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69490 LIT 5:55783 Lit 5 30/7/07 10:12 Page 1

Book
The
Answers Literacy

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use an interactive whiteboard to project the PDF file, and have children mark their own work

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Answers: Literacy 5

Plurals
P1a
Look around you for signs with
singular and plural nouns. Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch, -ss and -x usually become
plural by adding -es.
Write the plurals for these words:
peach peaches
noise noises
sandwich sandwiches
coach coaches
problem problems
Most nouns become plural by box boxes
adding an -s, but you will see
many exceptions. bus buses
vegetable vegetables

P1b
A noun ending in -y with a vowel in front of it becomes plural by adding -s.
If the noun ends with -y with a consonant before it, you change the -y to -ies.
Choose the correct word to fill in the blank from the list and use it in the plural:

family dictionary story lady baby boy play day

Hurry up boys and girls.

Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to the concert.

Fairy stories are often about princes and princesses.

The journey lasts two days and nights.

Hamlet is one of Shakespeares plays .

Mothers and babies are welcome at the playgroup.

Lets play the card game Happy Families .

Look up the word in one of the school dictionaries .

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Answers: Literacy 5

P1c
Look at these plurals for:
words ending in -fe: knife knives life lives
words ending in -f: shelf shelves leaf leaves
Complete this rule:
A noun ending in -fe becomes a plural by
replacing fe with ves
A noun ending in -f becomes a plural by
replacing f with ves

Think of a noun ending in -f that has a plural ending in -fs.


EXAMPLE voof voofs chief chiefs

Prefixes
P2a
Look how prefixes are added
to the beginning of words to Auto- is a prefix meaning your own or doing it yourself.
change their meaning. Use this fact to explain the meaning of:
bicycle
autobiography
writing the story of your life

autograph
your own signature
tricycle
Think about the words bicycle and binoculars.
What do you think bi- means?
unicycle bi means two
EXAMPLE

Samara was bilingual in Hindi and English. What does bilingual mean?
EXAMPLE Bilingual means able to speak in two languages well

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Answers: Literacy 5

P2b
A transatlantic flight goes across the Atlantic. So the prefix trans- means:
across

Use another word beginning with trans- to complete this sentence:


The cup final was transmitted by satellite all over the world.

Trans- can also mean: changing and moving from one thing to another.
Use these words in sentences of your own:


Transfer My favorite player is going to transfer to a new team.
EXAMPLE
Translation
The official read a translation of a message from another language.

P2c
Use these clues to write the
meaning of the prefix circum-.
EXAMPLE
all the way round something

Write down three words The circum


starting with the prefix tele-. ference
of a circle Tim Seve
telephone all the wa goes several m
rin took
EXAMPLE y arou
the circle. nd circumnav onths to
igate the
television in a small glob
sailing bo e
at.
telescope

Can you list any more words with


the prefixes you have studied in these exercises?
bi-annual translucent telepathy
EXAMPLE
bifocal transport televise

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Answers: Literacy 5

Synonyms
P3a
EXAMPLE
Use synonyms in your own
writing to avoid repeating the Find two synonyms for each of these words:
same word. clever intelligent, smart

Wow! That shout yell, scream


is really
rapid! friend pal, mate

Re-write these sentences. Replace the word


got with a more interesting synonym.
That
cheetah!
I got some new trainers for my birthday.
Wasnt I received some new trainers for my birthday.
he
quick!
He got thirsty in the hot sun.
He became thirsty in the hot sun.
Look out
for
synonyms
: you
will see
and
P3b hear them
all the tim
e.
Write as many words as you can between these two extremes:
Freezing cold icy, chilly, bitter, fresh, mild, lukewarm,
tepid, boiling, scorching, roasting hot.

Put these words in order with the strongest emotion first:

irritated enraged cross angry furious annoyed

SUGGESTED ORDER
furious, enraged, angry, cross, irritated, annoyed

Put these words in order with the strongest emotion first:

delighted happy calm ecstatic thrilled excited

SUGGESTED ORDER
ecstatic, thrilled, excited, delighted, happy, calm.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P3c
Consider this sentence: Martin looked at the dog.
Not very interesting, is it? It doesnt tell us how he looked or why.
Compare it to: Martin glared at the dog to try to stop it barking.
Think of two or more sentences using synonyms for looked.
Martin Martin glanced at the dog out of the corner of his eye
just to make sure that it was still sitting quietly.
EXAMPLE
Martin stared at the dog in amazement as he just
could not believe that it could have understood so
well what he wanted.

Adverbs
P4a
Its not just what you do but
how you do it that counts! Choose the correct adverbs from those in brackets
and underline your choice:

The whole class was talking (excitedly wickedly largely)


about the end-of-year play.

Some were asking questions (gruffly miserably loudly)


like, Could we do a musical?.

Politely Rudely The teacher asked (patiently worriedly correctly)


for quiet and then explained (secretively carefully
Adverbs change or give more handsomely) that they could do a musical as long as
information about a verb.
everybody had a part to play.
Most adverbs are made by
adding the suffix -ly to the The class cheered (enthusiastically unkindly hurriedly)
adjective, e.g. the adjective soft to show their support.
changes to the adverb softly.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P4b
Adverbs are often used to give more information on the verbs used in speech.
Use the most likely adverbs in the box to complete the sentences below:

timidly angrily excitedly

Please may I have a go? Jack whispered timidly

What have you done? Layla shouted angrily

Is it your birthday? Denise asked excitedly

Re-write the sentences using three new adverbs of your own.


EXAMPLE Please may I have a go? Jack whispered hopefully.
ping the
Try swap What have you done? Layla shouted eagerly.
nd see
adverbs a
rence Is it your birthday? Denise asked stupidly.
what diffe the
to
it makes
you think
way
of the
.
characters

P4c
Find adverbs beginning with each letter of the alphabet that could fit into this
sentence: Pass me the book, Harry said
PLE
EXAMA irritatingly
awkwardly I Q quickly
B bravely J jokingly R rudely

C cheerfully K kindly S slowly

D dangerously L loudly T tiredly

E easily M moodily U unexpectedly

F foolishly N naughtily V viciously

G graspingly O openly W wisely


H helplessly P pathetically Z zealously

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Answers: Literacy 5

Read all about it !


