You are on page 1of 9

Description of fatigue crack growth in steel structural components using energy

approach - Influence of the microstructure on the FCGR


Pawe Kucharski, Grzegorz Lesiuk, and Mieczysaw Szata

Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1780, 050003 (2016); doi: 10.1063/1.4965950


View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4965950
View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/1780/1
Published by the American Institute of Physics

Articles you may be interested in


Numerical estimation of stress intenisty factors and crack propagation in lug connector with existing flaw
AIP Conference Proceedings 1780, 050002 (2016); 10.1063/1.4965949

Multiplicative Hnon map


AIP Conference Proceedings 1738, 480060 (2016); 10.1063/1.4952296

Cyclic tests of magnetorheological elastomers with various magnetoactive filler contents


AIP Conference Proceedings 1780, 060002 (2016); 10.1063/1.4965955
Description of
Description of Fatigue
Fatigue Crack
Crack Growth
Growth in
in Steel
Steel Structural
Structural
Components Using
Components Using Energy
Energy Approach
Approach -- Influence
Influence of
of the
the
Microstructure on
Microstructure on the
the FCGR
FCGR
Pawe Kucharski11 ,, Grzegorz
Pawe Kucharski Grzegorz Lesiuk 1,a)
Lesiuk1,a) and Mieczysaw
and Szata11
Mieczysaw Szata
11
Wroclaw
Wroclaw University
University of
of Science
Science and
and Technology,
Technology, Department
Department of
of Mechanics,
Mechanics, Materials
Materials Science
Science and
and Engineering,
Engineering,
Smoluchowskiego str,
Smoluchowskiego str, 25
25 Wrocaw,
Wrocaw, 50-370
50-370 Poland
Poland
a)
a)
Corresponding author:
Corresponding author: grzegorz.lesiuk@pwr.edu.pl
grzegorz.lesiuk@pwr.edu.pl

Abstract. In
Abstract. In this
this paper,
paper, the
the theoretical
theoretical and
and experimental
experimental results
results of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth in
in AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel have
have been
been presented.
presented.
According to
According to the
the previous
previous theoretical
theoretical background
background -- the
the energy
energy parameter
parameter HH is is introduced
introduced as
as aa crack
crack driving
driving force
force in
in construction
construction
of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth rate
rate (FCGR)
(FCGR) diagrams.
diagrams. The
The physical
physical explanation
explanation ofof this
this model
model is
is also
also presented.
presented. In
In experimental
experimental parts
parts
of
of this
this work,
work, the
the kinetics
kinetics fatigue
fatigue fracture
fracture diagrams
diagrams (KFFD)
(KFFD) forfor AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel were
were constructed.
constructed. The
The main
main goal
goal of
of experimental
experimental
works
works was
was to
to investigate
investigate the
the influence
influence of
of microstructure
microstructure onon kinetics
kinetics of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth.
growth. TheThe AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel were
were tested
tested in
in
three
three different
different heat
heat treatment
treatment conditions.
conditions. As
As it
it has
has been
been confirmed,
confirmed, the
the energy
energy parameter H describes
parameter H describes the
the kinetics
kinetics of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack
growth
growth much
much more
more synonymously
synonymously thanthan the
the classical
classical stress
stress intensity
intensity factor K.
factor -- K.

INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

The
The fatigue
fatigue and
and fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth are
are ones
ones of
of main
main reasons
reasons of
of structure
structure failures.
failures. For
For over
over 50
50 years,
years, description
description of
of
kinetics
kinetics ofof the
the fatigue
fatigue fracture
fracture is
is one
one of
of the
the most
most important
important aspects
aspects of
of fracture
fracture mechanics.
mechanics. The
The pioneer
pioneer work
work in
in this
this
field
field is
is the
the Paris
Paris work
work [1]
[1] and
and his
his well-known
well-known empirical
empirical model
model of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth:
growth:

da
da m
= C(K)m
= C(K) , (1)
(1)
dN
dN
where: C,
where: C, m m are
are the
the constants
constants obtained
obtained experimentally
experimentally and and K represents the
K represents the stress
stress intensity
intensity factor
factor (SIF)
(SIF) range
range
corresponding to
corresponding to the
the alternating
alternating stress.
stress. The
The Paris
Paris law
law is
is one
one ofof the
the most
most popular
popular fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth rate
rate law.
law. In
In the
the
literature there
literature there isis aa high
high number
number of of modification
modification ofof the
the equation
equation (1).
(1). However,
However, manymany others
others are are still
still semi-empirical
semi-empirical
models. It
models. It means
means thatthat description
description ofof fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth is is not
not physically
physically clear.
clear. One
One reason
reason of of this
this inadequacy
inadequacy is is the
the
influence of
influence of the
the R-ratio
R-ratio on on kinetics
kinetics ofof fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth.
growth. There
There are
are not
not any
any exact
exact physical
physical explanation
explanation of of such
such anan
effect. One
effect. One ofof the
the hypothesis
hypothesis states,
states, that
that this
this problem
problem isis connected
connected with
with the
the crack
crack closure
closure effect.
effect. Since
Since the
the publication
publication
of Elbers
of Elbers work
work [2],[2], the
the problem
problem ofof crack
crack closure
closure effect
effect is
is aa major
major topic
topic in
in fracture
fracture mechanics
mechanics and and fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth
in terms
in terms of
of the
the mean
mean loadload influence.
influence. DueDue toto the
the correction
correction of the K
of the K to the K
to the Kee ff ff with
with consideration
consideration of of aa partial
partial
closure
closure of
of the
the fatigue
fatigue crack
crack it
it has
has been
been proved
proved that
that the
the R-ratio
R-ratio effect
effect is
is negligible.
negligible. The
The K Kee ff ff is
is defined
defined as:
as:

