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Introduction
The years 1939 to 1942 saw some of the most dramatic events of the Second World
War, and saw Nazi Germany seemingly sweep aside generations of accepted
military thought to extend her borders from the Channel Islands to the Volga, and
the Arctic Circle to the Caucasus Mountains.

The speed with which the Germans achieved these victories stunned the world.
Strategically the German victory appeared absolute, however at a tactical level
many actions were fought that present the gamer with a more balanced and
interesting prospect than a superficial overview of the campaign would suggest.

The final months covered here saw both the high water mark of German conquest,
and the most startling revelation of what was to be its ultimate Nemesis, the Red
Army, at Stalingrad.

Included in this supplement are factors for the vehicles and weapons used, as well
as suggestions for building forces for the period, be they Belgian, Dutch, French,
British, German or, for the more perverse, Italian.

In compiling the suggested forces we have taken the infantry Company as our
model and recreated that within the structure of the rules. Whilst the rules are
designed for 1:1 man to figure ratio the reader will note that not every single
member of the company is necessarily present in the lists. For example the
standard French Line infantry section, eleven men at full strength, is represented
by ten figures in the lists. This distortion simply works better in the rules, and
probably reflects the fact that the larger the unit the less likely it is to be at full
strength, as does the complete omission of administration staff, military police and
the like. It should be remembered that in IABSM not all officers and NCOs are
represented, but only those ones that stand out as the big men of the
battlefield. This system allows us to effectively reflect the command and control
strengths and weaknesses of the various forces involved.

Numbers of these Big Men available to each force are given for each Platoon in a
specific force, however the player is not obliged to restrict these to specific
Platoons, indeed he will find that if one particular force has a key role involving
movement then he should ensure that his Big Men are over represented with that
force.

For each force a core element is presented, with support available at higher levels
Battalion, Regiment, Brigade and so on. For higher levels this is expressed by
giving battery or tank squadron or platoon sizes to allow the gamer to provide
realistic support for his force rather than the entire orbat at that level.

At the heart of our game is an infantry Company, and whilst some Divisional assets
may come their way all of them wont! It should, of course, be noted that space
restricts the author to giving the reader a taste of the forces he can field, gamers
will find that they can use the structure here to produce specific historically
accurate units of their choosing, but it is worth remembering that in war structure
becomes very flexible, and troops allocated to tasks are often those available
rather than those of choice.
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CONTENTS

Rule Enhancements Page 4

Belgium Page 7

Finland Page 10

France Page 15

Germany Page 18

Great Britain Page 23

Holland Page 27

Hungary Page 29

Italy Page 32

Norway Page 35

Poland Page 37

Romania Page 40

Slovakia Page 43

Soviet Union Page 46


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Rule Additions & Enhancements


Several special rules are required when representing the war in the east, to cover
specific arms of service considered obsolete in the west, such as cavalry, or to deal
with tactical peculiarities, such as the use of mine dogs in an anti-tank role.
Weather also needs a mention, as whilst troops in the west fought in the snow,
such as during the Battle of the Bulge, the conditions were mild by comparison to
what was encountered in the east.

B1 Cavalry
Cavalry forces have the option of fighting mounted or dismounted. They operate in
much the same way as infantry, but with the following differences.

B1.1 Movement
Cavalry moving at the walk will move as normal infantry, but will add one dice.
Cavalry charging will only do so in the turn in which they hope to contact their
enemy. For movement in that turn they will double their dice rolled.
Cavalry mounting or dismounting will use one initiative dice to do so.

B1.2 Close Combat


To enter close combat a mounted cavalry unit must make physical contact with its
intended foe. It must declare before any dice are rolled which opposing unit/units
this is.

Once in contact a mounted cavalry unit will double its dice rolled, before any other
adjustments are made. When operating in this manner no benefits for weaponry
are allowed, such as automatic weapons, as they are assumed to be using their
sabres.

B1.3 Spotting
Cavalry troops can generally be assumed to be trained for reconnaissance duties.
As such they get a plus when spotting. Equally their higher profile when mounted
makes them easier to see when they are moving.

B1.4 Bugle Call Bonus Card


Acts like Armoured bonus card, but for cavalry. This only applies to cavalry when
actually mounted. They may only move on this, not fire, mount, spot or anything
else. They may, however, charge.

B2 Political Intervention
Within the Red Army there was still an emphasis put on encouraging the men by
political means. When this failed, or was anticipated to fail, more direct means
were used to keep troops in the line.

B2.1 Commissars
These are represented by a Commissar Card in the deck, and affect a force in
several ways. For a start the Commissar may remove wounds from any unit he is
with using a D4. However any Platoon that he accompanies will behave as hesitant
troops if theirs is the next unit card (i.e. not necessarily the next card) that is
drawn from the pack after the Commissar card. If this happens on two consecutive
turns then the Commissar will believe that the Companys senior Big Man is in
league with the fascists, and will be moved immediately (no dice required) to that
Big Man who he will execute. Clearly that Big Man is now removed from the game.
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B2.2 NKVD Troops


During the early days of Barbarossa, NKVD units, as the border troops of the Soviet
Union, were engaged in desperate fighting as front line troops. As such they may
be reflected as good quality troops. For much of the war, however, they operated
as battlefield police, just behind the lines, prepared to deal in a direct fashion
with troops attempting to withdraw.

An NKVD section can be placed on the table 18 behind any Platoon of troops.
These may be holding a position or advancing in an attack. With them in place
neither the NKVD nor the unit they are supporting may withdraw, even should the
player wish it to do so. The supported troops will ignore any withdraw result when
in close combat up to, but not including, Defeated by three. They will continue
to fight as though the combat was drawn.

If any element is defeated by three or more it will rout back with no hope of
rallying, removing the NKVD section from the game as it goes.

B3 Mine Dogs
When Soviet Engineers are present on the table they may deploy between two, and
on exceptional circumstances three, mine dogs per Platoon. These animals have
been trained to find their food under tanks, and when deployed in combat have a
mine strapped to their backs. The idea being that they run under advancing
German panzers, where the mines will detonate. It was an idea that met with
mixed success.

When deploying mine dogs the Soviet player selects an enemy tank within 18 of
the dog handler. The strike dice detailed in the main rules, section 8.1 is then
used. On a result of Hit the tank is destroyed. On any other result the dog will
run in the direction indicated by the arrow veering off to attack the closest tank
from that line. This, of course, may be a Soviet tank. Roll the strike dice again. If
a hit is achieved then this tank is destroyed, if not it is assumed that the dog self
destructs accidentally, or is shot by a sharp eyed tank commander.

B4 Weather
The extreme weather conditions found in the Soviet Union and Finland need some
comment, although much of how this is reflected can be built into scenarios, some
specific rule notes are needed.

German tanks certainly found that there were issues of fuel freezing in tank and
vehicle engines. As they gained more experience they learnt to light fires
undertheir vehicles, or at least start them up regularly. With less experienced
troops, or those facing the first terrible winter of 1941-42 you may wish to include
a vehicle breakdown card in the pack.

Spotting will become harder the worse the weather gets, and in some scenarios you
may wish to reduce fire effect to reflect the limited ability to deliver accurate
fire. In this situation you may wish to ignore the first column, Up to 9 on the
fire effect table, and use the 9-18 column for short range, and the Over 18
column for 9 to 18 anything above that being impossible.

Troops moving through snow and across ice will suffer some penalty to movement,
and this will have to be decided upon as part of any scenario design. However
some guidelines are as follows.
Light snow, minus 1 per dice.
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Moderate snow, minus 2 per dice.


Heavy snow, reduce by one complete dice.
Blizzard conditions, reduce by one complete dice, and then minus a further 1
from each dice actually used.

Tanks should also suffer similarly in the snow, although the T34 was notable for its
wide track, and therefore a greater ability to move in poor weather.

Tanks and vehicle moving across ice that is not entirely capable of taking their
weight will break through the ice and drown if the roll two or more 1s for
movement.

B5 Impromptu Tank Killers


As an option, any Soviet or Finnish squad may assume the role of tank killers. On
the Tank Killer Card any section of choice may take the bonus move, as long as
they are making an attack on an enemy tank. However these troops use their own
infantry AT factor, not those of a specialised tank killer unit.

Whatever the result of this attack the target tank will have to test its morale for
being attacked with a fire weapon. If they fail they will withdraw on their next
initiative.

B6 Soviet Scouts
Due to their specialised training these units are particularly difficult to spot. This
should be reflected in the required roll to spot them as long as they are not firing.

B7 Tank Flags
The Soviets are short on radios, as such their tanks operate individually. However
there is an optional allowance for tank command flags. This optional rule may be
used with Soviet tank platoons, whereby the tanks are able to operate as Platoons,
providing they all remain within 6 of the command tank. This reflects the use of
flag signals to co-ordinate their movement.

In this situation the Soviet player will nominate one tank in each Platoon to act as
the command tank which should be marked with a suitable flag. If the command
tank is knocked out then the other tanks will not move in the following turn,
before reverting to one card per tank.

B8 Ammunition Shortages
In 1941 shortage of AP ammunition for the T34 was a serious issue. In a defensive
situation any force with T34 tanks present should have a fifty percent chance of
having only HE.

B9 Digging In
Normally troops may not dig-in during the course of a game of IABSM!, however the
Russians were notorious for their ability to create cover in the most extreme of
circumstances, as well as their skills in camouflaging defensive positions. As such
Soviet troops dug-in should be harder to spot than other nationalities and may also
dig-in during the game. Roll a D6 for each squad or weapons team attempting this.
On a 6 they have been successful in creating some minor cover.
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BELGIUM
A nation so devastated by the horrors of the Great War it, like Holland, had a
significant pacifist movement between the wars, and indeed took a neutral stance
in the mid 1930s that hampered co-ordination with what, after the German
invasion, were to become her allies. These issues, however, are insignificant when
examining Belgiums collapse by comparison with the knockout blow delivered by
the Germans on the 10th of May.

Like France, Belgiums strategic philosophy was defensive, indeed she had the
greater excuse for that considering her size. The emphasis on forts, fortifications
and static defensive lines was symptomatic of a nation intending to re-fight the last
conflict. Unfortunately for them the Germans had no intention of doing that. The
speed and nature of Germanys seizure of critical positions, such as Eben Emael
and the bridges across the Maas and Albert Canal, and the subsequent blitz into the
heart of Belgium may have been a shock for her allies, but for Belgium it was a
blow that totally shattered the cohesion and morale of her armed forces.

For the next fortnight the Belgians fought on, and indeed many continued after
May the 28th when their King, as Chief of the Armed Forces, had surrendered, but
as individual and isolated units rather than as a coherent Army.