Read this short passage and
answer the questions. Were goin
g to have fu
She rinsed n tonight,
You will need to look carefully the rabbit b Alex chuck
led.
for the answers. The fresh carrots in th owl out an
d fou n
e vegetable d some
Jasper Jasper wil
l love these
basket und
er the sink
. .
Joke She follow
ed the rabb
the bowl w its name o
P5a ith her fing n the side o
ers, JASPE f
What are R.
you doing?
What is the rabbits name?
Her sister S
arah stood
Jasper on her hips. behind her
I hope yo with her h
me in fron ure not go ands
t of my new ing to emb
boyfriend. arrass
Where did Alex find Is whats
his name st
Alex turne ill coming
the carrots? d off the ta to tea?
p.
His name
s Jasper an
in the sink d dont you
forget it.

in the vegetable basket
in a bowl we dont know

Who is Sarah?

Alexs sister Jaspers sister a friend coming to tea we dont know

Who is coming to tea?



Alexs friend a rabbit someone called Jasper we dont know

P5b
Find the words in the passage that show that:

Alex is a girl and not a boy: She rinsed / she followed / her fingers/ her sister

Alex is in a good mood: Alex chuckled / Were going to have fun tonight.

Alex keeps her rabbits bowl clean: She rinsed the rabbit bowl out

Sarah suspects that Alex may be planning something: I hope youre not going to
embarrass me in front of my new boyfriend.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P5c EXAMPLE
Now use your imagination! Continue the conversation for a few lines:
Oh, do you know if he likes carrots? giggled Alex, trying to look innocent.
Very funny! You dont have to come to tea you know, her sister retorted.
I wouldnt miss it for the world.
EXAMPLE
What do you think Alex might do to embarrass Sarah?
This is what I think happened: Alex was very nice to Jasper at the
beginning so that her sister stopped being suspicious. Then when she
went to get the dessert, she brought his portion back in the rabbits bowl.
We thought youd like your own special bowl, she said. Her sister was
furious but was too embarrassed to tell her boyfriend the truth.

Be your own editor!


P6a
Make your work more
This sentence is very boring: The man walked
interesting to read.
along the street.

Improve it by adding some adjectives and adverbs,


e.g. The tired old man walked slowly along the long dark street.
Now you try.
Write three versions adding different adjectives and adverbs each time.
EXAMPLE The excited young man walked briskly down the sunlit street.
rs
Top write
interesting The very tall man walked awkwardly down the crowded street.
use
d
words an
avoid
.
repetition The short angry man walked furiously along the totally empty
street.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P6b
Hi Joe! Were having a
good time
Rewrite Henrys postcard using more vivid, here and the weathers
very good
descriptive words than good, nice and fun. too though the food isnt so
nice.
Yes
EXAMPLE the terday we had a fun day on
bea ch and then we went to
etition an outdoor
Avoid rep Hi Joe! Were having the most concert it was fun too
! Hope youre
his
and make having a nice time. See
you soon.
u nd amazing time here and the
holiday so Henry
a lot more
exciting! weathers been perfect nearly every
day. Unfortunately the food isnt
very tasty! Yesterday we had a great
time on the beach and went to a
spectacular outdoor concert. Hope
youre enjoying your holiday too.
Henry.

P6c Dear Diary,


y.
Yesterday was a long da
Rewrite this diary entry without using went once and I went to school as usual.
combine some sentences using before, after, etc. Then I went to Sarahs
th
house for tea and we bo
went to our gym club.
Dear Diary. I went back to her house
EXAMPLE n
Yesterday was a long day. Of course I had to play for a bit and the
I went home. I went to
school as usual then, after tea at Sarahs bed when I got home an
d
htawa y.
house, we got fit at gym club. We played went to sleep straig

at her house before I had to go home. As Can you


believe
that the
word
soon as I got into bed I fell asleep went app
ears
seven tim
es!
straightaway!

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Answers: Literacy 5

Direct and reported


speech P7a
Look at these sentences and draw a line to show if
Direct speech is the exact they are reported or direct speech:
words a person says. It is
written in speech marks or Chloe told me that she
in speech bubbles. went to a party yesterday. Reported
speech
The team I won the dancing
is in great competition, said Liam.
shape for
todays Sheri said I was the Direct
match! best dancer. speech

Reported speech is when You were brilliant, Fabio yelled.


you report to others what
somebody else has said. Look in a book for an example of direct speech
and write it out:
The captain E
said his VARIABL
team was
in great
shape for
the match.

P7b
Im going swimmin
Chloe, Sheri and Lisa are talking. g, Chloe said.
What did Lisa tell Fabio? Can I come with yo
u? asked Sheri.
Use reported speech: If you like, Chloe
replied.
EXAMPLE
Oh Lisa, said Sher
Lisa told Fabio that i, Im supposed
to be meeting Fabio
Sheri could not meet him . Can you tell him
where Ive gone? Ple
ase say Ill see him
later at about 6:30.
because she was going
swimming with Chloe, and that
Sheri would see Fabio later, at
about 6:30.

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Practising Language 7c and 8a


Answers: Literacy 5

P7c
This is reported speech. What do you think was actually said?
EXAMPLE
Mrs Butler asked for Liams homework.
May I have your homework, Liam?

Liam told her hed lost his homework book.


Ive lost my homework book, Mrs Butler.

Sheri said she had found Liams homework book in the playground.
Ive found Liams homework book in the playground.

Commas
P8a
Commas may be small, EXAMPLE
Commas are used when making lists.
but they play an important
part in making sentences What would you take on a camping holiday if
clear and easy to you only had room in your bag for ten things?
understand.
Id take a sleeping bag, a toothbrush,
toothpaste, my pyjamas, a clean
T-shirt, clean underwear, my teddy
bear, a pillow, a torch and a book.

R O Y G B I V
The colours of the rainbow
are red, orange, yellow,
green, blue, indigo and violet.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P8b
Commas are also used to break up a long sentence to make it easier to read.
Put a tick if the commas are correct and a cross if not.
Write out the wrong sentences correctly.

My dog chased a cat across the road, yesterday.

Maria who, was on her bicycle swerved, to avoid them.

Unfortunately when Maria fell off, her bicycle she broke her ankle 
so she could not play, in the football match.

Mrs Jacob, the football coach, was very disappointed and told me 
I must keep my dog on a lead.

My dog chased a cat across the road yesterday.


Maria, who was on her bicycle, swerved to avoid them.
Unfortunately, when Maria fell off her bicycle she broke her ankle, so
she could not play in the football match.