K =K
Kee ff ff = Kmax K
max op ,
Kop (2)
(2)

where
where the
the K max corresponds
Kmax corresponds to to aa maximal
maximal value
value of
of stress
stress intensity
intensity factor
factor and and the Kop
the Kop means
means the
the value
value of
of stress
stress intensity
intensity
factor
factor in
in the
the first
first stage
stage of
of the
the opening
opening fatigue
fatigue crack
crack inin each
each cycle
cycle of
of loading.
loading. However,
However, another
another group
group ofof the
the authors
authors
-- [3]
[3] indicates
indicates that
that the Kee ff ff does
the K does not
not always
always (not
(not fully)
fully) consolidate
consolidate the the experimental
experimental data
data in
in one
one line.
line. It
It seems
seems that
that
the
the crack
crack driving
driving force
force in
in this
this case
case should
should be
be much
much more
more complicated.
complicated. As As an
an example,
example, Kujawskis
Kujawskis parameter
parameter of of crack
crack
driving
driving force
force [4]
[4] can
can be
be presented:
presented:
K =
K = (K
(Kmax m
(K ++ ))1m
max )) (K
m 1m
, (3)
(3)

Fatigue Failure and Fracture Mechanics XXVI


AIP Conf. Proc. 1780, 050003-1050003-8; doi: 10.1063/1.4965950
Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1442-6/$30.00

050003-1
where: K ++ represents
where: K represents the
the positive
positive part
part of
of aa stress
stress intensity
intensity factor
factor range.
range. According
According to
to the
the above
above equation,
equation, we
we can
can
conclude that
conclude that the
the crack
crack driving
driving force
force is
is connected
connected with
with aa plastic
plastic zone
zone ahead
ahead of
of the
the crack
crack tip.
tip. The
The more
more physical
physical way
way
seems to
seems to be
be the
the energy
energy approach
approach described
described in
in aa further
further part
part of
of this
this work.
work.

THEORETICAL
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF ENERGY
BACKGROUND OF ENERGY DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION OF
OF FATIGUE
FATIGUE CRACK
CRACK
GROWTH PROCESS
GROWTH PROCESS

The energy
The energy approach
approach in
in fatigue
fatigue crack
crack modeling
modeling isis still
still developed
developed and
and more
more efficient
efficient with
with comparison
comparison to the K
to the crack
K crack
driving force.
driving force. The
The main
main characteristic
characteristic feature
feature of
of energy
energy models
models is
is proportionality
proportionality of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth rate
rate to K 44 ..
to K
As an
As an example,
example, the
the well-known
well-known model
model ofof Weertman
Weertman [5] [5] can
can be
be presented:
presented:

da
da AK 44
AK
=
= , (4)
(4)
dN
dN 22cc U
U

where: A
where: A -- experimental
experimental constant,
constant, U U -- aa critical
critical energy
energy necessary
necessary for for creating
creating thethe unit surface, -- shear
unit surface, modulus, 22cc
shear modulus,
-- critical
critical stress
stress at
at fracture.
fracture. The
The general
general consideration
consideration ofof energy modeling is
energy modeling is connected
connected with
with aa local
local damage
damage in
in process
process
zone
zone ahead
ahead of
of aa crack
crack tip.
tip. In
In this
this case,
case, the
the low
low cycle
cycle fatigue
fatigue approach
approach is is involved.
involved. One
One of
of the
the most
most important
important physical
physical
quantities
quantities isis the
the irrevocably
irrevocably dissipated
dissipated energy
energy ahead
ahead of
of aa crack
crack tip.
tip. The
The dissipated
dissipated energy
energy inin one
one cycle
cycle of
of loading
loading
can
can be
be calculated
calculated duedue to
to appearance
appearance of of the
the hysteresis
hysteresis loop Wcc .. A
loop -- W A general
general model
model of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth has
has been
been
proposed by
proposed by Bodner
Bodner [6]:
[6]:
da
da 11 dW
dW pp
=
= , (5)
(5)
dN
dN B(dW pp /dA) dN
B(dW dN
where aa is
where is the
the length
length of
of aa thru-thickness
thru-thickness crack,
crack, BB is
is aa specimen
specimen thickness,
thickness, and dW pp /dA represents
and dW represents the
the work
work per
per unit
unit
required
required forfor crack
crack surface
surface creation.
creation. The
The dW can be
dW pp /dA can be considered
considered as
as aa material
material property,
property, and
and it
it characterizes
characterizes mate-
mate-
rials resistance
rials resistance toto crack
crack growth.
growth. The
The numerical
numerical simulations
simulations have
have confirmed
confirmed thethe theoretical
theoretical energy
energy balance
balance modeling
modeling
for aa fatigue
for fatigue crack
crack using
using dissipated
dissipated energy
energy as
as aa main
main parameter
parameter responsible
responsible for
for fatigue
fatigue fracture
fracture process.
process. The
The authors
authors
of [7]
of [7] and
and [8]
[8] propose
propose the
the method
method ofof calculation
calculation of
of dissipated
dissipated energy
energy and
and they
they discussed
discussed some
some aspects
aspects inin experimental
experimental
verification and
verification and energy
energy measuring.
measuring.