A small nation, Belgium nevertheless seized the nettle in the mid 1930s and
prepared for war. Unfortunately she chose the worst of armour, and its application
was further restricted by the defensive mind-set of the High Command. Generally
well equipped, but short of high quality officers, the Belgian Army never recovered
from the 10th of May and it is to their credit that they continued the fight for so
long.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Good Troops 1,2,3,4 5,6 7,8 9,10
Poor Troops 1,2,3,4,5 6,7 8,9 10
Chasseurs Ardennais 1,2,3 4 5 6 7,8
The quality of Belgian troops tended to reflect the enthusiasm with which
they were led rather than their abilities as soldiers. A player may chose to
allocate a + designation to the Chasseurs Ardennais

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Utility Tractor 2 None Average
T13 2 6 Average
T15 2 MGs Average
ACG1 3 6 Average
All scout vehicles, light armoured cars and armoured personnel carriers as
considered to have an armour class of 2 unless listed as otherwise.
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Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
47mm SA37 AT gun 8
75mm M1897 Field gun 8
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-
24
Boys .55" AT Rifle 3 2 2 1 -
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1

Force Composition
Belgian Line Company Chasseur Ardennes Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One rifle Squad (10 men) Two rifle squads (8 men)
Boys AT rifle (2 crew)
All mounted on trucks, motorcycles,
bicycles or carriers.
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Four rifle squads (10 men) 4 rifle squads (8 men)
Three 50mm mortars* (2 crew each) Three 50mm mortars* (2 crew each)
Mounted as above
Battalion Support Machine Gun Platoon
Four MMGs each on carts (3 crew each) Four MMGs (3 crew)
Three 75mm M34 infantry guns (5 crew One rifle squad (8 men)
each) or four 81mm M31 mortars (3 crew
each)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
At battery of six 47mm SA FRC AT guns (4 Three 75mm L24 infantry guns (5 crew
crew each) each) with Vickers Armstrong Utility
6 Vickers Armstrong Utility Tractors Tractors
Four 81mm M31 mortars (3 crew each)
Divisional Support Regimental Support
Four 105mm L22 or 75mm L37 Field Guns Three sections, each of two T13 tanks
Tank support in sections of two vehicles operating as an AT battery
*These are actually 50mm grenade Divisional Support
launchers, as such they may not fire T15 tanks in Platoons of four
smoke.

Card Allocation
One card for each Platoon and support weapon/vehicle present. Any vehicles will
have individual cards due to lack of radios. Specific anti-tank weapons are
represented by one card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which
the guns fire.

Artillery support will have a dedicated observer if in a prepared defensive position,


otherwise it may be co-ordinated by any Big Men present. For a Company sized
force Big Men should be present at a ratio of 0.75 per Platoon only, giving three
for the suggestions above. Better units, such as the Chasseur Ardennais, may add
an additional one to this. Other cards may be present as follows.

Rapid Deployment. Available for motorised units only.


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Reconnaissance Force. Used for a dedicated recce unit such as T15 tanks, cycles
or motorcycles.

Hesitant Troops. This may be applied to any troops from the 12th of May onwards.

Petrol Shortage. For any vehicles operating outside Belgium.

AT Bonus. This will be available for any unit of T13s.

Ammunition Shortage. May be present for any force that is deemed to have been
in action previously.

Poor Fire Discipline. May be present for any Belgian force.

Rally. May be included for a better force such as the Chasseurs Ardennes. This
will allow troops to rally themselves without an officer present.

Force Limitations
Belgian T13 tanks operating in an anti-tank role are represented by one card per
weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire or the vehicles
move when the cards are turned.

Support weapons, such as anti-tank guns or mortars, may only move when ordered
to do so by a Big Man who is physically with them. Belgian armour may not fire if
it has already moved in its turn, this reflects the fact that the tank commander is
also responsible for loading, aiming and firing the turret armament as well as
commanding the tanks movement.
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FINLAND
Following their independence from Russia, seized during the turbulent years of the
Civil War, the Finns worked hard to build their new nation. An integral part of this,
in view of constant threat of invasion by the Soviet Union, was the creation of a
national army. Unfortunately for the Finns budgetary constraints meant that whilst
their newly independent countrymen were happy to fill the ranks of what was
essentially a conscripted armed forces, their access to hardware, modern hardware
in particular, was extremely limited. Nevertheless, between 1918 and 1939 over
half a million Finnish men were called to the colours.

In the early 1930's the Finnish Army took a step that would prove significant,
creating a mobilisation system based upon regions. This system was designed to
allow the core of the standing army to hold off the soviets (for there was no
anticipation of any other aggressor) while the Field Army mobilised swiftly,
reservists rejoining the colours in their home area. This system had the added
advantage that it created an immediate identity to these formations, rather like
the British Pals Battalions of the Great War, which played a significant role in
ensuring cohesion in combat.

An indication of levels of financial paucity is the order for 35 Vickers 6-ton tanks
placed before the war to replace the obsolete force of Renault FT-17s. In order to
save money the new tanks were ordered without guns, optics or radios, so that
when the war began the Finns were obliged to use much needed anti-tank guns to
equip their tanks.

All in all, the Finnish performance during the winter war was an example of true
heroism on a national scale. Playing to their advantages, they worked with the
inhospitable terrain rather than attempting to counter it, and utilised its naturally
strong features to form their defensive lines.

The war in Finland was strategically static, but the Finns achieved much of their
early success when they utilised their ability to move fast and hit hard against an
opponent who, at that stage, was paralysed by the weather and its own lack of
leadership. That they were eventually overcome says much about the resilience of
the Red Army, that they achieved peace - however temporary - through negotiation
rather than all out military defeat is a lasting testimony to Finnish bravery.

If the Winter War left Finland reduced in size, it was hugely enhanced in military
prestige and equipment. Literally hundreds of Soviet tanks, armoured cars and
anti-tank guns had fallen into Finnish hands, and these were used to expand her
armed forces during the brief fifteen months of peace before Barbarossa.

Finland was never an ally of Germany, but a co-protagonist. She accepted


necessary aid from Germany, but her objectives were never more than to regain
the territory that had been taken from her in 1940. Under the watchful gaze of
their President, Marshall Mannerhiem, himself a former Tsarist General and hero of
Finlands liberation struggle during the Russian Civil War, they organised their
forces to allow regulars to swiftly bring reserve troops up to speed.

At times the actions of the Finns proved deeply frustrating to Hitler. By September
of 1941 Finnish forces were only thirty miles from Leningrad. But, having captured
all of their lost territory they halted and dug in. With Germanys failure to deliver
a decisive blow against the Soviets in 1941, the Finns quickly realised that with
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their limited manpower and industrial resources, and more importantly their
limited objectives, they would be best served by simply attempting to maintain
what they had. This they did for much of the war.

As proponents of arctic warfare the Finns were without peer. They openly scorned
the Germans for their dependence on machinery where men could do the job, and
this independent, flexible approach to warfare served as well as their defences to
keep the Soviets at bay for three years.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Regular Infantry 1,2 3 4,5,6 7,8
Elite Infantry 1,2 3 4,5 6,7 8
N.B. Whilst the Finnish Army saw the inclusion of many reservist and Civic Guard
forces, their performance was such that they have all been included under the
heading Regular Infantry. Elite forces include the Jagers and Cavalry.

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Landsverk 182 2 3 Wheeled
Vickers 6 tonner 2 4 Average
BT-5 2 6 Fast
BT-7 3 6 Fast
BT-7A 4 5 Wheeled
T26 M1933 2 6 Average
T26 M1937 2 6 Average
T28 4 5/MGs Average
T37 2 MG Average
T35 4 Turret 5/Hull 6 Slow

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
L37 Bofors 37mm PstK/36 4
45mm PstK/37 (ex Soviet) 6
25mm PstK/37 4
37mm PstK/36 (PaK 36) 4
50mm PstK/38 (PaK 38) 10
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Boys .55" AT Rifle 3 2 2 1 -
VKT Lahti L39 20mm AT rifle 5 4 4 3 3
PstK/40 20mm Madsden 3 2 2 2 1
Solothurn 20mm AT rifle 5 4 4 3 3
Infantry section 3 - - - -
Infantry Tank Killer 1939 - 40 4 - - - -
Infantry Tank Killer 1941 - 42 5 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 -
The PstK/40, whilst designated and used as an anti tank weapon, was a rapid firing
20mm cannon that was of limited worth on the battlefield, as such I have chosen to
designate it as an Infantry Anti Tank weapon.
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Winter War Force Compositions


Finnish Regular Company 1939-40 Jager Company 1939-40
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One Rifle squad (8 men) One Rifle or SMG squad (8 men)
Cycle of ski mounted
Platoons 1 4 Platoons 1 4
Four rifle squads each (8 men each) Three Rifle or SMG squads (8 men each)
Cycle or ski mounted
Battalion Support Battalion Support
Four MMGs (3 crew each) Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Two 81mm mortars (3 crew each) Two 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
Three AT rifles (2 crew each) Three AT rifles (2 crew each)
3 SMG squads (8 men) Two tank hunter squads (4 men each)
Two tank hunter squads (4 men each)
Two anti tank guns with horse tows
(5 crew each)
Regimental Support Finnish Armour
Four 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns The Finns would tend to deploy armour
wherever they had it, and in whatever
numbers they had at that place and time. As
such it is impossible to be prescriptive about
their application. However the formal
structure of a tank platoon was five vehicles.
All Finnish forces in this period would have Molotov cocktails, which is reflected in
their higher than usual infantry anti-tank capability.

Sissi Guerilla 1939-40


Company Headquarters
One Rifle squad (8 men)
Platoons 1 4
Three Rifle squads (8 men each)
LMG Teams
Three LMG teams (2 crew each)
Regimental Support
Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Two 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
Two AT rifles (2 crew each)
Two tank hunter squads (4 men each)

The Guerilla forces in the Winter War were generally local troops defending their
home lands. They were short on support weapons due to their operational role,
but are entirely ski-equipped. Of the four Platoons typical in a Sissi Company, only
a limited number of light machine guns would be present. These weapons may be
deployed individually, or added to the rifle sections to enhance their firepower.
Treat Sissi Guerillas as Regular troops,
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Continuation War Force Compositions


Finnish Regular Company 1941-42 Cavalry or Jaeger Company 1941-42
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One rifle squad (8 men) One rifle squad (8 men)
Cycle or ski mounted
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads each (8 men each) Three Rifle or SMG squads (8 men each)
One AT rifle (2 crew) Cycle or ski mounted
Battalion Support Battalion Support
Four MMGs (3 crew) Four MMGs (3 crew) with horses or sleds
Four 81mm mortars (3 crew each) Four 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
3 SMG squads (8 men) 3 SMG squads (8 men)
Two tank hunter squads (4 men each) Two tank hunter squads (4 men each)
Two anti tank guns with horse tows Two anti tank guns with horse tows (5 crew
(5 crew each). Various types. each). Various types.
Regimental Support Regimental & Divisional Support
Four 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns with As left.
reindeer tows
Divisional Support Tank Company
Four 75mm L31/M22 Field Guns Headquarters of one tank, with three platoons
Four 122mm M38 Field Guns of five tanks each.

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons or off table support the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are
represented by one card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which
the guns or anti-tank rifles fire. As a generality, tanks will operate on one card per
tank, reflecting the lack of or non-use of an efficient radio net. They may use
their initiative dice to act in any way desired.

Artillery support will only have an observer if the Finns are operating in a static
sector of the line, such as during the Continuation War, and this may only be co-
ordinated if a telephone link is present.

For a Company sized infantry force Big Men should be available at a ratio of one
per Platoon with a further two for the Company Commander and his 2iC, giving five
Big Men typically. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Sniper. The Finns had a hunting tradition, and may have a sniper present in any
game.

