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4 STRUCTURE OF ATOM

TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS

Q. 1. What are canal rays?

Ans. The positively charged radiations which consist of


positively charged particles which move towards
perforated cathode in a gas discharge tube, were named
canal rays. These radiations were discovered by E.
Goldstein in 1866.

Q. 2. If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will


it have any charge or not?

Ans. It will not carry any detectable electric charge, as the


positive charge on the proton, neutralise the negative
charge on the electron.

Q. 3. On the basis of Thomsons model of an atom,


explain how the atom is neutral as a whole.

Ans. J. J. Thomson believed that an atom is made up of


positively charged substance in the form of a sphere. In
this sphere are embedded electrons, in the same way as
the seeds are embedded in water melon.

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Furthermore, the total positive charge of the sphere is


equal to the total negative charge of the electrons and
hence, the atom remains electrically neutral.

Q. 4. On the basis of Rutherfords model of an atom,


which subatomic particle is present in the nucleus of
an atom?

Ans. Protons which are positively charged, are present in the


nucleus of an atom.

Q. 5. Draw a sketch of Bohrs model of an atom with


three shells.

Ans.

Bohrs model of an atom

Q. 6. What do you think would be the observation, if the


particles scattering experiment is carried out
using a foil of a metal other than gold?

Ans. If some other metal can be beaten to as thin foil as the


gold foil, the scattering of particles will take place,


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because it is produced by the positively charged


nucleus.

Q. 7. Name the three subatomic particles of an atom.

Ans. (i) Protons (the positively charged particles) present


within the nucleus.

(ii) Neutrons (the neutral particles) present within the


nucleus.

(iii) Electrons (the negatively changed particles)


revolving around the nucleus.

Q. 8. Helium atom has an atomic mass of 4u and two


protons in its nucleus. How many neutrons does it
have?

Ans. Number of neutrons = Mass number Number of


protons
= (4 2) = 2

Q. 9. Write the distribution of electrons in carbon and


sodium atoms.

Ans. For carbon atom :

Number of electrons = Atomic number = 6



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Electron distribution, Kshell = 2 electrons

Lshell = (6 2) = 4 electrons.

For sodium atom :

Number of electrons = Atomic number = 11

Electron distribution, Kshell = 2 electrons

Lshell = 8 electrons

Mshell = 1 electron

Q. 10. If K and L shells of an atom are full, then what


would be total number of electrons in an atom.

Ans. Number of electrons in full Kshell =2

Number of electrons in full Lshell =8

Total number of electrons in an atom = (2 + 8)

= 10 electrons

Q. 11. How will you find valency of chlorine, sulphur and


magnesium?

Ans. (i) Valency of chlorine (a non-metal)


= 8 Number of electrons in the valence shell
=87 =1

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(ii) Valency of sulphur (a non-metal)


= 8 Number of electrons in the valence shell
=86 =2

(iii) Valency of magnesium (a metal)


= Number of electrons in the valence shell
=2

Q. 12. If number of electrons in an atom is 8 and number


of protons is also 8, then

(i) What is the atomic number of the atom? and

(ii) What is the charge on the atom?

Ans.(i) Atomic number of the atom = Number of protons


in its nucleus

(ii) The charge on the atom is zero, because total number


of positive charges due to the protons is equal to
total number of negative charges due to electrons.

Q. 13. Find the mass number of oxygen and sulphur atom.


[At no. of oxygen is 8 and sulphur is 16 and number
of neutrons in oxygen is 8 and sulphur is 16]

Ans. For oxygen atom :


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Number of protons = 8

Number of neutrons = 8

Mass number of oxygen = Number of protons


+ Number of neutrons

= 8 + 8 = 16 u

For sulphur atom :

Number of protons = 16

Number of neutrons = 16

Mass number of sulphur = Number of protons

+ Number of neutrons

= 16 + 16 = 32 u

Q. 14. For the symbol H, D and T, tabulate three


subatomic particles found in each of them.

Element Symbol Protons Neutrons Electrons


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Hydrogen H 1 0 1

Deuterium D 1 1 1

Tritium T 1 2 1

Q. 15. Write the electronic configuration of any one pair of


isotopes and isobars.
Isotopes Protons Neutrons Electrons Electron
configuration
35
17 Cl 17 18 17 2(K), 8(L), 7(M)
35
17 Cl 17 20 17 2(K), 8(L), 7(M)

Isobars Protons Neutrons Electrons Electron


configuration
40
20 Ca 20 20 20 2(K), 8(L), 8(M),
2(N)

40
Ar 2(K), 8(L),
18 18 22 18
7(M)

Q. 16. Compare the properties of electrons, protons and


neutrons.

Ans.


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Property Electron Proton Neutron


Mass Has 1/1837 the Has unit Has unit
unit atomic mass atomic mass atomic mass
Charge Has unit negative Has unit Has no electric
charge positive charge charge

Q. 17 What are the limitations of J.J. Thomsons model of


an atom?