P8c
Using a different colour, put in the commas, full stops and capital letters.
.H
Jermaine wanted to go on a picnic . he packed a roll , a drink , an
l to
Be carefu
put com m as apple and some crisps in his lunch box and set off to the park .
ce ssary .T .T
when ne O
to use
but not oh no, Jermaine cried. the sky was black. there was a loud
a w hen
a comm .L
you nee d
. crash and it started to rain . lightning zipped through the sky.
a full stop W
without stopping, Jermaine ran back home and ate his picnic in
.N
the kitchen . next time he is planning to listen to the weather forecast .

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Answers: Literacy 5

Become a proof-reader!
P9a
Proof-read your work to
see if there are any mistakes. Read this passage carefully and underline
Then correct them before you the spelling mistakes.
give your work to anyone else
to read. Sophie woke withe a start, opened her eyes and sawe

a mouse two centemetres frome her ear, trying too

dig a hole in her pilow. She jumped up and the mose

leapt from the bed and scurried awy, disapearing under

the dor into the hall.

Now write the words correctly below:


with saw
centimetres from
to pillow
movie away
disappearing door

P9b
Using two
Watch out for double negatives! negatives
One word meaning no or not is enough in one sentence. can be
confusing!
Re-write these sentences correctly:
EXAMPLE I didnt have any, or, I had none.
I didnt have none.
We never saw anything
We never saw nothing.
I havent any money.
I havent got no money.
This isnt any good, or, This is no good.
This isnt no good.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P9c
This passage contains five words that are not used correctly.
Put a line under them and write out the correct versions.

was
s soapy with bubbles.
Joshua were at the sink, his arm those
nted to the pile of dirty
Pass me them plates. He poi
ire picked up a plate, broken
plates on the draining board. Cla
smashed. The only
the pile toppled to the floor and did
Claires hand. Mum
plate not broke was the one in saw
her , Joshua yelled.
rushed in. She done it, I seen

Read all about it! Footprints


in the Sand
P10a I turned the collar up
on my jacket
to cover my ears and
breathed in the
Where is Phil? cool sea air. I licked
the salt from my
On the beach lips as I glanced over
my shoulder.
My solitary footprin
ts disappeared
Whose footprints does he see in the sand? into the distance. I he
ard a voice in
His own the distance. Phil!
I groaned, why
did my sister have to
follow me
Who is calling him and is he pleased here? I needed time
to think about
to see them? what Mum had said
about moving.
His sister. He is not It was then I spotted
it the most
beautiful thing Id ev
er seen.
pleased to see her.

What is Phil wearing?


A jacket

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Answers: Literacy 5

P10b EXAMPLE
Find and copy out the words or expressions that show us that:
Phil was walking beside the sea: the cool sea air / I licked the salt from my lips.
Phil had walked a long way: my solitary footprints disappeared into the distance.
Phil was worried about something: I needed time to think.

Phil was probably going to live somewhere else:


what Mum had said about moving.

P10c EXAMPLE
Try to get
Why do you think Phils sister might have followed him? inds
into the m
Phils sister might have wanted to talk to him about of the
.
characters
moving as she might have been upset about it.

What do you think Phil might have found on the beach?


Suggest several possibilities.
Phil might have found an injured seabird or a beautiful shell or
something amazing that the tide had washed in.
Describe briefly what you think happened next.
There at my feet was a small statue of a woman lying on its side just at
the waters edge. I bent down to pick it up and brush off the wet sand. It
was surprisingly heavy and of a dull gold colour.
What did you find, Phil?
My sister caught up with me and peered at the statue. Is it gold?
Maybe. I said. I was thinking fast. If the statue was valuable, it could be
the answer to all our problems. If we could raise enough money, we would
be able to stay in our house. Dont tell anyone, I said. Not yet.

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Answers: Literacy 5

Dialogue
P11a EXAMPLE
Many of us never stop talking...
Remember the six steps and write out this dialogue:
or at least thats how it seems!
Dialogue is the conversation Whats for lunch Toby asked. Burgers and chips said Sanji.
between characters in a book, Yuk Toby replied I hate chips. Theyre my favourite Sanji said.
film or play. I prefer beans and carrots Toby responded.
When you
Theyre healthier and they taste good. gue,
Remember the six steps: write dialo
1. Start a new line be sure to
2. Open speech marks ( ) Whats for lunch? Toby asked. set it out
3. Start with a capital letter correctly.
4. Insert punctuation ( , . ! ? )
Burgers and chips, said Sanji.
5. Close speech marks ( ) Yuk! Toby replied, I hate chips.
6. Add said, cried, etc. to
show who is speaking Theyre my favourite, Sanji said.
and end with a full stop.
I prefer beans and carrots, Toby
responded. Theyre healthier and they
taste good.

P11b EXAMPLE
Write an answer each time to make a short conversation. Make sure
e
you put th
tua tio n
Why do you want a mobile phone? asked Mum. punc
e co rrect
Id like to be able to text my friends, I said. It would make me in th
place.
safer too as we could contact each other whenever we needed to.

Help! the old lady cried. That dog has stolen my handbag.
Dont worry, I shouted. Im a fast runner and Ill catch it. I hoped I
was right as the dog was a fast runner too.

Where shall we go for our class outing? asked the teacher.


To the air show! I said immediately, and many other boys agreed
with me, but the girls werent so keen. Typical.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P11c EXAMPLE SHERI:


I cant find
JACOB: my pencil.
Set out this play script as dialogue. Where did
SHERI: you see it la
I had it in li st?
MR ROBE teracy.
RT: No whispe
I cant find my pencil, JACOB: ring during
the test.
Here. I hav
e a spare o
complained Sheri. ne.

Where did you see it last? asked Jacob.


I had it in literacy, replied Sheri.
No whispering during the test! announced Mr Robert sternly.
Here. I have a spare one, whispered Jacob kindly.

Writing in the 1st under my bed.