Rapid Deployment. Used for any Finnish force, to reflect their use of skis, and
affinity with their home terrain.

Vehicle Breakdown. This should be used any time Finnish armour is deployed in
the Winter War.

Tank Killer Bonus. Available when Finnish tank killer teams are in action. Any
Finnish tank hunter team that attacks a Soviet tank will roll a D6. On a 4-6 it will
have immobilised the tank for the duration of the game.
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AT Bonus Card. This is used to reflect the fact that the Finns were successful in
sighting their weapons effectively, thereby allowing them do pose a greater threat
to Soviet armour.

MMG Bonus Fire. This should always be present, but if defending a static position
then two may be included in the pack.

Rally. This should always be included in the pack for a Finnish force, reflecting
their high level of motivation.

Dynamic Commander. This should be used often.

Heroic Leader. This may be used often.

Force Restrictions
The Finns are very short on radios, so communication is very limited. As such they
were reliant on good forward planning. Whilst the Finns did have a brave airforce
this should only be represented in these games in very limited scenarios, reflecting
their historical use in a tactical role.
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FRANCE
It is never easy to generalise with the French Army of 1940. Such was the
psychological impact of the Blitzkrieg that some units dissolved and ran under the
stresses of the campaign, whilst others, such as the defenders of Lille, performed
with such valour and heroism that both shocked the Germans and stopped them in
their tracks. As such one needs to be specific when representing them on the
wargames table.

At the commencement of hostilities it would be true to say that France was seen as
one of the most powerful armies in the world, and very much as the victor from
the Great War. Where the French had invested heavily in defence since Versailles
the lions share of that had gone on the large fortifications of the Maginot Line. As
such the Army itself was not as modern as the British in that it still relied in part on
horses and shoe leather for transport. Philosophically the French were an Army
that believed in the strength of defence over attack, and as such it suffered the
same rigidity in command as the British but only more so. There were, it is true,
modernisers, such as De Gaulle, within the Army, but these were lone voices crying
out in a wilderness of original thought.

In Norway, despite their government being no less effective than the British, the
French troops committed were better organised and equipped than their British
comrades, but still significant errors were made. Skis, for example, were supplied,
but without the necessary straps to allow them to be used, and often to units with
no ski training. In broad terms this allowed them to perform better during this
campaign, with an eclectic mix of Colonial, Light Infantry and, somewhat
unusually, a Polish Mountain Brigade in French service.

The French Army offers the gamer probably the greatest variety of choice when
building his forces, with a tremendous selection of colonial as well as metropolitan
French units to chose from.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Elite Troops 1,2,3 4 5,6,7, 8,9 10
Good Troops 1,2,3,4 5 6,7 8,9,10 -
Poor Troops 1,2,3,4,5 6,7 8,9 10 -
Elite troops would be units such as the Foreign Legion, Dragon Porte and the
Chasseurs a Pied, with Good Troops or Poor Troops being a designation that could
apply to all other French units depending on the day.

Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
25mm L72 Hotchkiss 4
37mm M1916 Puteaux 3
47mm L53 Puteaux SA37 7
75mm 1897 Field Gun 6
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1
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Armour
Tank or vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Hotchkiss H-39 5 3 Average
Renault R-35 5 3 Slow
FCM 36 5 4 Slow
Somua S-35 6 6 Average
Renault B1 bis 8 Hull 3, Turret 6 Slow
Renault D2 5 6 Slow
Renault R40 5 4 Average
Renault AMR 35 4 MGs Fast
Renault FT-17 3 MGs Slow
Renault FT-18 3 3 Slow
Panhard AMD 178 3 3 Wheeled
Chenilette Lorraine 2 None Average
All scout vehicles, light armoured cars and armoured personnel carriers as
considered to have an armour class of 2 unless listed as otherwise.

Force Composition
French Line Infantry Company Dragon or Chassuers Porte Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
1 rifle squad (10 men) 2 rifle squads (10 men with 2 LMGs)
One 60mm mortars (2 crew ) 2 Laffly 6x6 trucks
Platoons 1 4 Platoons 1 3
3 rifle squads (10 men) 3 rifle squads (10 men with 2 LMGs)
6 CP19 Halftracks or 3 Laffly 6x6 trucks
Battalion Support Support Platoon
4 Platoons of 4 MMGs each (3 crew 4 MMGs in trucks
each) One 60mm mortar (2 crew)
Two Hotchkiss 25mm AT guns (5 crew 3 trucks or 6 halftracks
each), horses
Four 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
AT Platoon of three 25mm Hotchkiss AT Platoon of three 25mm Hotchkiss AT guns
AT guns (5 crew each), horse drawn (5 crew each), truck towed
Two 81mm mortars (3 crew each) Four 81mm mortars in trucks (3 crew each)
Divisional Support Tank Battalion
Battery of four 75mm M1897 field guns Platoons of five cavalry or three infantry
AT Platoon of two 47mm Le Puteaux tanks each. A squadron is made up of two
AT guns. Platoons with one HQ tank.
Infantry Tank Platoons of 3 tanks each

Groupe Franc The Groupe Franc is a somewhat ad hoc


Platoon formation developed largely during the 1940
Five SMG squads (8 men each) campaign as an aggressive elite, along the
Possibly motorcycle mounted lines of a small German kampfgruppe. The
Optional Support force was comprised of volunteers from the
Three to Five Somua S35 parent Battalion, and could serve on foot or
Three Panhard AMD 178 motorcycle mounted, patrolling the
Three 25mm or 47mm anti tank guns battlefield, or with support as indicated at
(5 crew each) left.
17

Card Allocation
One card will present for each infantry Platoon and support weapons the force has.
Anti-tank guns will be represented with one card per weapon, with the player
selecting in which order they fire. Tanks and armoured vehicles will have one card
each, their lack of radio net restricting their ability to act in concert.

Artillery support will be co-ordinated by a dedicated observer only, and requires a


telephone line through to group. For a Company sized force a typical French force
would have Big Men at a ratio of 0.75 per Platoon with no addition for Company
command, generally giving three in total. In certain scenario driven situations the
umpire may decide that some, or all, French units will only move if accompanied
by a Big Man. Other cards may be present as follows.

Hesitant Troops. This can be used as an alternative to restricting the movement


ability of certain units.

Petrol Shortage. This should be universally used when French armour is present,
and in some cases an umpire may wish to have French armour entirely stranded
due to lack of fuel and operating as pillboxes.

Vehicle Breakdown. As an alternative to the above, or in extremis in tandem, this


can be used for tanks or any other vehicles.

MMG Bonus Fire. May be awarded to some superior specific MG armed units.
Interestingly some colonial MG troops, particularly Indo-Chinese, performed
exceptionally well.

Ammunition Shortage. May be used for isolated units.

Poor Fire Discipline. This should be standard for any French force. Some may
count as having dreadful or even abysmal fire discipline.

Rally. This should be present for highly motivated units such as the Legion .

Hesitant Commander. This may be present for any French force.

Heroic Leader. This should always be present for a French force, reflecting the
emphasis placed on leadership through example.

Force Restrictions
Support weapons, such as anti-tank guns or mortars, may only move when ordered
to do so by a Big Man who is physically with them.

French armour may not fire if it has already moved in its turn, this reflects the fact
that the tank commander is also responsible for loading, aiming and firing the
turret armament as well as commanding the tanks movement.
18

GERMANY
After its stumbling start in Poland in 1939, where the growth pains of its rapid
expansion from the Army of Versailles were only masked by its numerical
superiority over the Poles, the German Armys belief in its abilities was buoyed up
by early successes. It emerged to be undoubtedly the best led and most
professional force of the early war.

In addition the Germans had also inherited the Prussian tradition of creating well-
balanced forces, able to act independently at all levels. Since Hitlers rise to
power in 1933 the emphasis on a Volk im Waffen, people under arms, that
permeated virtually all aspects of German society had done much to produce a
generation both ready and keen for war.

The emphasis on developing leadership and military skills in the Nazi youth
organisations contributed to make the German Army of this period an efficient
machine. Despite its strengths, however, the Wehrmacht was not the unbeatable
force that German propaganda would have had us believe. Indeed it was the
seizing, and then retention, of the strategic initiative that gave the Germans
victory rather than any inherent tactical superiority.

At the level we are concerned with the German Army was balanced in structure
and with a glut of experienced leaders. The flexible approach to orders and task
achievement encouraged these leaders to think for themselves and this paid a high
dividend, both in terms of military results and the development of leadership and
tactical skills.

As well as being well led and trained, this was a force that understood better than
any other the importance and effect of combined operations. Even in 1944 the
allied air-forces were not operating in tandem with their colleagues on the ground
quite so effectively as the Luftwaffe did in 1940 and 1941. Indeed any attempt to
reproduce the early campaigns of the war on the tabletop must have a significant
aerial representation included.

Despite their successes the Germans were not without fault. At one end of the
spectrum their mechanised forces represented the cutting edge in tactical
developments, but their comrades in the bulk of the infantry marched into France
in exactly the same way as their grandfathers and fathers had in 1870 and 1914.
Indeed the resultant technology gap hampered the panzers advance whilst they
waited for their supports to catch up, leaving them open to counter attacks. The
problems encountered in France were multiplied many times over in the expanses
of the Soviet Union.

The German Army had an inherent impatience, and did not always cope well with
minor reverses on the battlefield. These were not supermen, but ordinary troops
who, when well led were capable of achieving great results. However they were
given a number of bloody noses during these early years of the war by forces
significantly smaller than them, who just refused to subscribe to the Germans' own
myth of military superiority.
19

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Elite Rate Troops 1,2,3 4 5 6,7 8
Line Troops 1,2,3 4,5 6 7,8 -
Fallschirmjager 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8 9,10
Wehrmacht in Poland 1,2,3 4,5 6,7,8 9,10 -
N.B. It is difficult to differentiate between German troops at this period as their
Army was homogenously solid in its nature. I for one do not particularly rate the SS
above the Wehrmacht at this stage of the war, and generally class them as Line
Troops in 1940 with the exception of Liebstandarte Adolf Hitler. By Barbarossa
some additional units, such as those of Das Reich may be considered to be elite.

Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
20mm FlaK 38 3
37mm PaK35 AT gun 3 (1939-40) 5 (1941-42)
47mm L43.4 PaK (t) 7
50mm PaK38 10
88mm FlaK18 L56 16
105mm leFH L28 Field Gun 6
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
PzB38-39 4 3 2 2 1
Infantry section 2 - - - -
Panzerknacker Teams (1941 onwards) 6 1 - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1
Infantry Flamethrower 5 2 - - -

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Panzer I A 2 Twin MGs Average
Panzer I B 2 Twin MGs Average
Panzer I Befehlswagen 2 Single MG Average
Panzerjager I 2 7 Average
Panzer I C 2 Twin MGs Fast
Panzer II B/C 2 3 Average
Panzer II F 4 3 Average
Panzer 35(t) 3 4 Average
Panzer 38(t) A 4 5 Average
Panzer 38(t) E-G 5 6 Average
Panzer III C F 3 4 Average
Panzer III H 5 7 Average
Panzer III 50L60 5 10 Average
Panzer IV A 2 6 Slow
Panzer IV B D 4 6 Average
Panzer IV F 6 7 Average
Panzer IV F2 6 12 Average
SiG 33B 2 6 Slow
StuG III A 6 6 Slow
StuG III D-E 6 7 Average
All scout vehicles, light armoured cars and armoured personnel carriers as
considered to have an armour class of 2 unless listed as otherwise.
20

Force Composition
Wehrmacht Line Company 1940 Motorised Shutzen Company 1940
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One rifle squad (8 men) Two rifle squads (8 men, two LMGs)
4 MMGs (3 crew each) 1 truck, 2 kubelwagen
1 PzB 39 AT rifle (2 crew) 4 MMGs (3 crew each)
Three trucks
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Four rifle squads (8 men) 4 rifle squads (8 men, two LMGs)
One 50mm mortar (2 crew) One 50mm mortar 92 crew)
One PzB39 AT rifle (2 cew)
3 trucks
Regimental Support Regimental Support
Three sections of two horse drawn 75mm Six 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
infantry guns (5 crew each). Two 75mm Infantry guns (5 crew each)
2 SiG33 150mm Infantry Guns (5 crew) Three 37mm PaK35 AT guns (4 crew each)
AT Platoon of three 37mm PaK35 AT guns Engineer Platoon
(4 crew each) and one MMG. Horse drawn All lorry transported
Engineer Platoon* Panzer Battalion
Three rifle squads (8 men) Organised with three to five tanks per
3 MMGs (3 crew each) Platoon, three to five Platoons comprising
2 flamenwerfer (1 crew) a Battalion.
1 PzB39 (2 crew)
Divisional Support *Engineer Platoons were attached at
Batteries of four 105mm leFH18 or 150mm Regimental level
sFH18 Field Guns

Luftlande Company Fallschirmjager Company


Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
1 Rifle squad (10 men) One rifle squad (10 men)
One Sniper (1 man)
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads (10 men) Three rifle/SMG squads (10 men)
One 50mm mortar (2 crew) One 50mm mortar (2 crew)
2 MMGs (3 crew each)
Support Platoon Battalion Support
2 MMGs (3 crew each) Four MMGs (3 crew each)
One PzB39 AT rifle (two crew) Four 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
Four MMGs (3 crew each) Four 75mm Geb36 howitzers(4 crew each)
Two 75mm IG18 (five crew each)
Four 37mm PaK36 (5 crew each)
21

Wehrmacht Line Company - 1939 Wehrmacht Line Company - 1941


Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One rifle squad (10 men) Two rifle squads (8 men)
Two MMGs (3 crew each) Two PzB39 AT rifle (2 crew each)
One Sniper
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads (10 men) Four rifle squads (8 men)
One 50mm mortar (2 crew) One 50mm mortar (2 crew)
Battalion Support Battalion Support
Four MMGs (3 crew each) Four MG34 MMGs (3 crew each)
Six 80mm Mortar (3 crew each) Six 80mm mortars (3 crew each)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
Six 75mm Infantry guns (5 crew each) Six 75mm Infantry guns (5 crew each)
Two 150mm Infantry guns (5 crew each) Two 150mm Infantry guns (5 crew each)
Three 37mm PaK 35 (4 crew each) Three 37mm PaK 35 (4 crew each)
Batteries of four 105mm leFH18 or 150mm Batteries of four 105mm leFH18 or 150mm
sFH18 Field Guns sFH18 Field Guns

Motorised Schutzen Company 1941-42


Company Headquarters
1 Rifle squad (8 men)
One truck
Two Kubelwagen
One Sniper
Platoons 1 3
Four rifle squads (8 men)
One PzB39 AT rifle (2 crew)
Four trucks
Support Platoon
Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Two 80mm mortars (3 crew each)
Three trucks
Regimental Support
Three anti-tank guns (5 crew)
Two 75mm infantry guns (5 crew)
Six 80mm mortars (3 crew each)
Four 120mm mortars (3 crew each)
Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Regimental Support
Six 75mm Infantry guns (5 crew each)
Two 150mm Infantry guns (5 crew each)
Three 37mm PaK 35 (4 crew each)
Batteries of four 105mm leFH18 or 150mm
sFH18 Field Guns

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons or off table support the force may have. Anti-tank guns are
represented by one card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which
they fire. Tanks will always operate on one card per Platoon of tanks reflecting
the use of an efficient radio net.
22

Artillery support will always operate with a dedicated artillery spotter who must
either have a telephone line to battery, or be in a radio equipped vehicle.

For a Company sized infantry force Big Men should be available at a ratio of 1.5
per Platoon with a further one for the Company Commander, giving typically six
Big Men per company. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Air Support. Will always be present for any German force in Norway (excepting
the Falschirmjger in the first attack on Dombs, when it is optional), usually in
Poland, France and the Low Countries, and often in Russia.

Blitzkrieg. Always present for any motorised force, tank or infantry.

Rapid Deployment. Always present for any German force of this period.

Reconnaissance Force. Present for the relevant troops type.

Hesitant Troops. Will always be present in Poland, never in France of Russia.

Petrol Shortage. Unusual at this stage of the war, but possible, especially in
Russia.

Vehicle Breakdown. This should be universally used when armour is present to


reflect the difficulties of operating in extreme temperatures or in Russia.

Tank Killers. Always when this type of unit is present.

AT Bonus Fire. One bonus card for each Platoon of AT guns.

MMG Bonus Fire This should be available for any Fallschirmjger force in 1940,
and for any force from 1941 onwards.

Mortar Bonus Fire. Always present for any infantry force. The ability of the
Germans to deploy and deliver accurate fire stood them apart from most other
forces at this time.

Ammunition Shortages. May be present, especially for troops isolated in a kessel

Rally. This card will always be available for elite troops in 1940, and all troops in
1941 and 1942.

Dynamic Commander. This may be available to any force as an option.

Heroic Leader. May be present.

Bugle Call. May be used if cavalry are present, particularly so with Cossack
formations and other ethnic groups with a strong cavalry tradition.
23

GREAT BRITAIN
Very much at the forefront of technological development during the Great War, the
British attempted to maintain their lead during the inter-war period. Indeed by
1939 Britain had the only fully motorised armed forces in the world, having retired
her horses some years previous. Whilst the technology was there, the British had
not made the advances in application of armour that Germany had, indeed her
tanks were still split into two groups, infantry tanks, which were designed to act in
support of the infantry, and cruiser tanks which were faster and essentially seen in
a traditional cavalry role.

The British Expeditionary Force that went to France in between September 1939
and June 1940 was small by comparison with the numbers of French troops
committed, but under Lord Gort it proved its worth on the battlefield under the
most trying of circumstances. Its gritty performance was, in the main due to its
professionalism and the quality of its leadership at low level. The traditions of the
British Regimental system ensured that even part trained Territorials gave of their
best when called upon.

In Norway the deployment of British forces was a rushed affair, typifying the lack
of direction and leadership that permeated every level of the Chamberlain
government. Vacillation and hesitation by the political masters saw troops rushed
to Norway completely unprepared for the campaign, and lacking nearly all of the
support weapons that they needed desperately to combat their well supplied
German enemy. In these circumstances units were deployed with their Brens and
2" mortars being the heaviest weapons available. Under constant aerial
bombardment, and facing a German force that lacked nothing in the way of armour
and artillery support on the ground, these forces performed with a stoicism that
does them credit. The fact that their worth as coherent fighting units was
questionable should be seen as no slight on them as troops.

If one were to seek to identify weaknesses in the British Army early in the war one
would need to be aware that as a generality the British Army lacked the tactical
and strategic initiative of its German counterpart, this being due to the nature of
its more formal interpretation of orders, and this needs to be reflected in its
command and control. As such a British force will have less Big Men than the
Germans under the IABSM system to reflect its tactical rigidity.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
BEF Elite Infantry 1,2,3 4 5 6,7 8
BEF Regular Infantry 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8
BEF Reserve Infantry 1,2,3 4,5 6 7,8
Elite in Norway 1,2,3 4 5,6 7 8
Regulars in Norway 1,2,3 4 5,6,7 8
N.B. Elite infantry covers regular Scots Regiments and other high quality units such
as the Rifle Brigade. Regular Infantry covers all other regular and territorial
Regiments, including the Guards, and these, along with the elite units, should
receive a + designation. Reserve Infantry covers any other units, such as second
line troops pushed into the firing line in desperate situations. The troops of the
Searchlight Battalions at Calais are a classic example. Troops in Norway have been
given alternative ratings to reflect their lower morale due to lack of support. Elite
24

Troops would be the Guards units present, and the Green Howards who performed
admirably.

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Mark VI B Light Tank 2 MGs Fast
A9 Cruiser Mk I 2 6 Average
A10 Cruiser Mk II 4 6 or 3.7 mortar Average
A13 Cruiser Mk III 3 6 Fast
A11 Infantry Mk I 7 MGs Slow
A12 Infantry Mk II 9 6 Slow
Universal Carrier 2 Vehicle specific Fast
Scout Car 2 Vehicle specific Wheeled
All scout vehicles, light armoured cars and armoured personnel carriers as
considered to have an armour class of 2 unless listed as otherwise.

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
2 Pdr, 40mm L/50 or L/52 6
25mm L72 Hotchkiss 4
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-
24
Boys .55" AT Rifle 3 2 2 1 -
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1

Force Composition
British Regular Line Company British Motorised Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
1 Rifle section (8 men) One 2 mortar (2 crew)
One 2 mortar (2 men each) Boys AT rifle (2 crew)
One Boys anti-tank rifle (2 men) Two Vickers MMGs(3 crew each)
Two trucks
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 4
Four rifle Sections (8 men each) Four Rifle Sections (8 men each)
1 Boys AT rifle (2 crew)
One 2 mortar (2 crew)
4 15cwt trucks
Battalion Support Carrier Platoon
Four 3 mortars (3 crew each) Platoon HQ of 1 Carrier and 1 Staff Car
Four Boys AT rifles (2 crew each) 3 sections, each with 1 Boys AT rifle, 1
Four Vickers MMGs (3 crew each) bren and one rifle section mounted in
Two Engineer Sections three universal carriers.
All lorry mounted
Carrier Platoon as right.
Divisional Support Battalion & Divisional Support
25 pdr troop of 4 guns (5 crew each) Four 3 mortars
AT Troop of four 2 pdr guns (5 crew 18 pdr or 25 pdr Batteries of 4 guns
each ) AT Battery of four 2 pdr guns
25

British Regular Line Company (Norway) Armoured Squadron


Company Headquarters Squadron HQ
1 Rifle section (8 men) Two tanks
One 2 mortar (2 men each)
One Boys anti-tank rifle (2 men)
Platoons 1 3 Troops 1 - 4
Four rifle Sections (8 men each) 3 tanks each
Battalion Support
Six 25mm Hotchkiss Anti Tank guns (4
crew)
The British Army of 1940 was a particularly flexible with regards its Battalion
compositions. Some units fielded three platoons per company, whereas other
fielded four. In some cases, especially in Norway, an additional rifle company
would be added to a Battalion where their heavy weapons and vehicles had been
left at home, and drivers and weapons crews became riflemen for a period of time.

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons or off table support the force may have. Anti-tank guns are
represented by one card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which
they fire. As a generality tanks will operate on one card per section of three tanks
reflecting the use of an efficient radio net.

