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APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABLE SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL - EFFECT OF BENOWO

LANDFILL TRANSFORMATION FROM OPEN DUMPING TOWARDS LEACHATE QUALITY

Pirade, Februriyana1
1
Environmental Engineering Department, Civil and Planning Faculty, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh
Nopember

Jl. Raya ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, East Java, Indonesia

fbrryana@gmail.com

Abstract

Benowo Landfill is a landfill that is located in Northwest Surabaya city. It becomes the only
operating landfill in Surabaya. In its early operation, Benowo Landfill used open dumping
system. One of the effects that arose from such system is leachate pollution. Research from
2005 to 2010 showed significant increase towards the amount of organic and inorganic Benowo
Landfill leachate. For example, COD values of Benowo Landfill leachate since 2005 until 2010
in order are 1400 mg/L, 2107 mg/L, 2450 mg/L, and 4250 mg/L. Pollution by leachate was also
found in local salt and fish ponds around Benowo Landifll. Research in 2006 and 2008 found
high contents of Pb, Cd and Sulphate in local salt and fish ponds. Moreover, the effluent of
Benowo Landfill leachate treatment plant does not meet prerequisite standards. These matters
push Surabaya City Government to carry out management transformations in Benowo Landfill.
Several important aspects that become part of that transformation is the initiation of sanitary
landfill system application and modification of Benowo Landfill leachate treatment plant.
Transformations have been done from 2010 until present day, and will continue on until 2032.
Results obtained showed a positive correlation towards the quality change in leachate produced
by Benowo Landfill. Since 2010 until 2016, organic and inorganic leachate content experience a
decline, among others, COD values from 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2016 respectively are 4250
mg/L, 2300 mg/L, 900 mg/L, and 720 mg/L. Leachate treatment plant effluent also gave positive
results by successfully fulfilling the required quality standards.

Key words: Benowo Landfill, Open Dumping, Leachate Quality, Transformation, Sustainable
Solid Waste Disposal