Ans. The major limitation of J.J. Thomsons model is that it


does not explain how positively charged particles are
shielded from negatively changed particles, without
getting neutralised.

Q. 18 What are limitations of Rutherfords model of an


atom?

Ans. The comparison of electrons to the planets in the solar


system is the main drawback of Rutherfords atomic
model.

According to classical electrodynamics, if an electrically


charged particle revolves around circular path, then it
always radiates out energy. Thus, if an electron moves
around a nucleus, it must continuously radiate out energy


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and hence, gradually move towards nucleus in a spiral


path, till it collides with nucleus.

However, we know that atom is very stable. Rutherfords


model cannot explain this stability.

Q. 19. Describe Bohrs model of an atom.

Ans. (i) An atom is made up of three kinds of particles :


electrons, protons and neutrons.

(ii) Electrons are negatively charged, protons are


positively charged and neutrons are neutral, i.e,
they have no electric charge.

(iii) The number of electrons and protons are equal, so


that an atom as the whole is electrically neutral.

(iv) Protons and neutrons are present within the


nucleus. Due to the presence of protons, the
nucleus is positively charged.

(v) The electrons revolve around the nucleus in fixed


orbits called energy levels or shells which are
represented by numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 or
letters K, L, M, N, O and P. These numbers are
counted from the nucleus outwards.

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(vi) Each energy level has a fixed amount of energy.


The orbit nearest to the nucleus has minimum
energy, whereas the orbit farthest from the
nucleus has highest energy.

(vii) There is no change in the energy of electrons as


long as they revolve in the same orbit and remain
stable. But if an electron gains energy, it jumps to
a higher energy level and if it loses energy it falls
to lower energy level.

(viii) The mass of the atom is almost entirely due to the


nucleus, as electrons have negligible mass.

Q. 20. Compare all the proposed models of an atom


given in this chapter.

Ans. Thomsons Model Rutherfords Model Bohrs


Model
Thomsons Model Rutherfords Model Bohrs Model
1. Thomson gave 1. Rutherfords model 1. According to
the watermelon of an atom has Bohrs model.
model of atom. following features Electrons revolve
In this model the around the
(a) It consists of
electrons are nucleus in fixed
positively charged

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embedded in the nucleus. orbit called


positively (b) The electrons energy levels or
charged sphere, revolve around the shells which are
like suds in the nucleus in well represented by K,
watermelon. defined orbits. L, M, N, O, .
2. It failed to (c) Nucleus is much
2. Electrons do not
explain how smaller than atom.
radiate energy
electrons are
2. It failed to explain while revolving
arranged with in
how the electrons in the same orbit.
the atom and
continued revolving But if an electron
how they are
around the nucleus gains energy, it
electrically
without loosing jumps to a higher
shielded.
energy and how they level and if it
are actually arranged loses energy it
is different shells. falls to lower
energy level.

Q. 21. Summarise the rules for writing distribution of


electrons in various shells for the first eighteen
elements.

Ans. (i) The maximum number of electrons revolving


around the nucleus of an atom in different shells is
given by the formula 2n2, where n is the number

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of shell as counted from the nucleus of an atom.


So,

Maximum number of electrons in shell number 1


= 2n2 = 2(1)2 = 2

Maximum number of electrons in shell number 2


= 2n2 = 2(2)2 = 8

Maximum number of electrons in shell number 3


= 2n2 = 2(3)2 = 18

(ii) The outermost shell will not have more than 8


electrons. For example, if there are 9 electrons
after filling first two shells then in third shell will
be 8 electrons and one electrons goes to fourth
cell.

Q. 22. Define valency by taking examples of silicon and


oxygen.

Ans. The number of electrons donated or accepted or


shared by an atom of an element, so as to have a
stable configuration of nearest noble gas is called its
valency.


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The valency is equal to the number of electrons in


the outermost shell (valence shell) of an atom,
provided it has 1 to 3 electrons in it. Such atoms are
generally metals.

The valency is equal to 8 number of electrons in


valence shell of an atom, provided it has 4 to 8
electrons in valence shell.

Silicon has electronic configuration 2(K), 8(L),


4(M). As silicon has four electrons in its valence
shell, therefore, its valency is (8 4) = 4.

Oxygen has electronic configuration 2 (K), 6(L). As


oxygen has six electrons in its valence shell,
therefore, its valency is (8 6) = 2.

Q. 23. Explain with examples (i) atomic number


(ii) mass number (iii) isotopes and (iv) isobars.
Give any two uses of isotopes.

Ans. (i) Atomic number : The number of protons in the


nucleus of an atom is called its atomic number.

Example : Chlorine has 17 protons in its nucleus,


therefore, its atomic number is 17.


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(ii) Mass number : The number of protons and


neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is
known as its mass number.

Example : Sodium has 11 protons and 12 neutrons


in its nucleus, therefore, its mass number is (11 +
12) = 23.

(iii) Isotopes : Atoms of same element having same


atomic number but different mass numbers are
called isotopes.

