at 230-765kV

Receives power from transmission system and transforms


into subtransmission level

Subtransmission-typically at 69-161kV

Receives power from subtransmission system and


transforms into primary feeder voltage

Distribution network-typically 2.4-69kV

Low voltage (service)-typically 120-600V

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PROTECTION ZONES
1. Generator or Generator-Transformer Units
2. Transformers
3. Buses
4. Lines (transmission and distribution)
5. Utilization equipment (motors, static loads, etc.)
6. Capacitor or reactor (when separately protected)
Bus zone Bus zone Bus zone
Unit Generator-Tx zone Line zone
Transformer zone Motor zone
Transformer zone

Generator XFMR Bus Line Bus XFMR Bus Motor

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WHAT INFO IS REQUIRED TO APPLY PROTECTION
1. One-line diagram of the system or area involved
2. Impedances and connections of power equipment, system frequency,
voltage level and phase sequence
3. Existing schemes
4. Operating procedures and practices affecting protection
5. Importance of protection required and maximum allowed clearance
times
6. System fault studies
7. Maximum load and system swing limits
8. CTs and VTs locations, connections and ratios
9. Future expansion expectance
10. Any special considerations for application. 11
C37.2: DEVICE
NUMBERS

Partial listing
ONE LINE DIAGRAM

Non-dimensioned diagram showing how pieces of electrical


equipment are connected
Simplification of actual system
Equipment is shown as boxes, circles and other simple graphic
symbols
Symbols should follow ANSI or IEC conventions

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LINE SYMBOLS [1]

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LINE SYMBOLS [2]

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LINE SYMBOLS [3]

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LINE SYMBOLS [4]

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1-LINE [1]

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PROTECTION SYSTEM
A series of devices whose main purpose is to
protect persons and primary electric power
equipment from the effects of faults

BLACKOUTS
Characteristics Main Causes
Loss of service in a large area
or population region Overreaction of the protection
system
Hazard to human life
Bad design of the protection
May result in enormous system
economic losses 19
SHORT CIRCUITS PRODUCE HIGH CURRENTS

Three-Phase Line
a
b
c
I

Substation Fault

Thousands of Amps I
Wire

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ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT THERMAL DAMAGE
t

Damage Damage Curve


Time

I
In Imd Short-Circuit
Rated Value
Current
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MECHANICAL DAMAGE DURING SHORT CIRCUITS
Very destructive in busbars, isolators, supports,
transformers, and machines
Damage is instantaneous

Mechanical
Forces
f1 f2
i1
i2

Rigid Conductors f1(t) = k i1(t) i2(t)


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ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL
AGENTS

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DAMAGE TO MAIN EQUIPMENT

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THE FUSE

Fuse

Transformer

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PROTECTION SYSTEM ELEMENTS
Protective relays
Circuit breakers
Current and voltage transducers
Communications channels
DC supply system
Control cables

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THREE-PHASE DIAGRAM OF THE PROTECTION TEAM
CTs CB

Protected
Control Equipment

Relay

VTs

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DC TRIPPING CIRCUIT
+

Relay
SI
Red
DC Station Lamp
Battery Relay
SI Contact

52a Circuit
Breaker
52
TC

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CIRCUIT BREAKERS

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CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

Very High Voltage CT


Medium-Voltage CT

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VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

Medium Voltage

Note: Voltage transformers


are also known as potential
High Voltage transformers
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TYPICAL CT/VT CIRCUITS

Courtesy of Blackburn, Protective Relay: Principles and Applications

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CT/VT CIRCUIT VS. CASING GROUND
Case

Secondary Circuit
Case ground made at IT location
Secondary circuit ground made at first point of use
Prevents shock exposure of personnel
Provides current carrying capability for the ground-fault
current
Grounding includes design and construction of substation
ground mat and CT and VT safety grounding
SUBSTATION TYPES
Single Supply

Multiple Supply

Mobile Substations for emergencies

Types are defined by number of transformers, buses,


breakers to provide adequate service for application

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SWITCHGEAR DEFINED
Assemblies containing electrical switching, protection,
metering and management devices
Used in three-phase, high-power industrial, commercial
and utility applications
Covers a variety of actual uses, including motor control,
distribution panels and outdoor switchyards
The term "switchgear" is plural, even when referring to a
single switchgear assembly (never say, "switchgears")
May be a described in terms of use:
"the generator switchgear"
"the stamping line switchgear"

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PROTECTIVE RELAYS

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EXAMPLES OF RELAY PANELS

Microprocessor-
Based Relay

Old Electromechanical

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HOW DO RELAYS DETECT FAULTS?