1. Introduction:
An open dumping is defined as a land aquatic environments, including both
disposal site, where solid waste is discarded groundwater and surface water (Abu-Rukah &
in uncontrolled manner (Visvanathan et al., Al-Kofahi,2001). Open dumping has no
2004). In developing countries like Indonesia, proper cover system, leachate collection, and
open dumping sites still remain a choice for gas collection. Due to its unsustainable
many cities due to its low cost (Kaosol, 2009). disposal system, Benowo landfill produces
Benowo Landfill, located in Surabaya, East 40.000.000 tons of greenhouse gas a year
Java is considered as one of the biggest from its disposal activity (Status Lingkungan
landfill in Indonesia. In its early age, Benowo Hidup Indonesia [SLHI] (Indonesian
Landfill used open dumping for disposal Environmental Status), 2007). Based on
system. However, there has been a concern those considerations, Government of
that open dumps will pollute surrounding Surabaya conducts gradual developments to
actualize a sustainable waste management in municipal solid waste (MSW) and operates to
Surabaya waste disposal system. minimize public health and environmental
This urge from the Government of impact (Tchobanoglous, Thiesen, & Virgil,
Surabaya is also supported by the Republic of 1993). Direct landfilling of such waste creates
Indonesian Law No.18 Year 2008, about the nuisance owing to the generation of highly
Waste Management in which one of the concentrated leachate, methane gas
mandates from that Law is the transformation emission, and extreme waste settlement in
of final processing system. Open dumping landfill (Kaosol, 2009). Those issues about
system can no longer be used, but the very leachate production and greenhouse gases
least, sanitary landfill system or other more emission also become a main problem in
modern and environmentally friendly Benowo Landfill.
technologies can be applied. Leachate is wastewater produced from
Gradual transformation of Benowo accumulation of solid waste in landfills.
landfill begins by improving the open dumping Leachate is formed from the process of
system into a controlled landfill system rainwater percolation and humidity that occurs
performs leachate recirculation followed by in every layer of waste in landfills. (Koshy et
building sanitary landfill construction in 2012- al., 2007). Leachate contains water, heavy
2015. Sanitary landfill system, LFG Power metals, organic matter resulting from
Plant and Thermal Process (Gasification) will decomposition, and inorganic matter such as
operate gradually from 2015 to 2032 (Benowo ammonia, sulphate, and metal cations. The
Landfill Master Plan, 2011). This chemical composition of leachate depends on
transformation of Benowo Landfill also affects many factors such as the initial composition of
leachate quality and greenhouse gases solid wastes, the hydrology of the site, the
production produced by the landfill. Due to climate, location of the site, and the age of tip
those affects, analysis must be conducted to (Al-Yaqout, 2003). There is no leachate
understand the effectiveness of the management in open dumping systems,
transformation and development done. This which results in groundwater pollution due to
essay will discuss those effects by utilizing leachate seepage into groundwater around
research literature and studies that have been the landfill location.
done in ITS Department of Environmental At fifteen years of age, Benowo Landfill
Engineering. Thus is obtained data about the can be categorized as a mature landfill.
correlation between effects of waste According to the research done by ITS
sustainable management in Benowo Landfill Environmental Engineering Department from
and leachate production, which can be used 2008 through 2012, the quality of leachate in
as further consideration in Benowo Landfill Benowo Landfill has a range as follows: BOD5
management. 900-6000 mg/L, COD 2000-6000 mg/L, TS
16000-17000 mg/L, and salinity 3500-20500
2. Background mg/L.
Benowo Landfill is located in northwest
Surabaya, East Java. It was established in 3. Materials and Methods
2001 and was considered as a relatively Study about the effects of Benowo Landfill
mature landfill. It covers an area of 34 Ha and transformation is conducted by analyzing the
receives 1200 Ton of municipal solid waste quality of leachate. Leachate quality is
per day. In its early operation, Benowo monitored from 2008 to 2016 using literature
Landfill used open dumping system. Whereas studies from research conducted by ITS
the type of landfill ought to be used is sanitary Environmental Engineering Department.
landfill. In the past, sanitary landfills were Leachate quality data used include BOD5 and
used to denote a landfill where waste placed COD values, nutrient content (N and P), and
in the landfill was covered at the end of each salinity value. The overall data will be
days operation. Today, sanitary landfill refers correlated with the improvement and
to an engineered facility for the disposal of development activities of Benowo Landfill so
that the effectiveness and correlation of said headache, back pain, hypertension and lack
development can be concluded. of appetite, experienced for almost three
months (Paramitha and Surdarmaji, 2008).
4. Results and Discussion This condition requires the need of Benowo
a. Benowo Disposal Management Landfill management that is better and
Transformation sustainable to minimalize wider pollution due
In its early operation, Benowo Landfill still to leachate.
uses open dumping system. Waste disposal To realize sustainable change in
is done by piling up garbage without closure. waste management, around 2010 Benowo
Waste coming from all over Surabaya enters Landfill started to cover up the interlayer soil.
the reception terminal and later compressed. Each waste piled up is layered by a soil cover
That waste is then piled up to four meters into 30-50 cm thick. But, this coverage is done
an available cell area. This disposal system every 3-4 weeks and does not include final
causes the reduced lifespan of Benowo soil coverage. Furthermore, leachate
Landfill. In 2009 it was predicted Benowo circulation is also done to decrease organic
Landfill would only survive until 2015. leachate content of Benowo Landfill.
Continuous accumulation of waste Leachate treatment plant that early on only
causes seepage of leachate to spread to uses chemical process, is modified into three
areas around the landfill. In its early operation processes which are chemical-physical,
in the 2000s, Benowo Landfill leachate is biological, and a combination of both. In this
collected in a leachate pool and then new installation system, the first stage uses
chemically treated by a conventional equalization pond, anaerobic filter and
technology that is coagulation-flocculation maturation pond, and then enters the stage
sedimentation, filter, and absorption by GAC. two, constituting coagulation and flocculation.
However, this process is considered Then, third stage of processing uses an
unfavorable because plenty of leachate still Anaerobic Bio Reactor, aeration pond,
pollute areas around Benowo Landfill. Around sedimentation pond, sand filter, and activated
Benowo Landfill, many fish, shrimp and salt carbon filter. The processing capacity of
ponds exist. Research done by Benowo Landfill Leachate Treatment Plant in
Kristiyaningsih and Sudarmaji (2008) show 2010 was 300 m3. Then in October 2012,
that local salt ponds which exist within 800 enhancements and improvements of Benowo
meter radius north of the landfill has an Leachate Treatment Plant were done, so that