I se ar ched frantically
or 3rd person P12a ok had to be here
My homework bo me
d it when I got ho
Every story is written from a
Change this somewhere. I ha
here could I have
certain point of view.
passage written from school so w
ep breath to calm
in the 1st person put it? I took a de ain.
First (1st) person is written to the 3rd person. under my bed ag
down and looked the
from the point of view of I. tried to think of
Start with: It wasnt there. I
it.
Third (3rd) person is Alex searched last place Id seen Remember
when you use a persons you do
name, she, he or it.
frantically under n ot always
need
to use the
name,
his bed. His homework book had to you can u
se
he or she
be here somewhere. Hed had it when .

he got home from school so where could he


have put it? Alex took a deep breath to calm
down and looked under his bed again. It
They took My stomach wasnt there. He tried to think of the last
their marks. was churning,
Joe looked my heart was place hed seen it.
prepared, cool racing, Where
and confident. would I finish?
EXAMPLE

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Answers: Literacy 5

P12b EXAMPLE e mirror


s reflection in th
Fabio stares at hi his hair.
Re-write this passage changing fingers through
and brushes his s comb.
to the 1st person.
is hand sh ak es as he picks up hi
H y.
I stare at my reflection in the mirror to go to her part
He doesnt want
and brush my fingers through my Remembe
r th
are differe ere
nt
hair. My hand shakes as I pick up my comb. I dont want kinds of w
ords
you have
to go to her party. to change
.

What type of non-fiction book is written in the 1st person?


An autobiography

P12c EXAMPLE
Think of an advantage and a disadvantage for writing in the
1st and 3rd person and fill in the table below:

Advantages Disadvantages
Its exciting to read and it It is restrictive as that
Writing in the person has to describe
feels more real.
1st person
everything.

You can tell the story You may not identify so


Writing in the using everybodys much with the main
3rd person
viewpoint. character.

Which do you prefer and why? EXAMPLE


I like writing in the first person because you can
describe feelings really well.

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Answers: Literacy 5

Imperatives
P13a
Look around you.There are signs
everywhere telling you what to What do these imperative signs mean
do and what not to do. and where might you see them?

Where you
Sign What it means
might find it
MIND Standback when train, bus
THE
DOORS doors close
Dont come in Private property
KEEP
OUT

They usually use the CROSS Cross the road at On a pavement in


imperative form of the verb. HERE
this point. a busy street.

Write a sign for these situations:


A shop has lots of fragile objects on display. Do not touch
The park warden wants to explain dogs must be kept on a lead.
Dogs must be on a lead.

P13b
EXAMPLE
Write some rules for going on a school trip to the wildlife park. They should tell
everyone what they can and cant do, e.g. Bring a packed lunch. Dont feed the animals.
Stay with the group at all times.
Ask the teacher if you need to go to the toilet.
Dont go off alone.
Dont bring more than 3 to spend.
Make sure you have a waterproof jacket in case it rains.
Dont put your hand in any of the cages.
Dont bang on the glass as it upsets the animals.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P13c EXAMPLE
Using the imperative can sometimes sound rude, e.g. Give me that is not as
polite as Please may I have the book?.
Make these sound more polite:
Give me a tray. Hold that.
Please could you give me a tray? Could you hold that for me, please?

Dont sit there. Keep quiet.


May I ask you not to sit there? Would you please keep quiet?

Negative imperatives (Dont...) are often used as warnings.


Write warning signs for these situations:
The ice on the lake is thin, so it is This wall has just been painted and it
dangerous to skate here. is not yet dry.
No skating Wet paint

Homophones
P14a
Watch out! Homophones
sound the same, but they have Write a homophone for each of these words:
different meanings and spelling. sun son right Write
grate great pane pain
tale tail would wood
eight ate seen scene

Put a circle around the correct homophone in


these sentences:
Daniel went to the shop to by, buy, bye some sweets.
The cat ran across the rowed, rode, road and disappeared
Is the dragon afraid of the into the trees.
night or the knight?!

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Answers: Literacy 5

P14b
Choose the correct words from the box to complete these sentences.
Each sentence contains a pair of homophones.

your prince hole allowed prints blue youre aloud whole blew

You are not allowed to shout aloud in these mountains,


said the guide. It could cause an avalanche.
Youre going to get chocolate cake for your pudding,
promised Mum.
The hole made by the maggot went through the whole apple.
The wind blew the blue dress off the washing line
and onto the roof.
The royal prince left his foot prints in the mud.

Write one sentence using all three of these homophones correctly: to two too
EXAMPLE
I went out to buy two litres of milk and bought some chocolate too.

P14c Poppy h
ad no id
to were ea wha
to there t she w
Sally has written a story about going to a party. T as goin
instruct g
ions on heir we
party but she has confused her homophones. her. She th e invita re n o
wood r tion to
in g help
Underline the mistakes and rewrite the she was Suzy to
going tw here wh
passage correctly so that it makes sense. o wher at
e.

Poppy had no idea what she was going to wear


to their party. There were no instructions on the
invitation to help her. She would ring Suzy to hear what
she was going to wear.

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Answers: Literacy 5

Read all about it !


Read carefully to make sure
you understand this important
information and advice. FUN IN THE SUN
Stay safe while h
aving fun in the
P15a sun
Follow this hand
y check-list of d
What advice is given about dont s to make os and
sure the whole fa
sun cream? has a great time mily
on the beach.
Use a suncream that gives
DO:
maximum protection and apply it  always use a sun cream
protection agains offering maximum
t the suns rays.
frequently and especially after  re-apply sun lotion freq
after swimming. uently, especially
you have been swimming.
 wear a sun hat.
What advice is given about  drink plenty of water w
hen its hot.
going in the sea?
DONT:
Dont dive in the water near  stay out in the sun at
the hottest
rocks or swim when the sea is part of the day (1
1am to 3pm).
 dive in the water ne
very rough. ar rocks.
 swim when the sea
is very rough.
When is the sun at its hottest?  take a lot of money
and valuable
items to the beac
Its hottest in the middle of the h.
Family holidays
day, between 11 am and 3 pm. are a special tim
dont let anythin e
g spoil them!
P15b EXAMPLE
Why do you think you need to drink a lot of water in the heat?
You need to drink water to stop yourself getting dehydrated.

What might happen if you took a lot of money and valuables to the beach?
You might lose valuables on the beach or have them stolen.

Which two words mean sunscreen?


Sun cream and sun lotion.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P15c
Think of some more advice you could add to the Do section.
Be careful not to tread on anything dangerous like glass.
Tell the rest of the family when you go swimming or go for a walk.
Cover up when the sun is at its hottest.

Add some more advice to the Dont section.


Don't drop litter on the beach.
Don't have your music on too loudly.
Don't float out to sea on a lilo or rubber boat.