Artillery support will have a dedicated observer who will require a telephone line
back to battery.

For a Company sized infantry force in France Big Men should be available at a
ratio of one per Platoon with a further one for the Company Commander, typically
four in total. In Norway this should be reduced to a total of two for a Company
sized force. This severe reduction is in no way an indication of failings in
leadership. What it does represent is their lack of flexibility in a strange and
hostile environment.

Other cards that may present are as follows.

Sniper. The British Army had a fine tradition of rifle shooting, and in numerous
situations snipers were a considerable annoyance to the Germans. Regular Units
noted for their marksmanship, such as the Guards or Green Jacketed units, may be
considered to have one such marksman in each rifle section. This does not have to
be represented as a separate figure, and only one of these may fire each time this
card is turned.

Air Support. Occasionally available over Belgium, rarely over France, never in
Norway.

Rapid Deployment. Available for carrier borne troops only.

Armoured Bonus Move. Only available for a cruiser tank force that is not
operating in an infantry support role.

Reconnaissance Force. Used for a dedicated recce unit such as light tanks,
armoured scout cars or motorcycles.
26

Skirl of the Pipes. Available for appropriate troops.

Hesitant Troops. This card will always be present during the campaign in Norway
to reflect the problems that British forces had moving in the terrain.

Vehicle Breakdown. If the British are retreating in Belgium or France, or


commandeer any motor transport in Norway, this card should be present.

AT Bonus. The British did use what anti-tank weapons they had to good effect in
France and Norway, as such this card should be present whenever they field anti-
tank guns.

Ammunition Shortage. This may be present during a retreat.

Rally. Always included for a British force due to the Regimental system. This will
allow troops to rally themselves without an officer present.

Dynamic Commander. This should be used sparingly.

Heroic Commander. Lack of resources meant that British commanders had to put
their lives on the line many times during this campaign. This card may be present
if desired.

Force Restrictions
British 2pdr tank and anti-tank guns fire solid shot only, and have no anti personnel
capability. In Norway there will be no air cover, and in France this situation should
not be much better.

Artillery support will never be available in Norway, but in France and Belgium it
will often be available.
27

HOLLAND
Hollands capitulation after four days belies the fact that the Dutch troops fought
courageously and effectively in 1940. Hampered by her geography and her
antiquated armed forces Holland never stood a chance against the modern might of
Germany, but nevertheless gave her foe a bloody nose. German Fallschirmjager in
particular were fought to a standstill by the brave Dutch, especially the Royal
Dutch Marines, but in the end sheer weight of numbers told.

Weak in armour, the Dutch had no tanks whatsoever, possessing artillery that for
the most part dated back to the nineteenth century, and lacking even the most
rudimentary radio communications the odds are stacked against the Dutch. Her
conscript Army had been significantly weakened by a strong pacifist movement
during the 1920s and 30s, but her use of professional Marine troops to stiffen up
these conscripts proved its worth. Lack of radio net should limit any Dutch
artillery support to specific defensive scenarios, and any fire to pre-plotted
targets.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Royal Dutch Marines 1,2,3 4 5 6,7 8
Line Infantry 1,2,3,4 5 6 7,8

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Vickers Tankette 2 MGs Fast
Pantserwagen M36 3 5 Wheeled
Pantserwagen M38 3 3 Wheeled
Pantserwagen M39 3 5 Wheeled

Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
47mm L39/40 AT gun 6
47mm L35 Infantry gun 5
75mm M14 Schneider Field gun 8
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Solothurn 20mm AT rifle 5 4 4 3 3
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1
All scout vehicles, light armoured cars and armoured personnel carriers as
considered to have an armour class of 2 unless listed as otherwise.
28

Force Composition
Dutch Infantry Company* Cycle Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
2 rifle squads (8 men) 1 Rifle squad (8men)
2 Solothurn Anti-Tank rifles in 2 cars (2 2 Solothurn AT rifles (2 crew each)
crew each plus driver) All on bicycles
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
4 rifle squads (8 men) 4 rifles squads on cycles
Battalion Support Battalion Support
3 Platoons of 4 Maxim MMGs (2 or 3 crew 3 Platoons of four AAMMGs each
each) Motorcycle mounted (2 crew each)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
Four 47mm Bohler L39 or L40 AT guns (4 Four 47mm Bohler L39 or L40 AT guns (4
crew each) crew each)
6 M28 81mm mortars (3 crew each) 6 M28 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
All horse drawn All truck mounted
Divisional Support Divisional Support
Four 75mm L30 or 120mm Krupp M14 Armoured car Platoons of four M36 or M38
artillery pieces vehicles each
*This structure is for most units, line or Royal Dutch Marines. The Marines were
used to train the conscript infantrymen, as such it is reasonable to include one
Platoon of Marines in any line force.

Card Allocation
One card for each Platoon and support weapon/vehicle present. Any vehicles will
have individual cards due to lack of radios. Anti-tank guns are represented by one
card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire.

Artillery support will have a dedicated observer only when defending a prepared
position. For a Company sized force Big Men should be present at a ratio of one
per Platoon only, three in total for the model forces suggested. Other cards may
be present as follows.

Air Support. Only available when the Dutch are fighting around their airfields.
The card may only be used once during a game, with the player choosing on which
turn of the card this will be. Once used the card will be discarded.

Reconnaissance Force. Used for a dedicated recce unit such as armoured cars,
cycles or motorcycles.

Poor Fire Discipline. Some conscript troops may be deemed to suffer from this.

Rally. May be included for a force stiffened by Marines. This will allow troops to
rally themselves without an officer present.

Dynamic Commander. This should be used sparingly.


29

HUNGARY
Hungary probably gained the most in terms of geographical enhancement thanks to
Hitler, but contributed the least in military terms. This was not an issue of
numbers, but of real results. Hungary was late to start re-arming her forces,
restricted after the end of the Great War to 35,000 men, and when she did so her
budget led her towards already outdated light Italian armour.

Indeed, finance was always an overriding consideration for the Hungarians. After
their movement of troops into northern Yugoslavia during the Balkans campaign,
she was obliged to stand down her forces to ensure that the harvest could be
collected. This lack of finance and lack of equipment were bad enough, but the
commitment of the Hungarians was shaky from the start, and the morale of her
forces crumbled steadily throughout the war. Admiral Horthy, governing as Regent
in a Kingdom without a King, was certainly committed to the defeat of the Soviet
Union, but he was concerned that war with Britain and the United States was not
just a diversion, but, failing a swift victory in the east, tantamount to suicide on a
national scale. He was to be proved right.

Throughout the campaign in Russia the Hungarian forces performed without


enthusiasm. Their leaders were constantly begging the Germans for up to date
anti-tank guns their greatest shortfall and what was supplied was a hotch-potch
of captured Belgian and Czech equipment that was largely impotent in the face of
Soviet tanks. Transport was notoriously in short supply, the infantry of her Rapid
Corps having to resort to bicycles due to lack of trucks.

To make matters worse the territory allocated to Hungary from Rumania in 1940
had made Horthys regime a virulent enemy, and throughout the war Hungarian
troops had to be stationed in the occupied territories for fear of Rumanian
invasion. This antipathy extended to operations well away from their own soil, and
had to be considered by the Germans in their strategic planning of troop
deployments.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Infantry 1,2,3,4 5,6 7,8 9,10

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Landsverk A/Car 2 3 Wheeled
Csaba A/Car 2 3 Wheeled
CV3/33 Tankettes 2 MGs Average
Toldi I Light Tank 2 3 Fast
Toldi II-III Light Tank 3 6 Fast
Turan I 4 6 Fast
Panzer IC 2 Twin MGs Fast
LT vz 38G 5 6 Average
Panzer IVD 4 6 Average
With the German supplied tanks the ammunition supplied was not of the latest
quality.
30

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
37mm 36M AT gun 4
40mm 40M AT gun 6
50mm PaK 38 AT gun 10
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
20mm Solothurn AT rifle 5 4 4 3 3
Infantry section 1 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 1

Force Composition
Cycle Company (Rapid Corps) Motorised Infantry Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One rifle squad (10 men) One rifle squad (10 men)
Two 50mm mortars (2 crew each) Two Solothurn AT rifles (2 crew each)
Two Solothurn AT rifles (2 crew
each)
All on cycles
Platoons 1 4 Platoons 1 4
Three rifle squads (10 men each)Four rifle Squads (10 men each)
Cycles One 50mm mortar
Four trucks
Battalion Support Battalion Support
Three M27 81mm mortars (3 crew Two MMGs (3 crew each)
each) Two LMGs (2 crew each)
Two MMGs (3 crew each) Three 81mm mortars (3 crew each)
One Solothurn AT rifle(2 crew) All truck mounted
All truck mounted AT Platoon of four 37mm 36m or 40mm 40M
Four 37mm 36m or 40mm 40M At At guns (4 crew)
guns (4 crew)
Tank Platoon of five CV3/33
Tankettes
Four 105mm FH18 Field Guns with
half-tracks
Tank Company Reconnaissance Company
Headquarters of three tanks Headquarters of two Csaba A/Cars
Three Platoons of five tanks Three platoons of four Csaba A/Cars
Brigade Support
Four 75mm L15 15/35M pack howitzers with
horses.
Tank platoon of five CV3/33 Tankettes
31

Infantry Company Cavalry Squadron


Company Headquarters Squadron Headquarters
One rifle squad (10 men) One rifle squad (10 men)
Two 50mm mortars (2 crew each) Two Solothurn AT rifles (2 crew each)
Two Solothurn AT rifles (2 crew
each)
Platoons 1 4 Platoons 1 4
Three rifle squads (10 men each) Four rifle Squads (10 men each)
Cycles Six LMGs (2 crew each)
Battalion Support Up to two Hungarian LMG teams may be
Three 81mm mortars (3 crew each) attached to rifle sections. The rest will
One MMG (3 crew) of four LMGs (2 operate independently.
crew each)
Two Solothurn AT rifle(2 crew)
AT Platoon of four 37mm 36m or
40mm 40M At guns (4 crew)
Regimental Support
Four 75mm 15 15/35 pack howitzers
Divisional Support
Four 75mm M1897 Field Guns
Four 100mm vz14 Field Guns

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are represented by one
card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire. As a
generality tanks will operate on one card per tank, reflecting the lack of any radio
net, although for German supplied vehicles they will act on one card per Platoon.
For a Company sized infantry force one Big Man should be available for each
Platoon. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Artillery Support may be available, but with no FO. A Big Man may take on that
role during the game but must use a static telephone line.

Blitzkrieg. This may be present where Hungarian armour are deployed.

Rapid Deployment. May be used if a cavalry, or cycle mounted force is deployed.

Reconnaissance Force. May be used for a cavalry or armoured car force.

Vehicle Breakdown. Will be deployed for any motorised Hungarian force.

Ammunition Shortages. May be used.

Poor Fire Discipline. May be used for green conscript troops.

Hesitant Commander. May be used.

Force Limitations
Air support will not generally be present for Hungarians.
32

ITALY
It is difficult to find anything positive to say about the Italian Armys introduction
to the War, and its invasion of Alpine France in June 1940. The sole raison
detre for such a military strike was to gain Mussolini political capital with Hitler.
All it ended up doing was confirming the weakness and inabilities of the Italian
armed forces.