When a fault takes place, the current, voltage,


frequency, and other electrical variables behave in a
peculiar way. For example:
Current suddenly increases
Voltage suddenly decreases
Relays can measure the currents and the voltages and
detect that there is an overcurrent, or an undervoltage, or
a combination of both
Many other detection principles determine the design of
protective relays
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MAIN PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS
Reliability
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Speed
System stability
Equipment damage
Power quality
Sensitivity
High-impedance faults
Dispersed generation

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PRIMARY PROTECTION

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PRIMARY PROTECTION ZONE OVERLAPPING
Protection
Zone A
52 Protection
Zone B
To Zone A
Relays
To Zone B
Relays

Protection
Zone A
52 Protection
Zone B
To Zone A
Relays To Zone B
Relays
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BACKUP PROTECTION
Breaker 5
Fails
C D
A E

1 2 5 6 11 12

T
B F

3 4 7 8 9 10

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BALANCED VS. UNBALANCED CONDITIONS Ia
Ic
Ic

Ia

Balanced System I b Unbalanced System


Ib
Typical Short-Circuit Type Distribution
Single-Phase-Ground: 7080%
Phase-Phase-Ground: 1710%
Phase-Phase: 108%
Three-Phase: 32%
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DECOMPOSITION OF AN UNBALANCED SYSTEM
Ia
Ic
Ib
I a1
I c1

Ib 2
Ia0
Ib0 Ia2
Ic0 I b1 Ic2

Zero-Sequence Positive-Sequence Negative-Sequence


Single-Phase Balanced Balanced
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CONTRIBUTION TO FAULTS

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X
Z
A

G
X
FAULT TYPES (SHUNT) C B

Short Circuit Calculation


Fault Types Single Phase to Ground

X
A Z Z
A
G

G
C B C B

Z X X
Z

X X
Z Z

Short Circuit Calculations Short Circuit Calculations


Fault Types Line to Line Fault Types Three Phase 48
AC & DC CURRENT COMPONENTS OF FAULT CURRENT

VARIATION OF GENERATOR REACTANCE


VARIATION OF CURRENT WITH TIME DURING A FAULT DURING A FAULT
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USEFUL CONVERSIONS

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PER UNIT SYSTEM
Establish two base quantities:
Standard practice is to define
Base power 3 phase
Base voltage line to line
Other quantities derived
with basic power equations

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SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS
PER UNIT SYSTEM
Per Unit Value = Actual Quantity
Base Quantity

Vpu = Vactual MVAbase x 1000


I base =
Vbase 3 x kV L-L base
Ipu = Iactual
kV2L-L base
Ibase Z base = MVA
base
Zpu = Zactual 2
Zpu2 =Zpu1 x kV base1 x MVAbase2
Zbase
kV 2base2 MVAbase1
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FAULT INTERRUPTION AND ARCING

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POWER LINE PROTECTION PRINCIPLES
Overcurrent (50, 51, 50N, 51N)
Directional Overcurrent (67, 67N)
Distance (21, 21N)
Relay
Differential (87) Operation t
Time

Radial Line

Fault Load

APPLICATION OF INVERSE-TYPE RELAYS


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INVERSE-TIME RELAY COORDINATION
I

Distance
t

T T T
Relay t Distance
Operation
Time

Radial Line

Fault Load 59
DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
BASIC PRINCIPLE V I

F2 F
1
Relay

Reverse Fault (F2) Forward Fault (F1)


I
V
E
I SETTING
Z S1 (0.8) Z L1 V I

Relay operates when the following condition holds:

I FAULT I a I SETTING

As changes, the relays reach will change, since


setting is fixed
E
I FAULT ( LIMIT )
Z S1 (0.8) Z L1 60
DISTANCE RELAY PRINCIPLE
d
L
I a , Ib , Ic