Why is a family holiday a special time in your opinion?


A family holiday is special because the family can be together and
everyone has time to relax and have fun without the pressures of work or
school. Holidays give us lots of good memories.

Be your own editor!


My grandmother
works in a shop.
spends time gard She also
P16a ening and has a
garden with
lots of flowers. Sh
e loves animals an
This description is not very inspiring. two dogs that sh d has
e takes for walks
My grandmother every day.
Your job is to rewrite it to give a much and I both like fil
often go to the ci ms so we
more vivid and interesting picture of the nema. Shes grea
t and I love
grandmother. Make her sound more real. her very much.
Use your
What sort of shop could it be? imaginatio
n
to fill in
A cake shop with delicious gingerbread men! the detail
s.
What breed of dog and what kind of walks? She has two cocker
spaniels which she takes on long muddy walks in the forest.
What sort of films do you imagine the grandmother likes?
Romantic comedy films and cartoon films.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P16b EXAMPLE Add intere


sting
detail an
d try
To get your readers interest, you need a title and first sentence writing lo
nger
and more
that make someone want to read on about the grandmother. varied
sentences
Suggest a title: A Portrait of my Grandmother. .

Write a new first sentence: One of my best friends is my grandmother.

The last sentence will stay in the readers mind and can often
be used to sum up.Add a final sentence of your own:
Im very lucky to be her grandchild.

P16c
EXAMPLE
Use all your answers to write a much more interesting description of the
grandmother. Remember details, title and new first and last sentences.
A Portrait of my Grandmother.
One of my best friends is my grandmother who works in a cake
every
Starting
sentence
with shop with delicious gingerbread men!! Her garden is tiny and
ther or
grandmo filled with flowers of every kind and every colour she loves
e ry
she is v
boring! spending time there. Her two cocker spaniels go on long muddy
walks in the forest with my grandmother every day. We both
enjoy romantic comedy, films and cartoon films, so we often go
to the cinema together. Shes great, I love her very much and Im
very lucky to be her grandchild.

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Answers: Literacy 5

Suffixes
P17a
Suffixes can be magic too!
Add them and change a word The suffix -cian is often used for
into another word. Be careful jobs and occupations. Match the
not to confuse endings like: right person to the problem.

We need a drummer optician


for the band.

The lights have all gone off. magician

I need some new glasses.


musician
We need someone to vote
for in the election. electrician

We need someone to
politician
perform tricks at the party.

Sometime
s these
Physician is an old fashioned word. Find a modern equivalent. sorts of w
ords
sound the
doctor, consultant same, so
be carefu
l!
P17b
The suffix -sion is usually used to make a verb into a noun, e.g. comprehend
changes to comprehension. Add the suffix -sion to these words:

explode explosion express expression


add
When you ion
ix -s
the suff collide collision confuse confusion
to
you have e of
e s om
remov
the e nd le tters decide decision discuss discussion
from the
root word
.
extend extension divide division

Choose two of the nouns and use them in a sentence:


There was great confusion after the collision as no one
EXAMPLE
knew what had caused it.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P17c
Many nouns especially abstract ones end in -tion.

Use the clues A D D I T I O N


to fill in the I N V E S T I G A T I O N
-tion words.
P R O T E C T I O N
The opposite of C O M P E T I T I O N
subtraction is
. E D U C A T I O N
P O L L U T I O N
The police conducted
an into I N S P E C T I O N
the stolen hamster.
I N T R O D U C T I O N
Choose a strong
C O N V E R S A T I O N
suntan lotion
to give maximum
from the suns rays.
The in the river killed all the fish.
The school got good results in their .
She won first prize in the tap
dancing . A good piece of writing needs an interesting .
It is important for all children Josh and Bill had an interesting about
to get a good . Englands chances in the World Cup.

Antonyms
P18a EXAMPLE
If you want to say the opposite,
use an antonym. Write an antonym for these adverbs and adjectives:
slowly quickly rough smooth
early late soft hard
before after loudly quietly
dull shiny bitter sweet

Re-write these sentences. Replace the words in red with an antonym.


Joe went over the gate. Get off the wall, yelled Ahmed.
under on whispered

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Answers: Literacy 5

P18b
Some words can have more than one antonym depending on the meaning,
e.g. wrong and left are both antonyms of right.

Find two antonyms for the word old:


young new

Use each antonym in a sentence:


The young boy ran down the street.
EXAMPLE
Laura got a new teddy bear for Christmas.

Find two antonyms for the word hard:


soft easy

Use each antonym in a sentence:


That spelling test was easy!
The rabbits fur was really soft.

P18c
You can use prefixes to change words to their antonym.

Write antonyms for these words using one of the prefixes from the box.

un- non- dis- mis- im-

behave misbehave appear disappear


known unknown perfect imperfect
obedient disobedient happy unhappy
patient impatient lead mislead
sense nonsense possible impossible

You can also change words to their antonym by changing the suffix,
e.g. careful changes to careless. Write the antonyms for these words:
useful useless hopeless hopeful

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Become a proof-reader!
P19a
Proof-read your work to
Put ^ where something is missing and
see if there are any mistakes.
then write it in neatly.
Then correct them before you
give your work to anyone else in
The sun shone through crack in the curtain.
to read.
off
David stirred, blinked and dragged his heavy head
he
the pillow. But even before remembered what
it
day was, he was filled with an odd excitement.

It was of course a very important day: the


When we
his wri
fast, it ca te
first day at new school. easy to
n be
miss out
words.

Now cross out neatly any words that shouldnt be there.

The bus jolted to to a stop and the other children they started to get off. This must

have be it my new school. Things were so happening too fast. I felt I was in a a dream.

It wasnt that I didnt very want to go to school. It was just so new.

P19b
EXAMPLE Sometime
s words
with simil
Put a tick if the Write your own rhyming words for: ar
spelling c
an
words rhyme and a sound ve
ry
cross if they dont. plough now, cow, bough . . . different.

plough no  though owe, know . . .


though glow 
bought taught, caught . . .
bought ought 
cough path, toff . . .
cough tough 
 through threw, mew . . .
through glue
rough puff  rough ruff, muff . . .

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P19c
Read this passage carefully and underline the spelling mistakes.

I was exited and couldnt deside what to do first. I was carefull to find the exact spot

where I could see the large sircus tent beeing put up. The colourfull clowns pretended

they where going to have an accedent as they tuged on the ropes.