In general terms, the Italian Army paid the price for the Duces early investment in
technology, fine for fighting a colonial war, such as that in Abyssinia, but by 1940
its equipment was largely out of date, and this improved little in the run up to
Stalingrad.

With Their lacklustre performance in France and North Africa already on record,
the Italians felt that Barbarossa would be a good opportunity to restore their
military prestige with victory against a soft opponent. With a sense of euphoria
Mussolinis forces joined the Germans in their advance through the Ukraine. Very
quickly the mood of the Italian troops changed.

Rapidly it became apparent that they were ill-equipped for the campaign, with a
lack of modern tanks, anti-tank guns, artillery, and, in the early stages at least,
transport. What on paper were motorised forces very soon found themselves
marching on foot after an enemy who fortunately were withdrawing faster than
they could advance.

Suffering badly in the harsh winter of 1941 morale dropped, but Il Duce sent
additional troops in the spring of 1942, to bring the Italians up to 227,000 men, full
Army strength. By now the Germans were finding that some allies created more
problems than they solved. Indeed German units that were deployed adjacent to
Italian, and some other axis troops, were noted to have lower morale due to the
perceived constant threat of a Red Army breakthrough next to them. In an
attempt to deal with this, and add some backbone to their allies, the Germans
attached liaison officers and some German formations in the hope of bolstering the
line.

In the event this strategy proved useless, as when the Russian attack fell on the
Italians to the north of Stalingrad the inherent weaknesses outlined above meant
that the Italian line was broken with tragic consequences for the whole southern
front. Withdrawing into the Ukraine, the Italians morale had collapsed. Hitler
ordered their return to Italy. That said, despite poor leadership and motivation,
the Italians were capable of bravery, and the Savoia Cavalry Regiment performed
one of the last sabre charges in history in 1942 in an action more typical of the
campaign that the Italians wanted to fight, rather than the one they were fighting.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Alpini in 1940 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8
Bersaglieri 1,2 3 4,5 6,7,8
Good troops 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 8
Poor troops 1,2,3,4 5,6 7,8
Within their individual divisions the Italians achieved a degree of homogeneity, so
good troops would tend to be all those in the better formations, or at the start of
the campaign when enthusiasm was at its peak. Poor troops will increasingly
33

reflect the Italians as the realities of war on the eastern front sapped their morale.
As a rule blackshirt formations tended to be poorer troops than their regular army
comrades.

Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
47mm L39/40 AT gun 6
65mm M13 Mountain Guns 3
75mm M15 Skoda Field gun 8
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Solothurn 20mm AT rifle 5 4 4 3 3
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 1
Infantry Flamethrower 5 2 - - -

Italian Armour
Tank Armour Weapon Strike Speed
L3/35 2 MGs or AT rifle Average
L6/40 4 3 Average
Semovente L40 da 47/32 4 4 Average

Force Composition
Infantry Company Bersaglieri Motorcycle Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
Two rifle squads (8 men) Three Guzzi Gt motorcycles with attached
LMG (one crew)
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Four rifle squads (8 men) Three squadrons of three motorcycles
with LMG (one crew each)
Battalion Company Platoon 4
Three Breda MMGs with mules (3 crew) Three rifle squads (8 men)
Two 45mm mortar (2 crew) Three trucks
Three Solothurn 20mm AT rifles (2 crew)
Regimental Support Tank Company (1942)
Three 81mm mortars Headquarters of two tanks.
Four 47mm M32 AT guns (4 crew each) Three platoons, each of four tanks.
Divisional Support N.B. The Italian 45mm mortar is reduced,
Four 100mm M17 Field Guns as above, by a ratio of one to three.
Four 75mm M27 Field Guns
One Semovente Company made up of two Italian rifle platoons were often split into
Carro Commando L6/40, with two two sections. These would have two sub-
Platoons of four Semovente L40 da 47/32 squads, one with all rifles, the other with
two LMGs. Should you wish to replicate
this, then add one fire dice to the LMG
squad, and remove one from the rifle
section.
34

Alpini Company France 1940


Company Headquarters
3 Rifle Squads (8 men)
Platoons 1 3
4 Rifle squads (8 men)
Battalion Support
Three MMGs (2 crew each)
Three 45mm mortars (2 crew each)
Four 81mm M35 mortars (3 crew each)
Regimental Support
27 flamethrowers (1 crew each)
Divisional Support
Batteries of four 75mm Skoda M15 Field
Guns or 65mm M13 Mountain Guns (4 crew
each).
Engineer Company.
Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are represented by one
card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire. As a
generality tanks will operate on one card per tank, reflecting the lack of any radio
net.

Artillery may only be called for by a Big Man, although this will generally be
restricted to previously registered target areas unless firing over open sights. No
FO will be present.

For a Company sized infantry force, one Big Man should be available for each
Platoon in the summer of 1941. After that date only one or two Big Men will be
present for the entire Company. In France 1940 none may be available. Other
cards that may present are as follows.

Air Support. This may be present in 1941, as long as weather allows.

Armoured Bonus Move. This may be present in Russia.

Rapid Deployment. May be used if a cavalry, or motorcycle forces are deployed.

Reconnaissance Force. May be used for a cavalry or motorcycle force.

Hesitant Troops. Must always be present for poor troops, such as Blackshirts.

Vehicle Breakdown. Will be deployed for any motorised force.

Poor Fire Discipline. Most Italian units will count as having poor fire discipline,
some may be considered dreadful.

Hesitant Commander. May be used, and often!

Heroic Leader. Will always be present for cavalry forces. May be present for
infantry.

Bugle Call. Will always be used if cavalry are present.


35

NORWAY
At peace since its independence, Norway tried very hard to keep out of the Second
World War and maintain its neutrality. Sadly its geographical location, and the
strategic importance of Swedish raw materials, meant that this was a vain hope.

Norway was not alone amongst its Scandinavian neighbours in being essentially
pacifist, although the degrees to which the Socialist governments took this were
without peer. In the early 1930s the Norwegian Army even went to the extent of
abolishing NCO rank as a career. Henceforth these roles were to be filled on a year
by year basis.

When the Germans invaded in April 1940 the Norwegian Army had no anti-tank
weapons, no armoured vehicles, and its artillery was antiquated in extremis. On
the positive side the Norwegians were keen huntsmen, and experienced in their
mountainous and icy northern lands. As such they made fine light infantrymen,
and were capable of putting up determined resistance against the invader. What
was more, where there government had previously seemed weak and ineffective it
now rallied around the heroic figure of the King.

The Norwegians fought on against the Germans with the promise of help from both
Britain and France. They were to be sadly disappointed by what they received.
Despite this, however, they carried on the struggle to the final bitter end, finally
sacrificing themselves in order to cover the withdrawal of their perfidious Allies.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Norwegian Troops 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8
The Norwegians were unable to complete their mobilisation, as such reservists
tended to link up with whatever units were to hand. As such Norwegian troops are
all classified as the same.

Anti-Tank Weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
75mm Feltkanon M/01 3
65mm Bergkanon M1869/93 2
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 3 3 2 2 1
N.B. Norwegian artillery had no Armour Piercing ammunition at all, as such the
above factors reflect direct fire with High Explosive shells. These figures are
supposition based on historical results.
36

Force Composition
Norwegian Company Norwegian forces were lacking in
Company Headquarters close combat weapons, such as
2 rifle squads (8 men) grenades or sub-machine guns. They
on foot or skis were all trained in the use of skis.
Platoons 1 3
4 rifle squads (10 men) A Norwegian force should be allowed
on foot or skis at least one roadblock, as this was
Battalion Support their prime weapon against German
Four MMGs (2 crew each) armour. Desperate circumstances
demanded desperate measures!
Regimental Support
Two 81mm M34 mortars The Norwegians lacked trained men
Divisional Support to operate their MMGs, hence the
Batteries of four 75mm M/01 Field Guns two man crews.
OR 120mm M32 Field Howitzers OR 65mm
Mountain Guns M1869/93

Card Allocation
One card for each Platoon and support weapon/vehicle present. When deployed in
a direct fire anti-tank role Norwegian Field Guns are represented by one card per
weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire.

Artillery support will have a dedicated observer only if in a prepared defensive


position, otherwise it will be obliged to fire unspotted off map co-ordinates.

For a Company sized force Big Men should be present at a ratio of one per
Platoon only, giving three for the suggestions above. Other cards may be present
as follows.

Sniper. Present for all Norwegian forces.

Rapid Deployment. Available for any Norwegian unit on skis.

Reconnaissance Force. This will represent a ski patrol, and may be included in
any game.

Mortar Bonus Fire. Lacking in much support, the Norwegians used their mortars
skilfully, so this may always be included when the Norwegians have mortar support.

Ammunition Shortage. May be present at any time due to the chaotic nature of
the Norwegian mobilisation.

Rally. Will always be included for a Norwegian force.

Dynamic Commander. May always be present.


37

POLAND
A nation reborn from the ashes of three great empires, Poland had a difficult birth
being immediately embroiled in a war with her Soviet neighbour. Divisions in the
ranks of the Red Army, combined with Polish aggression, saw them secure their
borders, but relations with the Russians would forever be tainted by this bitter
conflict.

During the twenties and thirties the Poles found themselves limited by the agrarian
nature of their economy, as such their armed forces were never able to keep pace
with the technological developments of their potential foes in Germany and Russia.
What is more, the success that Polish cavalry had enjoyed during the Russo-Polish
War saw them elevated to a prominent position in the thoughts of their
government. This undoubtedly led to a lack of investment in other branches of the
services.

Polands armoured forces were supplied with lightly armoured, under-gunned tanks
and tankettes that were to prove less than effective. Her main anti-tank weapon,
the Bofors 37mm anti-tank gun, was a fine weapon but Poland lacked anything like
the numbers required to protect her infantry from German tanks. What is more, a
shortage of automatic weapons limited the firepower of her infantry sections.

That said, the one thing that Poland and her forces did not lack was courage.
Fanciful stories of Polish cavalry charging German tanks have no place in serious
studies of this brief campaign, but they do serve to illustrate the bravery that was
attributed at the time to the Poles. Von Rundstedt himself was prepared to praise
this bravery, and so he should. The Poles did much to provide the Germans with a
bloody nose time and time again, this despite their limited resources. As such the
Poles in IABSM! have a resilience that hopefully reflects that.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Line Infantry with BAR 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 8,9,10
Line Infantry with rifles 1,2,3,4 5,6 7,8,9 10
Motorised Infantry 1,2 3 4,5 6,7,8
Cavalry with BAR 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8
Cavalry with rifles 1,2,3 4,5 6,7 8
Shortage of automatic weapons sees many cavalry and infantry sections operating
only with rifles.