Radial
Three-Phase
2 Line
Va ,Vb ,Vc 1
Solid Fault

Suppose Relay Is Designed to Operate When:

| Va | (0.8) | Z L1 || I a |
X Plain Impedance Relay
Operation Zone

Z Z r1 Radius Zr1
Zr1
R

R 2 X 2 Z r21 61
NEED FOR DIRECTIONALITY F2 F1
1 2 3 4 5 6

RELAY 3 X
Operation Zone

F1

F2 R
Nonselective Relay
Operation

F2 F1
1 2 3 4 5 6
Operates when: V I Z M cos MT
X Z Z M cos MT
RELAY 3 X
Operation Zone Directional Impedance
F1 Relay Characteristic ZM

Z
F2 R MT
The Relay Will

Not Operate for
This Fault R
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THREE-ZONE DISTANCE PROTECTION
Time

Zone 3
Zone 2
Zone 1

1 2 3 4 5 6

X
Time
Zone 1 Is Instantaneous
C

A
R
D

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DISTANCE PROTECTION SUMMARY
Current and voltage information
Phase elements: more sensitive than 67 elements
Ground elements: less sensitive than 67N elements
Application: looped and parallel lines
L IL IR R

T Communications R
Relays Relays
R Channel T

Exchange of logic information


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on relay status
PERMISSIVE OVERREACHING TRANSFER TRIP
Bus A Bus B
1 2 3 4 5 6

FWD

FWD

Bus A Bus B

1 2 3 4 5 6

RVS FWD

FWD RVS
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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION PRINCIPLE
Balanced CT Ratio

CT CT
Protected
Equipment External
Fault

50 IDIF = 0

No Relay Operation if CTs Are Considered Ideal CTR CTR


Protected
Equipment

Internal
Fault

50 IDIF > ISETTING

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Relay Operates
PROBLEM OF UNEQUAL CT PERFORMANCE
CT CT
Protected
Equipment
External
Fault

50 IDIF 0

False differential current can occur if a CT saturates


during a through-fault
Use some measure of through-current to desensitize the
relay when high currents are present

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POSSIBLE SCHEME PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL
PROTECTION PRINCIPLE
SP RP
CTR CTR
Protected
Equipment

S R

Relay
(87)

Compares: I OP I S I R
| IS | | IR |
k I RT k
2
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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPLICATIONS
Bus protection
Transformer protection
Generator protection
Line protection
Large motor protection
Reactor protection
Capacitor bank protection
Compound equipment protection

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DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
SUMMARY
The overcurrent differential scheme is simple and
economical, but it does not respond well to unequal
current transformer performance
The percentage differential scheme responds better to
CT saturation
Percentage differential protection can be analyzed in
the relay and the alpha plane
Differential protection is the best alternative
selectivity/speed with present technology

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MULTIPLE INPUT DIFFERENTIAL SCHEMES
EXAMPLES
Differential Protection Zone
SP RP

I1 I2 I3 I4
OP

Bus Differential: Several Inputs


Three-Winding Transformer
Differential: Three Inputs

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ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL RELAYS
Compatibility with
Low maintenance
Multifunctional digital integrated
(self-supervision)
systems

Highly sensitive,
Highly reliable
secure, and Adaptive
(self-supervision)
selective

Reduced burden
Programmable
on Low Cost
Versatile
CTs and VTs

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A GOOD DAY IN SYSTEM PROTECTION
CTs and VTs bring electrical info to relays
Relays sense current and voltage and declare fault
Relays send signals through control circuits to circuit breakers
Circuit breaker(s) correctly trip

A BAD DAY IN SYSTEM PROTECTION


CTs or VTs are shorted, opened, or their wiring is
Relays do not declare fault due to setting errors, faulty relay, CT
saturation
Control wires cut or batteries dead so no signal is sent from relay to
circuit breaker
Circuit breakers do not have power, burnt trip coil or otherwise fail
to trip
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PROTECTION PERFORMANCE STATISTICS
Correct and desired: 92.2%
Correct but undesired: 5.3%
Incorrect: 2.1%
Fail to trip: 0.4%

THE FUTURE
Improvements in computer-based protection
Highly reliable and viable communication systems (satellite, optical
fiber, etc.)
Integration of control, command, protection, and communication
Improvements to human-machine interface
Much more
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