Now write the words correctly:


excited decide careful
circus being colourful
were accident tugged

Read all about it !


Chloe felt the en
Look out for how the author velope. She whe
mum and held it eled over to her
helps us to understand things out to her.
without actually saying them. You open it for
me, Mum, she w
eyes pleading. M hispered, her
um shook her he
ad.
Chloe slowly op
ened the envelope
Ive won! Ive w and gasped.
on first prize. Th
P20a She spun her whe ey liked my story.
elchair around. Te
down her cheeks ars trickled
What is Chloe holding? . Disney World,
here I come.
Well done. Mum
An envelope. smiled. Dont fo
me a postcard. rget to send

Why did Chloe wheel


over to her mum?
Because she is in a wheel chair.
What prize has Chloe won?
A trip to Disney World.
What had Chloe done to win the prize?
She had written a story.

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P20b EXAMPLE
Why do you think Chloe didnt want to open the envelope at first?
She is scared of whats inside and find out whether Think abo
ut
the chara what
cters
or not she had won. would be
feeling.
Why do you think Chloe is crying?
Because she thought Chloe should open the envelope.

How do we know that Chloes mum isnt going with her?


Because she tells Chloe to send her a postcard. The trip to Disney World
could just be for children who won the competition and not their parents.

P20c
Write the postcard Chloe sent to her mum from Disney World.

Dear Mum
EXAMPLE
This really is The Magic Kingdom!
The other prize winners are really
friendly. Tomorrow we're going to
The Animal Kingdom and I'll take
hundreds of photos to show you
when I get home.
I've already got an idea for a new
story...so who knows what I may
win in the future? Maybe you'll be
able to come with me next time.

Lots of love, Chloe

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Answers: Literacy 5

Onomatopoeia
P21a
Cartoonists and poets love
onomatopoeia . . . and so Match the animal with the sound it makes:
should you.
mouse woof
These words sound like the
noise they are describing, so dog quack
can really make your writing cow baa
come alive.
cat moo
sheep hiss
duck miaow
snake squeak

Add a few more animal sounds: EXAMPLE


An owl hoots. A lion roars.
A bird tweets. A horse neighs.

P21b EXAMPLE
Name two things that make these sounds:

splash a running bath someone diving into water.

bang a firework a ballon bursting

pop popcorn! bubble gum bursting

ping a microwave a door bell

Fill in the missing onomatopoeic word from the selection:

hooted rattled chimed thud whistled

The wind whistled around the house and the windows


rattled . The clock chimed midnight. Joe jumped
in his chair and his book fell to the ground with a thud . Outside an
owl hooted and flew away.

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P21c EXAMPLE
See if you can learn to spell onomatopoeia it would be very impressive!
Then use it in a sentence:
Onomatopoeia is when words sound like the noise they describe.

EXAMPLE
Invent some of your own onomatopoeic words, e.g. an elastic band goes kaboing.
Motorbike: huum brumm
the
Think of
soun ds m ade Phone: tring tring
,
by a train Ball bouncing: boing boinngg
or even
traffic
a mobile A drum: doof doof duff
phone.

Words from other


languages and prefixes P22a
English has borrowed a lot of words from other
Increase your word power
languages. Did you know that bungalow is originally
by understanding prefixes
an Indian word?
and words from other
languages that have Which countries do you think these words come from?
come into English.
spaghetti pasta lasagna Italy

boutique caf croissant France

chapatis sari tandoori India


USA
kindergarten
trash sidewalk gasoline

Write down four other borrowed words: EXAMPLE

siesta graffiti

Spanish: tapas, macho


hummus
Australia: barbie

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Answers: Literacy 5

P22b
There are several prefixes that can sometimes mean not and can change
the meaning of a word to its antonym.
List the prefixes that are added in these examples:
perfect / imperfect im- formal / informal in-

regular / irregular ir- legal / illegal il-

Work out the missing words. The anagram will help you.

I cant read your writing, its illegible , said the teacher. E G I B I L L E L

Jason made a chocolate cake, but forgot to put in the flour, so the cake was
inedible . DIBINELE

Gemma was so impatient that she stormed out


of the shop rather than wait in the queue to pay. M I P A T T I N E

P22c
Pro- is a prefix that has several different meanings. One meaning is in favour of,
e.g. Susan and her family are very pro-conservation.
The opposite is anti-, e.g. There is an anti-war march in London next weekend.
Complete this sentence to show your views:
M PLE
EXA Im pro- GM foods but anti- bullying

Fill in the gaps to make seven words beginning with PRO-.

P R O N O U N Instead of a noun.
P R O V E R B A short saying.
P R O M I S E Saying you will definitely do something.
P R O B L E M Something that causes difficulties.
P R O T E C T Keep someone or something safe.
P R O J E C T Planned piece of work taking several weeks.
P R O M O T E To give somebody a better job.

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Answers: Literacy 5

Alphabetical order
P23a
Lots of information sources use
Put these names in alphabetical order:
alphabetical order, so its
important to be able to use it Matthew, Coral, Sophie, James, Louise, Ryan
ourselves to find what we are Coral, James, Louise, Matthew, Ryan, Sophie
looking for.

Put these sports in alphabetical order:


tennis, basketball, football, swimming, cricket, golf
basketball, cricket, football, golf, swimming,
tennis

When words begin with the same letter, you must look at the second letter.
Sort these creatures into alphabetical order:
butterfly, blackbird, bison, bear, badger
badger, bear, bison, blackbird, butterfly
cheetah, cat, cow, crocodile, cuckoo, centipede
cat, centipede, cheetah, cow, crocodile, cuckoo

P23b
Put these words in alphabetical order:
diagonal, diameter, diary, diamond, diabetes, dialogue
diabetes, diagonal, dialogue, diameter, diamond, diary

practise, practicability, practicable, practice, practical


practicability, practicable, practical, practice, practise

Use alphabetical order to help you find the missing word


which comes between the other two:
chalk cheat cheese clue: to be dishonest

dolphin dragon duck clue: mythical monster

dwarf eagle elf clue: bird of prey

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P23c
Think of a silly sentence where all the words begin with the same letter,
e.g. Romans run races really rather rapidly.
EXAMPLE Timmy the tiger thinks then takes two tasty tangerines.

Now put the words from your sentence in alphabetical order.