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
Peugeot A/Car 2 3 or MGs Wheeled
Wz28 A/Car 2 3 or MGs Slow
Wz29 Ursus A/Car 2 3 or MGs Wheeled
TK3 tankette 2 MGs Fast
TKS tankette 2 3 or MGs Fast
Vickers E with 37mm 2 3 Average
Vickers E with 47mm 2 4 Average
Vickers E with MGs 2 MGs (twin turrets) Average
7TP light tank 2 4 or MGs Average
38

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
37mm Bofors Anti Tank gun 4
75mm Field Gun 6
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Wz35 Maroszok AT rifle 4 4 3 3 2
Infantry section 1 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 1

Force Composition
Regular Line Company Motorised Infantry Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One Rifle section (10 men) Staff Car
Three 46mm mortars (2 men each) Two motorcycle combinations
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
BAR squad (10 men) Four Rifle Sections (8 men each)
Two rifle squads (10 men each) One Wz35 AT rifle (2 crew)
One Wz35 AT rifle (2 crew) Two trucks
One motorcycle combination
Battalion Support Machine Gun Platoon
Two M27 81mm mortars (3 crew Two MMGs (3 crew each)
each) Two staff cars
Three MMGs (3 crew each)
Three Tchanka cart mounted MMGs
(3 crew each)
Regimental Support Battalion Support
Three 37mm Bofors Wz36 AT guns (5 Four MMGs (2 crew each) in two trucks
crew each) horse drawn. Two 81mm Wz31 mortars (3 crew each) in two
Two 75mm M02/26 Field Guns (5 trucks
crew each) Three 37mm Bofors Wz36 AT guns (5 crew
each) with three cars and one motorcycle
combination
Divisional Support Brigade Support
Reconnaissance Tank Company made Four 75mm Wz95 Field Guns
up of one HQ tankette, TKS or TK3. Four 100mm M14 Field Guns
Two Platoons of six TKS or TK3 Light Tank Company
tankettes each. Two with 20mm Headquarters of one Vickers E with 47mm
gun, four with MGs. gun. Three platoons, each with two Vickers E
Four 75mm Wz98 Field Guns 47mm tanks, and three Vickers E tanks with
Three 105mm Wz29 Field Guns MGs.
Three 100mm Wz14/19 Field Guns
Three 155mm Wz17 Field Guns
Three MMGs on Tchankas (3 crew
each)
39

Cavalry Squadron Polish Field Artillery were often called


Squadron Headquarters upon to fire in a direct fire role against
1 Rifle section (8 men) German tanks. Those doing so will count
Platoons 1 3 their crew initiative as anti-tank gunners.
BAR squad (8 men)
Two rifle squads (8 men each) Tchankas, were a weapon that was first
One Wz35 AT rifle (2 crew) introduced during the Russian Civil War.
Regimental Support Then these were essentially light carts or
Four MMGs (3 crew each) traps with an MMG mounted facing the
Four Tchanka cart mounted MMGs (3 rear. They were devised to allow mobile
crew each) firepower, and suited the cavalry rich
Two 37mm Bofors Wz36 AT guns (5 armies of the theatre. They were only
crew each) horse drawn. slightly updated by 1939, having purpose
Brigade Support built light, fast carts drawn by three
Four 75mm Wz02/26 Field Guns (5 horses abreast. They could keep up with
crew each) cavalry in nearly all situations, as such
Armoured Car Squadron they will move in the same way.
Squadron HQ of one armoured car,
typically with a 37mm gun. Also five
motorcycle combinations.
Two platoons of three armoured cars.
Typically one with 37mm gun, and
two with MGs. One motorcycle
combination per platoon.

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons or off table support the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are
represented by one card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which
the guns fire. As a generality tanks will operate on one card per section of three
tanks reflecting the use of an efficient radio net. They may use their initiative
dice to act in any way desired.

Artillery support will not have a dedicated observer, but a Big Man may be used for
this role. For a Company sized infantry force Big Men should be available at a
ratio of one per Platoon. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Rapid Deployment. May be used when a cavalry force is fielded.

Reconnaissance Force. Used when cavalry or motorized forces are present.

Rally. May be present.

Heroic Leader. This may be used as desired.

Bugle Call. Always included when a cavalry force is deployed. Acts as a bonus
move only for mounted cavalry, along the lines of a Blitzkrieg Bonus card.
40

ROMANIA
Modest in their needs, resourceful, and capable of tough fighting was the German
assessment of the Romanian armed forces, this is made all the more interesting as
Romania was a pragmatic, rather than enthusiastic, ally of Germany. The
Romanian Army had, after the Great War, followed a French model, of dress,
armament and training. This, indeed, mirrored the political policies of her
government, which made key alliances with France, Poland and Czechoslovakia. As
it turned out these were unfortunate choices, that by mid 1940 left her completely
isolated. Indeed Hitlers redrawing of the map of central Europe in that year saw
Romania lose significant territories to more pro-German states, such as Hungary
and, interestingly, the Soviet Union.

Under the leadership of General, later Marshal, Ion Antonescu Romania began
building links with Germany, and with her important oil fields Hitler responded
positively. Becoming a signatory to the Tri-Partite Pact Romania sided with Hitler
with the sole aim of self-preservation, and ultimately recovering her lost
territories. This German support, however, did not extend to significant equipping
the Romanians, who spent much of the early war in the east lacking rudimentary
items. Indeed the lack of any anti-tank rifles left their infantry seriously at risk
from Soviet armour. They did, however, receive some booty from captured French
and Polish material. Nevertheless the Romanians fought well, particularly their
cavalry and specialised troops such as the mountain Brigades. Within the Infantry
Divisions the Engineer element also was expanded to take on the role of combat
pioneers.

The Romanian Officer Corps was brave, but undoubtedly aloof from its men. To
compound this her corps of NCOs tended to be drawn from an agrarian population,
and lacked the leadership training, or tactical knowledge of their western
counterparts.

Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Good Troops 1,2,3 4 5 6,7,8
Regular Troops 1,2,3 4,5 6 7,8
N.B. Good troops are cavalry or specialists such as mountain troops. Regular troops
covers all Line regiments.

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
R2 Tank 3 4 Average
R35 Tank 5 3 Slow
Malaxa Tractors 2 None Average
Panzer III Ausf N (T-3) 6 6 Average
Panzer IVD (T-4) 4 6 Average
The R2 tank was essentially the same Skoda as the German Panzer 35(t), this was
the main Romanian tank during the early phases of the campaign in Russia. These
were supplemented by a number of R-35 tanks, which were the French Renault 35.
The Malaxa tractors were Renault UE tractors bought before the war or built under
license. In October 1942 the Germans supplied the Romanians with the Panzer III
and IV models indicated above. These both had the short 75mm guns for an
infantry support role. The ammunition supplied was not of the latest quality.
41

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
37mm Bofors AT gun 4
37mm Skoda AT gun 4
47mm L53 Puteau AT gun 7
47mm L35 Breda M35 AT gun 5
PaK 97/38 7
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
Tank Killer Infantry 3 - - - -
Infantry section 1 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 1
N.B. As the war progressed the Romanians recognised their weakness in infantry
anti-tank capability, and formed specialist squads who improvised in this respect.
The player may elect to replace one infantry squad with a standard four-man tank
killer team at the start of a game.

Force Composition
1941 Company Organisation 1942 Company Organisation
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
Two 60mm mortars (2 crew each) One rifle squad (8 men) in one truck
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Four rifle squads (8 men each) Four rifle Squads (8 men each)
One 60mm mortar (2 crew)
Regimental Support Regimental Support
Two M27 81.4mm mortars (3 crew each) Four 81.4mm mortars (3 crew each)
Two MMGs (3 crew each) Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Two or Three 37mm AT guns(4 crew each) Two 120mm mortars
Three 47mm AT guns (5 crew each) with
Malaxa tractors
Four 75mm M39 Skoda Field Guns
Divisional Support Divisional Support
Four 75mm L30 Krupp Field Guns Four 75mm M03 Krupp Field Guns
Four 100mm M14 Skoda Howitzers Four 100mm M14 Skoda Field Guns
Six 47mm AT guns of various types (4 crew Six 47mm or PaK 97/38 AT guns (5 crew)
each) with Malaxa tractors
One Cavalry Squadron, organised, largely
as above.

Tank Company Romanian forces were generally under


Headquarters of two tanks resourced, especially in the field of
Platoons 1 3 anti-tank weapons. Early in the war
Three tanks each. this should be extended to mortars and
R2 tank companies were made up of five other support weapons as well.
Platoons, whereas R35 companies had only
three platoons.
Regimental Support
Four 47mm Anti Tank guns (5 crew)

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are represented by one
card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire. As a
42

generality tanks will operate on one card each, reflecting the lack of any radio net,
although for German supplied vehicles they will act on one card per Platoon.

Artillery Support may be available, but with no FO. A Big Man may take on that
role during the game if desired but needs a static telephone line to battery.

For a Company sized infantry force one Big Man should be available for each
Platoon. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Blitzkrieg. May be included for an armoured or motorised formation.

Rapid Deployment. May be used if a cavalry force is deployed.

Reconnaissance Force. May be used for a cavalry force.

Hesitant Troops. May be present towards the end of 1942.

Vehicle Breakdown. Will usually be deployed if an internal combustion engine is


present in any form excepting motorcycles. The Romanians tended to recruit
motorcyclists with their own machines, as they did with cavalry and horses, as such
we have to assume that care has been taken in these cases.

Tank Killer Bonus. Always used if these types of troops are present.

Ammunition Shortage. May be present towards the end of 1942.

Rally. May be included.

Heroic Leader. May be used.

Bugle Call. Will always be used if cavalry are present.


43

SLOVAKIA
Like the Romanians, the Slovaks found themselves allied to Germany due to
pragmatic necessity, rather than through any real desire. After Germany annexed
the Sudetenland, and then incorporated the rest of Bohemia into the Reich, the
Slovaks were left isolated. Indeed Hitler made it quite clear that if they did not
plumb for independence he would hand them over to Hungary.

Discriminated against within Czechoslovakia, the Slovaks already had a strong


independence movement, and the new regime enthusiastically modelled itself on
Germany, with a all the trappings of a one-party, authoritarian state. In fact the
Slovaks assisted Germany with the invasion of Poland in 1939, sending two Divisions
into the southern area of that country upon the German declaration of war.

In 1941 the Slovaks were again the first to volunteer to assist militarily with
Barbarossa. Again this was part of their attempt to ensure independence rather
than incorporation into a Greater Hungary. In this campaign the Slovaks saw their
slow moving infantry Divisions left behind by the speed of the German advance,
only their small ad-hoc mobile Brigade being able to keep up the pace. In August
of 1941 it was decided to return her infantry Divisions back to Slovakia itself, and
create a single Mobile Division. This was a particularly successful move.

From that point on the Slovaks were to provide a small but highly professional
force, which benefited from high morale due to its policy of troop rotation
between home and frontline service, even demobilising conscripts at the end of
their period of service.

Equipment was a mix of Czechoslovak and German, with the officers tending to
have been formerly officers of the Czechoslovakian Army. This was a mixed
blessing, as the Slovak minority had been restricted in careers, and numbers of
qualified Officers and NCOs tended to be a problem. That said, this did tend to
come to the fore after Stalingrad. Indeed before that point the Germans found
them to be brave and highly disciplined.

Infantry

Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3
Good Troops 1,2,3 4 5,6 7,8
Regular Troops 1,2,3 4,5 6 7,8
N.B. Good troops represent the Mobile Brigade initially, or the Mobile Division after
that. Regular troops are the Infantry Divisions in the early weeks of the Russian
campaign before their withdrawal.