Example : Chlorine has two isotopes, in which


atomic number is 17 for both of them, but mass
numbers are 35 and 37.

(iv) Isobars : Atoms of different elements having same


mass number, but different atomic numbers are
known as isobars.

Example : Calcium and argon atoms have same


mass number 40, but different atomic numbers 20
and 18 respectively.

Uses of Isotopes


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1. Isotope of uranium is used as nuclear fuel in


atomic reactors.

2. Cobalt 60, an isotope of cobalt is used in the


treatment of cancer.

Q. 24. Na+ has completely filled K and L shells. Explain.

Ans. The neutral atom of sodium has electronic


configuration 2(K), 8(L), 1(M). Thus, in order to
acquire a stable structure like that of nearest noble
gas (neon), it donates its one electron from the M
shell. In doing so, it has one unit more positive
charge, and hence, changes into sodium ion (Na+)
with electronic configuration 2(K), 8(L), such that its
both shells are completely filled.

Q. 25. If bromine atom is available in the form of, say,


two isotopes (49.7%) and (50.3%), calculate the
average atomic mass of bromine atom.

Ans. Atomic mass of 49.7% bromine atoms


= 49.7 79 = 3926.3 u

Atomic mass of 50.3% bromine atoms


= 50.3 81 = 4074.3 u


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Atomic mass of 100 bromine atoms


= 3926.3 + 4074.3 = 8000.6 u

Average atomic mass of bromine atom


8000.6
= = 80.006 u
100

Q. 26. The average atomic mass of a sample of an


element X is 16.2 u. What are the percentages of
18 16
isotopes 8 X and 8 X in the sample?

Ans. Let the number of atoms in the sample = 100

Average atomic mass of element X = 16.2 u

Total mass of 100 atoms of X = 16.2 100 =


1620 u ... (i)

16
Let the number of atoms of 8 X in 100 atoms = P

Number of atoms of 18
8 X in 100 atoms
= (100 P)

Total mass of P, 16
8 X atoms = 16 P

Total mass of (100 P), 18


8 X atoms

= 18(100 P) = 1800 18 P

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Total mass of 100 atoms of X = 16 P +1800 18P

= 1800 2P ...(ii)

Comparing (i) and (ii)

1620 = 1800 2P

2P = 180

180
P = = 90
2

Thus, percentage of atoms = 90%

and, percentage of atoms = (100 90) = 10%

Q. 27. If Z = 3, what would be the valency of an


element? Also name the element.

Ans. Atomic number =Z =3

Electronic configuration = 2(K), 1(L)

As there is 1 electron in valence shell, therefore,


valency of element is 1. The element is lithium.

Q. 28. Composition of the nuclei of two atomic species X


and Y are given as under


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X Y

Protons 6 6

Neutrons 6 8

Give the mass numbers of X and Y. What is the


relation between the two species?

Ans. Mass number of X = No. of protons + No. of


neutrons = 6 + 6 = 12 u

Mass number of Y = No. of protons + No. of


neutrons = 6 + 8 = 14 u

The species X and Y are isotopes, because they have


same atomic number (6 u), but different mass
numbers 12 u and 14 u respectively.

Q. 29. For the following statements, write T for true and


F for false.

(a) J.J. Thomson proposed that nucleus of an atom


contains only nucleons.

(b) A neutron is formed by an electron and a proton


combining together. Therefore, it is neutral.

1
(c) The mass of an electron is about times that
2000
of proton.


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(d) As the isotope of iodine is used for making


tincture iodine which is used as a medicine.

Ans. (a) False (b) False (c) True (d) False

Q. 30. Tick (3) the correct answer :

Rutherfords alpha-particle scattering experiment


was responsible for the discovery of :

(a) Atomic nucleus (b) Electron (c) Proton


(d) Neutron

Ans. (a) Atomic nucleus is true.

Q. 31. Tick (3) the correct answer :

Isotopes of an element have :

(a) the same physical properties,

(b) different chemical properties

(c) different number of neutrons

(d) different atomic numbers

Ans. (c) different number of neutrons is true.

Q. 32. Number of valence electrons in Cl ion are :

(a) 16 (b) 8 (c) 17 (d) 18

Ans. (d) 18 is true.


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Q. 33. Tick (3) the correct answer

Which one of the following is correct electronic


configuration of sodium?

(a) 2, 8 (b) 8, 2, 1 (c) 2, 1, 8 (d) 2, 8, 1

Ans. (d) 2, 8, 1 is true.

Q. 34. Complete the following table


Atomic Mass Number Number Number Name of the
number number of of of atomic species
neutrons protons electrons
9 10
16 32
24
2
1 0 1 0

Ans
Atomic Mass Number Number Number Name of the
number number of of of atomic species
neutrons protons electrons
9 19 10 9 9 Fluorine
16 32 16 16 16 Sulphur


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12 24 12 12 12 Magnesium
1 2 1 1 1 Deuterium(D)
1 1 0 1 0 Hydrogen


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