Takes, tangerines, tasty, the, then, thinks, tiger, Timmy, two.

When is alphabetical order used? Try to think of as many examples as you can.
In a register. In an encyclopaedia. In a CD shop. In a book shop.
In a library.

Prepositions
P24a
Prepositions are small words,
but we couldnt make much Underline all the prepositions in each sentence:
sense without them.
I looked through the telescope at the comet.
They give information about
time, e.g. at/on; position, e.g. The plate fell on the floor and smashed into many pieces.
in/or; and direction, e.g. to/from.
The kite was stuck up a tree but the wind blew it down.

We got home at ten oclock and went to bed.

Heres and heres


a box a monkey.


Where could the monkey be? Use prepositions to answer, e.g. the monkey is beside the box.
EXAMPLE The monkey is opposite the box
The monkey is above a box. . .

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P24b EXAMPLE
Supply two suitable prepositions for each sentence so it still makes sense.
The first has been done for you.

The book was under on the sofa.

The boy rowed around across the lake.

The cat sat beside opposite the flowers.

The fire engine drove towards to the fire.

Correct You are invited to


this party You are invited to attend attend
a superhero gathering: a superhero gather
ing:
invitation:
until the bowling alley at
in 4pm the bowling alley
on 6pm from
4pm
at Saturday 21st May
until
6pm
on
Saturday 21st May
P24c
EXAMPLE
Explain the difference in meaning between these sentences:
I was laughing with my friends. I was laughing at my friends.
With you and your friends are all laughing together.
At you are laughing because your friends have done something funny.

She threw the ball to Tommy. She threw the ball at Tommy.
To she expected Tommy to catch the ball.
At she was being aggressive and the ball may hit Tommy.

Write a sentence using three different prepositions.


I went to the cinema with my friend and we sat right at the front.

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Read all about it !


P25a
Think about what you
understand from this short List the
passage as well as what is words that
actually said. tell you A Day in Be
that: d
I wish I co
uld go with
mumbled. them, Am
Its not fair it
! Everyone
Amit is in bed. the pillow / he pulled else from m
y class is g
stuck here oing and I
at home. m
the covers over his head Amits mum
dabbed on
lotion. Im the calamin
Amit is not well. sorry, you e
cant go ba know you
ck until ne
his head throbbed / the tiny red Its not fair xt Tuesday
on the rest .
of the class
He bit his li .
bumps all over his body itched p and slum
p e d back on
the pillow.
His head th
the tiny red robbed and
Amit is not happy. bumps all o
body itched ver his
. He
It's not fair! / I'm stuck here / see the anim d wanted to
als. He pull
covers ove ed the
r his head a
he bit his lip / shut his eyes his eyes. T
hen he had
nd shut
an idea.

P25b EXAMPLE
Explain why Amit isnt just missing a normal school day.
How do you know?
Everyone from his class is going and he'd wanted to see the
r the
Remembe
animals so it must be a class outing to the zoo. reader ha s to
do som e
Both Amit and his mother say Its not fair, but they are
work too!
referring to different things.

Amit thinks its not fair because


Amit thinks it's not fair that he should have to miss the class trip to the
zoo because he's not well that day.

Amits mum thinks its not fair because


Amit's mother thinks it's not fair to go back to school when he's ill as he
could still be contagious and could pass on his illness to others.

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P25c
The passage ends with Then he had an idea. What do you think this could be?
Amit remembered that it was his birthday soon and his Mum had
EXAMPLE said he could invite some friends out for the day. They wouldnt
want to go to the zoo again, but what about a safari park? That
would be even better than the zoo! Mum, he said, If Im very
good and don't complain any more, can we talk about my
birthday treat?

Be your own editor!


Here are some instructions
You need to speak
and advice for children who clearly in assembl
You also need to sp y.
are going to speak in public eak loudly enough
in their school assembly. that everyone can so
hear you. People
the back need to at
Make these instructions really hear too. You don
need to be nervou t
useful by improving the content s. People want to
what you have to hear
and layout. say. You should th
about what to sa ink
y first. You can m
some notes but do ak e
nt just read them
out.
P26a EXAMPLE That will be borin
g. You should stan
straight and look d up
A text needs a title to explain what at everyone, but no
at anyone in part t
its about. Suggest two different titles icular. You should
speak too fast eith nt
and tick the one you prefer. er. Practise at hom
in front of a mirror e
first if you like.
Tips on public speaking

How to speak in assembly ut makes


Good layo
ng even
good writi
Underline the main points of the text on the clipboard. better!

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P26b EXAMPLE
The imperative form of the verb is often used for instructions and advice, e.g. Stand
up straight. Dont look at anyone in particular. This makes the text shorter and clearer.
Divide the advice into DOs (what you should do) and DONTs (what you should
not do). List here in note form:
DOs Speak clearly. DONTs Dont be nervous.
Speak loudly. Dont just read your notes.
Think about what to say. Dont look at anyone in
Make notes. particular.
Stand up straight. Dont speak too fast.
Look at everyone.

P26c
EXAMPLE
These instructions
are going to be on TIPS ON PUBLIC SPEAKING
your class notice
board. PREPARATION
Make notes including everything you want to say.
Use bullets and
headings to make Practise at home in front of a mirror.
the important
points stand out SPEAKING
e.g. Preparation,
Presentation, etc. Speak clearly, loudly and slowly.

Use all your PRESENTATION Remember!


answers to write Stand up straight.
a much clearer
set of instructions. Dont be nervous.
Concentrate on Look at everyone, but not at anyone in particular.
title, layout, better
order and shorter People want to hear what you have to say!
sentences.

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Apostrophes P27a
Apostrophes for Possession Match the animal with its correct feature
can make a difference so be using arrows.
careful where you put them!
snake feathers
bear stripes
lion pouch
tiger skin
The girls ice creams. crow mane
kangaroo fur

Now write a short sentence showing what


belongs to which animal using an apostrophe,
e.g. The snakes skin was a bright green.
The girls ice creams. The snakes skin was scaly and cold.
The bears fur was thick to keep him warm in winter.
The lions mane shone golden in the sunshine.
EXAMPLE
The tigers stripes helped him be camouflaged in the grass.
The crows feathers were wet from the rain.
The kangaroos pouch was home to a baby joey.

P27b
There are six apostrophes missing from this story. Underline the words you
think need one.