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
LT vz 35 3 4 Average
LT vz 38 4 5 Average
LT vz 40 4 5 Average
OA vz 30 2 MGs Wheeled
44

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
37mm PaK 35 AT gun 5
47mm PUV vz36 AT gun 7
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
PzB39 AT rifle 4 3 2 2 1
Infantry section 2 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 1

Infantry Line Company


Company Headquarters
Two 50mm mortars (2 crew each)
Two trucks
PzB39 AT rifle
Platoons 1 4
Three rifle squads (8 men each)
Three trucks
One rifle squad may have an extra LMG as
an option
Battalion Support
Two M27 81mm mortars (3 crew each) in
one truck
Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Three 37mm AT guns or 47mm vz 36 AT
guns (5 crew each)
Divisional Support
Four 149mm L24 A37 Field Guns
Four 100mm M14/19 Skoda Howitzers
Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron
Tank Company
HQ of two tanks, with three platoons
fielding five tanks each.

Card Allocation
One card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as any
support weapons the force may have. Anti-tank weapons are represented by one
card per weapon, with the player choosing the order in which the guns fire. As a
generality tanks will operate on one card per Platoon reflecting the use of an
efficient radio net.

Artillery Support may be present with a dedicated FO with access to a static


telephone line.

For a Company sized infantry force one Big Man should be available for each
Platoon. Other cards that may present are as follows.

Sniper. This card may be present

Air Support. This may be present in the form of the Luftwaffe.


45

Blitzkrieg. This will be present for any armoured force.

Rapid Deployment. This will always be present for the Mobile Brigade or later
Divisions.

Reconnaissance Force. This should only be present if the Divisional cavalry


Squadron is represented, and that should be a rarity.

Petrol Shortage. This may be present.

AT Bonus Card. This should always be present for a Slovak force with AT guns.

MMG Bonus. This may be present, but not automatically.

Rally. During the early war period the Slovaks may benefit from this.

Dynamic Commander. This should be used sparingly.


46

THE SOVIET UNION

The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union were born during the Civil War that wracked
Russia from the time of the revolution to the defeat of the White Russian forces in
1921. In this sense it was unique amongst the armies of Europe, in that it had no
past traditions around which its structure had to bend. Indeed this was both a
blessing and a curse, as it struggled to develop policy and strategy from a blank
piece of paper. Tortskys insistence in the worker and peasant army, Frunze with
his absurd beliefs in the inability of the capitalist powers to conduct a campaign of
movement, all laid foundations that were to seriously hinder the ability of the
Soviets to respond when the German blitzkrieg fell upon them.

To add to these already shaky foundations, the officer purges of the 1930s were
successful in finally ridding the Red Army of its last vestiges of an Imperial past,
the Voyenspets, military specialists such as Tukhachevsky, who had experience of
training and working in a professional army. The men that replaced them in
positions of true power were the political commissars, untrained in a military
sense, but who could be considered loyal to the regime.

As such the Red Army was predominantly an army of peasants, led by a command
that was divided from the very highest down to company level between the
military and political leaders. Its structure was faulty, as since the purges all
airforce and armoured formations had been broken up as separate entities and
divided amongst the infantry formations that were the basic building block of the
Soviet Army.

A bleak picture indeed, excepting one thing. The Soviet Union was a dictatorship,
and an effective one at that. The losses of men and materiel that she suffered
during the Winter War, and then the first few months of Barbarossa were such that
no democracy could have stood them. But Stalin had no parliament, in a
democratic sense, to answer to. With an iron hand he discarded millions of his own
men, in the knowledge that millions more stood behind them - as the Germans
were to discover during the winters of 1941 and 1942.

The Red Army constantly recreated itself during the war years. New ideas were
tried, new formations evolved in an attempt to minimise the terrible losses that
Russian forces took. It can be stated quite categorically that had the Winter War
not shown up some of the most basic flaws, which were to a greater degree
addressed, that the Red Army would not have survived the summer of 1941.
Infantry
Troops/Dice 0 1 2 3 4
Elite Red Army 1,2,3 4,5 6 7,8 9,10
Good Red Army 1,2,3,4 5 6,7,8 9,10 -
Poor Red Army 1,2,3,4,5 5,6,7 8,9,10 - -
SMG Squads (Good) 1,2 3,4 5,6 7,8 -
Red Army 1939 1,2,3,4 5,6 7,8,9 10 -
Red Army 1940 1,2,3 4,5 6,7,8 9,10 -
N.B. Elite units such as Soviet Naval Infantry or Scouts may well receive a + status.
Poor troops reflect untrained troops, sharing rifles, or troops with low morale in
the face of the German initial onslaught. Soviet units in 1939 and 1940 were more
homogenous, as such they have been represented as one option.
47

Armoured Vehicles
Vehicle Armour Class Weapon Strike Speed
BT-2 2 3 Fast
BT-5 2 6 Fast
BT-7 3 6 Fast
BT-7A 4 5 Wheeled
T24 2 4 Slow
T26 M1933 2 6 Average
T26 M1937 2 6 Average
T27A 2 MGs Fast
T28 4 5/MGs Average
T35 M 19352 3 Turret 6/Hull 4 Average
T25 M 1938 4 Turret 6/Hull 4 Average
T37 2 MG Average
T60 3 2 Fast
T70 4 4 Fast
KV1 M1939 8 6 Average
KV1 - E 11 8 Slow
KV1 M1941 8 8 Average
KV1 - S 10 8 Average
KV2 M1940 8 152.4mm Howitzer (8 AT) Slow
T34 M1940 7 6 Fast
T34 M1941/1942 (B/C) 7 8 Fast
ISU 122 10 122mm Howitzer(4AT) Average
M3 Stuart 5 5 Fast
M3 Lee/Grant 5 Turret 5/Hull 7 Average
Mark II Matilda 9 5 Slow
Mark III Valentine 7 5 Slow

Anti-Tank weapons
Weapon Weapon Strike
45mm L46 M1939 6
76.2mm L26 M1930 6
2 Pounder 5
Infantry Anti-Tank 0-4" 4-8" 8-12" 12-16" 16-24
PTRD/S 14.5mm AT Rifle 3 2 2 1 -
Infantry section 2 1 - - -
Infantry Tank Killer 4 - - - -
MMG/HMG 2 2 2 1 -

Force Composition
Tank Company Heavy Tank Company 1941
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One tank One KVI
Platoons 1 4 Platoons 1 3
Three tanks Three KVI each. One Platoon may have one
KV2
48

The Winter War


Red Army Regular Company Red Army Tank Company
Company Headquarters The Red Army operated their tanks in three
One Rifle squad (10 men) Platoons of five vehicles, with a Company HQ
4 MMGs of one tank.
2 50mm mortars
Platoons 1 3 Red Army Engineer Company
Four rifle squads each (10 men each) Company Headquarters
One Rifle Squad (8 men)
Battalion Support Platoons 1 - 3
Six 82mm mortars (3 crew each) Three rifle squads, each with one
Six 45mm M37 or 37mm M30 AT guns flamethrower, or with sled transported
(4 crew each) explosive charges.
Regimental Support
Four 76mm M27 Field Guns
The Red Army at this period had no SMGs, indeed those they were later to use were
copied from the Finnish models that so impressed them during this campaign.

The Great Patriotic War


Ski Rifle Company Motor Rifle Company
Company Headquarters Company Headquarters
One Commissar One Commissar
Platoons 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Three rifle squads each (10 men each) Three rifle squads each (10 men each)
Mortar Platoon Support Platoon
Two 50mm mortars (2 crew each) Two MMGs (3 crew each)
Three 50mm mortars (2 crew each)
Battalion Support Battalion Support
Six 82mm mortars (3 crew each) Six 82mm mortars (3 crew each)
Three MMGs (3 crew each) Four MMGs (3 crew each)
Scout Section (10 men) Two 45mm L46 AT guns (5 crew each)
Regimental Support Brigade Support
Four 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns Six 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns
Six 45mm L46 AT guns (5 crew each) Armoured Car Battalion
Four 120mm mortars (3 crew each) Tank Battalion
Divisional Support
Heavy Tank Company
49

Cavalry Squadron Rifle Company


Squadron Headquarters Company Headquarters
One Commissar One Commissar
Troops 1 3 Platoons 1 3
Three squads each (10 men each) Three rifle squads each (10 men each)
(only one with an LMG) One PTRD/S
Regimental Support MMG Platoon
Three tchanka MMGs (3 crew each) Three MMGs (3 crew each)
Six 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns
Mounted Pioneer Platoon*
Fast Tank Battalion
*One squad may be replaced with one Battalion Support
team of tank killers if desired. Six 82mm mortars (3 crew each)
Three SMG squads (8 men)
All Soviet troops had to be prepared to Two 45mm L46 AT guns (5 crew each)
take on German armour, and this is Regimental Support
reflected in their infantry AT ability. Six 76mm L16 M27 Field Guns
Divisional Support
Mounted Reconnaissance Company
Six 122 M38 Field Guns
Tank Company

Card Allocation
Clearly one card will be included in the pack for each Platoon present, as well as
any support weapons or off table support the force may have. At all stages of the
war anti-tank weapons are represented by one card per weapon, with the firer
choosing in which order they fire. Throughout this stage of the war tanks will
operate on one card per tank, reflecting the lack of an efficient radio net. They
may use their initiative dice to act in any way desired. There is an alternative
option listed below under Tank Command Flags.

Artillery support will never have a Forward Observer and should generally be
restricted to pre-registered targets in a defensive position. In the Winter War a
pre-attack stonk will be the norm.

For a Company sized infantry force Big Men should be available at a ratio of two
per Company in total early in the war, whilst later one will be present per Platoon.
Other cards that may present are as follows.

Sniper. Will always be present for any Soviet force in the Great Patriotic War (but
not in Finland). The Soviets are unique in that they may have two snipers in their
side, however only one may fire on each turn of the sniper card.

Air Support. The Soviets may have air support if weather permits. This will be
represented by one plane only.

Armoured Bonus Move. Obligatory for the Winter War where Russian tank
formations tended to advance without infantry support in the first half of the war,
leaving them prey to Finnish tank hunter teams. Available in the Great Patriotic
War.

Rapid Deployment. Obligatory for any Soviet tank force early in the Winter War,
optional for later stages.
50

Reconnaissance Force. May be included for Scouts, cavalry or armoured car


formations.

Hesitant Troops. Obligatory during the Winter War, later it may be included, but
should be unusual.

Petrol Shortage. This should always be present for any Russian heavy tanks during
the summer and autumn of 1941. May be present for isolated forces during the
Winter War.

Vehicle Breakdown. Obligatory throughout the Winter War due to the harsh
weather conditions.

Tank Killer Bonus. Will always be included if tank killers are present.

Ammunition Shortages. May well be present in the early stages of Barbarossa, or


for isolated forces in both that and the Winter War.

Poor Fire Discipline. May be present at any time.

Rally. May be included for Elite Soviet forces, such as NKVD during the first days of
the invasion.

Uhraaaaaahh! Obligatory during the Winter War, optional at the discretion of the
owner after that. Even the actions of a Political Commissar cannot stop an attack
on this card once a player embarks on this route.

Dynamic Commander. May be present, but unusual.

Heroic Leader. Very likely at all stages of the war.

Political Commissar. Obligatory throughout this phase of the war.