average Lead (Pb) content of 10.08 mg/kg in its processing capacity became 600 m3/day.
their salt. Meanwhile, in areas closer to the Moreover, in the years 2012 through 2015,
landfill within a radius of 100 meters to the improvements of infrastructure and supporting
north and west, an average Pb content of infrastructure in Benowo Landfill location were
12.2mg/kg and 11.32mg/kg in salts yielded done, among them the repair of drainage
from local ponds was found. For further channel, improvement of landfill retainer,
distances of 1.5 km to the north and west, Pb improvement leachate trapping channels,
content in salt reached 6.98 mg/kg and 6.58 construction of reprofiling to prevent landslide,
mg/kg. Proviso of the maximum value of Pb repair and construction of new sanitary landfill
metal contamination in raw salt is 10 mg/kg system, construction of Landfill Gas (LFG)
(SNI 01-4435-2000). Besides that, research collection system, and construction of power
done by Handoko (2006) showed that (a) high plant installation. Based on the data from
content of sulphate in three point locations in Benowo Landfill supervision reports of July
pond area around Benowo Landfill is found, 2016, it is known that Benowo Landfill
with levels 2275,57 mg/L; (b) occurred levels produces an average of 37.967 kWh a day,
of Cd in fishes taken from ponds closest to and the total energy sent to the State
Benowo Landfill. In the local community, Electricity Company was 1,176.978 kWh on
clinical symptoms of Cu, Pb and Cd poisoning July 2016.
was also discovered, among them nausea,
Modernization done by Benowo Landfill salty/brackish). This is caused by the location
made Benowo Landfill the highest point of Benowo Landfill that exists in coastal areas
contributor in the success of Surabaya experience intrusion of sea water.
recieving Adipura Kencana (highest award to
a city that succeeded in environmental c. Effects of changes in the management to
management and urban hygiene) in 2014. In the quality of leachate
April 2016, Benowo Landfill became a Overall data was taken from leachate
national pilot on Waste Processing into pond inlet channel, which did not experience
Electrical Energy. any sort of processing. From this data it is
To continuously sustain the waste known that BOD and COD values decrease
disposal management system, through the from 2010 through 2012. In that year span,
years 2015-2032 Benowo Landfill will add leachate recirculation is done in Benowo
new facilities such as: construction of Landfill. Leachate recirculation is able to
preconditioning waste facility, construction of speed up waste degradation process.
Gasification Power Plant installation to realize (Loncnar et al., 2010) and decrease organic
the concept of Waste to Entergy and concentration (Warith, 2003). Thus, if
Sustainable Solid Waste Disposal compared with data before 2010 when
Management in Benowo Landfill (Master Plan leachate recirculation was not done, organic
Benowo Landfill, 2011). concentrations were much higher.
Furthermore processing system modified by
b. Characteristics of Leachate combination of chemical-physical and
Landfill leachate has varying composition biological processes is also able to decrease
and strength of organic and inorganic organic constituent values. In 2016 COD and
constituent. Typically, leachate is classified in BOD values of Benowo Landifll leachate
terms of landfill age as young, intermediate, continue to experience reduction.
and mature (Foo and Hameed, 2009). The Effects of leachate management quality
results obtained in this study are shown in improvement also improves the effluent
Tables 1. From data collected from 2008 quality of Benowo Landfill Leachate
through 2016. From this data, BOD and COD Treatment Plant, see table 2. As explained in
values of leachate is still relatively high. This this essay, in 2010 processing system
depicts the plentiful undegraded organic modification was done by combining
pollutant, with average values of BOD/COD chemical-physical and bilogcal system in
0.5mg/L. According to Kalcikova et al. (2016), Benowo Landfill Leachate Treatment Plant. In
BOD/COD ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 show old processes using chemical-physical
that leachate exists in the intermediate period. process, leachate processing was not
In this period some of the biodegradable effective. Even though the organic removal
organics are decomposed in the stabilization percentage reaches 85%, the effluent had not
process within the body of the landfill. met the water body quality standard Class 3
However, considering the age of Benowo according to Regulation of the Minister of
Landfill has reached 15 years, leachate Environment of Indonesia No. 82 of 2001.
period should have reached the mature phase However with modification of processing
where most organic constituent have been method by adding a biological unit, the
degraded. In this phase, the BOD/COD value organic matter degradation efficiency can be
should be <0.1 (Batarseh et al., 2010). The increased up to 95% and fulfill the quality
presence of biodegradable organics is standard. This shows that transformation
probably caused by continuous disposal of done in Benowo Landfill management bring
municipal waste without proper handling in significant improvement towards the quality of
the site (Kalcikova et al., 2011). Meanwhile, Benowo Lanfill leachate
according to Boduc (2002), salinity value of
Benowo Landfill leachate occurs in the
mesohaline category (moderately
5. Conclusion environmental engineer discipline. Many
Benowo Landfill became the only final thanks for Mrs. I.D.A.A Warmadewanthi as
processing site in Surabaya. Operating Head of Environmental Engineering
system that used open dumping method in Department for the courage and advice during
the beginning started to be repaired and the writing process and for providing the
improved to become a processing system that research data that required in this essay.
is sustainable and environmentally friendly. In
its development, Benowo Landfill leachate 7. Reference
became one of the most crucial issues
because it polluted areas around Benowo
Landfill. Main source of pollution came from
overflow of waste pile up that causes leachate
to seep into local ponds. Transformation of
Benowo Landfill management system that
has been done since 2010 until now showed
significant results when reviewed from quality
of leachate produced. Benowo Landfill
leachate that still exists in the intermediate
period starts to decrease in organic and
inorganic content. Improvement of leachate
treatment plant also provided significant
effects toward leachate that will be discarded
to water bodies, where the effluent meet the
threshold value. Therefore, it can be said that
Benowo Landfill process transformation
towards sustainable management became an
important factor that affects leachate quality
of Benowo Landfill. Effects towards local
society and environment around Benowo
Landfill need to be examined futher, to
observe pollution effects. Examinations can
be done by biomonitoring tests on fish,
shrimp, salt ponds. Test results will be
compared with similar results towards fish,
shrimp and salt ponds from years 2001
through 2010. Thus, the influence of Benowo
Landfill transformation can be studied further
and become one of the evaluations in the
success of management transformation in
Benowo Landfill. In the future, a prediction
analysis of leachate quality is also needed, if
sanitary landfill system has been fully applied
and a prediction of pollutants if gasification
system is applied.