The Vol-k-No concert was fantastic. The lead singers hair was bright green and I liked both
the female guitarists jackets. The drummers nose-studs kept flashing in time to the music.
The bands latest single was great. But, my favourite song is still Turning Points. The groups
album is out next week. The CD cover is going to have a picture of last nights concert on
the front. They took some photographs of me.

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P27c
Look carefully at the position of the apostrophe and answer the question:
The dancers shoes. Were there several dancers or just one?
one dancer

The footballers trophies. Were there several footballers, several trophies or several
of both?
several of both
Whats the difference in meaning between these two sentences?
The girls mother arrived on a pink bicycle. The girls mother arrived on a pink bicycle.
In the first sentence, the mother has more than one daughter.

Connectives
Jane likes cats an
Write longer and more d her sister love
s dogs
interesting sentences using but they cant ha
ve any pets beca
connectives. use
their mother refu
ses to look after
them.

P28a
Draw a line to match a beginning, a connective and an ending to make a sentence.

Beginning Connective Ending

Rover is big while so easy to cook.


Jane went to the Tower of London since would you like a stereo?
Wait there because I tie up my shoelace.
Ive not been late or I got a new watch.
Would you like a mobile phone before he is not vicious.
Jack was late and he missed the bus.
Pasta is tasty but she went to St Pauls.

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Answers: Literacy 5

P28b EXAMPLE
Complete these sentences:
I cant go shopping unless I have finished all my homework.

I cant go shopping until Saturday because then there is no school.

I cant go shopping because I dont have any money.

I cant go shopping if I dont wash the car to earn some money.

I cant go shopping so Ill go to the cinema instead.

P28c EXAMPLE
Use two or more connectives to combine these three short sentences
into a complex sentence.
It was hot. I went indoors. I had a drink.
It was hot so I went indoors and had a drink.

Our school is having a karaoke evening. I cant sing. I have a sore throat.
Our school is having a karaoke evening but I cant sing because I have
a sore throat.
We missed the bus. We ran to school. We were late.
We missed the bus so we ran to school but we were late.

I saw a monster. I ran down the street. There was a loud bang.
I saw a monster as I ran down the street, then there was a loud bang.

PSHB 2005 AL5d Page 43


69490 LIT 5:55783 Lit 5 30/7/07 10:13 Page 44

Answers: Literacy 5

Become a proof-reader!
P29a
Proof-read your work to
see if there are any mistakes. These sentences contain some onomatopoeic
Then correct them before words (in green) but they are not quite right.
you give your work to anyone Write a better word for each one.
else to read. The microwave went bang when it finished re-heating
Jacks dinner. ping

There was a big clash when Isobel jumped in the


puddle. splash

At the farm, Jed liked the way the ducks squeaked


and the sheep went moo.
quack baa

The car whooshed down the track and the horn went thud, thud.
zoomed beep, beep

In the woods, the wind dripped in the trees and dry leaves crashed underfoot.
whistled scrunched

P29b
Read this passage carefully and underline the spelling mistakes.
Then write the words correctly.
shuttle
thousands
Earth.
bite d the space shutle around
Major Tom or straight
nds of meteors
e w at ch ed in horror as thiusa
H gs
yed his finddin findings
stra gh t to w ar ds him. He rela
flew
g the buttuns on
to gr ou nd control. Punchein Punching
back the lasers and
nt rol sy stem , he powered up
the co fraggments. buttons
he m et eo rs explodid into tiny
fired. T
em. He would exploded
too many of th
But, there were
e station.
to save the spac fragments
nevver be able

never

PSHB 2005 AL5d Page 44


69490 LIT 5:55783 Lit 5 30/7/07 10:13 Page 45

Answers: Literacy 5

P29c
Verbs have to agree with their subject. A singular noun needs a singular verb, e.g.
the woman is singing. A plural noun needs a plural verb, e.g. the women are singing.
Put the correct form (is or are) into the spaces:
People are normally helpful if you are in trouble.

The police are searching for a dark man with long hair.
Sometime
is s y
Here the six oclock news. need to th ou
ink
VERY
Maths is my favourite subject. carefully !

The boys father is selling his motorbike.

My family are going to move to a larger house.

All my friends are coming to my party.

Read all about it !


P30a My Dream
Poems affect us not only I dreamed a dream las
by what they say, but by how What day did t Tuesday week
the poet have Beneath the apple tre
they sound... e;
I dreamt my eyes were
his dream? big pork pies
And my ears were ched
dar cheese.
EXAMPLE He had his dream last Tuesday. When the clock struck
twenty to eight
A frog leapt on my kn
ee;
Where was he when he had his dream? I asked him to lend me
twenty pounds
He was under an apple tree. But he borrowed a pe
nny from me.
ANON
Why do you think he might have fallen
asleep there?
Maybe he was tired.

What jumped on him? A frog jumped on him.

What did the poet ask for and what did he get? read
When you
ay it
He asked for a loan of 20 but in fact he ended up lending a poem, s
out loud
the frog one penny. as well.

PSHB 2005 AL5d Page 45


69490 LIT 5:55783 Lit 5 30/7/07 10:13 Page 46

Answers: Literacy 5

P30b EXAMPLE
Dreams can sometimes tell us things. Now look
a little
deeper.
Why do you think the poet dreamed about food and money?
I think this shows that the poet was hungry and poor so he was
thinking about how to get food and money and his thoughts
influenced his dreams.

How would you describe this kind of poem? Have you read other poems like this?
The Jabberwocky could be an example. Try and think of at least one more.
It's a nonsense poem. Edward Lear wrote a lot of funny nonsense poems
and other examples are limericks and nursery rhymes.

Do you like this poem? Why or why not?


E
VARIABL

P30c EXAMPLE ut
Think abo
ic of
Describe the rhyming structure: the mus
the poem .
Every alternate line in this poem rhymes: tree, cheese,
knee and me.

Can you find some internal rhymes too (rhymes in the same line)?
There is internal rhyme in line one: dreamed / dream /
week; and in line three: eyes and pie.

How would you perform this poem?


Think about how you would speak and how you might act.
As it's a nonsense poem, I'd exaggerate and be funny. I'd use a frog
puppet and perhaps even have a pie and some cheese. There's a
strong rhyme and rhythm to the poem so I'd keep to this and speak
loudly and clearly. I hope the audience would laugh.

PSHB 2005 AL5d Page 46