6. Acknowledgment
This essay is part of Environmental
Engineering Department program that
encourage undergraduate student to take part
and participating in event that will develop
student ability and knowledge about
8. Illustrations and Tables
Tabel 1. Benowo Landfill Leachate Quality from years
Year
Parameter Unit
2005a 2008 b 2009 c 2010 d 2011 e 2012f 2016g
BOD5 mg/L 1.400 2.107 2.450 4.250 2.300 900 720
COD mg/L 3.360 4.219 5.440 6.640 4.160 2.000 1.360
3-
PO4 mg/L N/A N/A N/A N/A 28,7 2,88 N/A
NH4+-N mg/L N/A N/A N/A N/A 650 1204.76 N/A
Salinity mg/L 24.200 5.200 6400 20.500 68.000 35.000 N/A
pH - 8,2 8,45 8,45 7,54 8,12 N/A 8.3
TS mg/L 22020 17.920 16.400 N/A N/A N/A 11.981
a: (Environemtal Engineering ITS Laboratory, 2005)
b: (Prameswari, 2008)
c: (Hayuningtyas, 2009)
d (Nurhayati, 2010)
e: (Ristanto, 2011)
f: (Azizah, 2012)
g:(Benowo Monthly Reprot, 2016)

Tabel 2. Comparison Between Inlet and Outlet of Benowo Landfill Leachate Treatment Plan after modification at
2010
2005a 2010b Treshold Value*
Parameter Unit for water body
in out %Removal in out %Removal class III
BOD5 mg/L 1.400 210 85 2.964 126 95 150
COD mg/L 3.360 500 85 5.806 240 95 300
PO43- mg/L N/A N/A - N/A N/A - -
NH4+-N mg/L N/A N/A - 1830.74 379 79 -
Salinity mg/L 24.200 15.400 36 5.300 3.500 34 -
pH - 8,2 4,6 - 8,2 7,6 - 6-9
TS mg/L 22020 13960 36 N/A N/A - 4200
a: (Environemtal Engineering ITS Laboratory, 2005)
b: (Environemtal Engineering ITS Laboratory, 2010)