Phenomenological Approach
Phenomenological Approach Based
Based on
on the
the Dimensional
Dimensional Analysis
Analysis
According to
According to the
the first
first principle
principle of
of thermodynamics
thermodynamics and and taking
taking into
into consideration
consideration the the energy
energy approach
approach forfor the
the fatigue
fatigue
crack
crack growth
growth (under
(under mode
mode II condition),
condition), Szata
Szata proposed
proposed inin 2002
2002 [11]
[11] the
the exact
exact closed
closed model
model for
for description
description ofof kinetics
kinetics
of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack surface
surface growth.
growth. One
One ofof the
the interesting
interesting proposals
proposals inin experimental
experimental mechanics
mechanics is is Dimensional
Dimensional Analysis.
Analysis.
Ciavarella
Ciavarella and
and Carpinteri
Carpinteri [9],
[9], [10]
[10] demonstrate
demonstrate thethe usefulness
usefulness of of the
the classical -Buckingham theorem
classical -Buckingham theorem inin fracture
fracture
mechanics. On
mechanics. On this
this ground,
ground, isis well
well elaborated
elaborated physical
physical interpretation
interpretation of of the
the empirical
empirical C,mC,m constants
constants from
from Paris
Paris law
law
(1). On
(1). On the
the other
other hand,
hand, the
the construction
construction of of mathematical
mathematical models
models isis not
not unique
unique and
and some
some ambiguity
ambiguity appears
appears duedue to
to
the dimensional
the dimensional basis
basis [12].
[12]. In
In this
this light,
light, one
one of
of interesting
interesting methods
methods in in Dimensional
Dimensional Analysis
Analysis isis the
the Universal
Universal Graph
Graph
method. This
method. This method
method has has been
been described
described byby Rybaczuk
Rybaczuk in in [12],[13]
[12],[13] and
and developed
developed in in [11].
[11]. This
This non-classical
non-classical method
method
reduces the
reduces the dimensional
dimensional dependences
dependences to to some
some functions
functions at
at the
the dimensionless
dimensionless fiber.
fiber. It
It should
should be
be underlined
underlined that
that it
it does
does
not break
not break aa symmetry
symmetry among
among incoming
incoming arguments
arguments [12].
[12]. The
The main
main algorithm
algorithm ofof this
this method
method should:
should:

identify
identify all
all dimensional
dimensional basis
basis related
related to
to the
the main
main process,
process,
treat
treat one
one of
of the
the physical
physical quantity
quantity as
as aa main
main parameter;
parameter; in
in this
this case
case this
this quantity
quantity should
should appear
appear in
in each
each product,
product,
construct
construct the
the hyper-plane
hyper-plane for
for each
each basis
basis -- treating
treating dimension
dimension A A as
as aa AA ..

According to
According to energy
energy consideration
consideration -- presented
presented inin [11],
[11], the
the quantity
quantity YY is
is treated
treated as
as the
the main
main variable
variable responsible
responsible for
for
fatigue crack
fatigue crack growth
growth process.
process. In
In this
this case,
case, for
for the
the two
two dimensions
dimensions (F,
(F, L)
L) five
five different
different multiplications
multiplications of
of the
the variables:
variables:
AB, AC,
AB, AC, AD,
AD, BC,
BC, BD
BD are
are available
available In
In order
order to
to construct
construct the
the hyper-plane
hyper-plane forfor each
each combination,
combination, itit is
is necessary
necessary to
to
obtain the
obtain the non-dimensional
non-dimensional point.
point. The
The generated
generated hyper-plane
hyper-plane can
can intersect
intersect the
the non-dimensional
non-dimensional fiber
fiber in
in one
one point
point or
or
may include
may include it.
it. The
The next
next step
step is
is to
to perform
perform the
the orbital
orbital structure.
structure. From
From geometric
geometric point
point of
of view,
view, the
the Universal
Universal Graph
Graph is
is
aa specific
specific cross-section
cross-section of
of the
the manifold
manifold ofof orbits.
orbits.

050003-2
TABLE 1.
TABLE 1. The
The dimensional
dimensional analysis
analysis variable
variable and
and its
its description
description
ID
ID VARIABLE
VARIABLE DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION DIMENSION
DIMENSION F
F L
L
Y
Y Wcc
W dissipated energy
dissipated energy per
per one
one cycle
cycle (reffered
(reffered to
to the thickness)
the thickness) [F]
[F] 11 00
1
A
A H
H energy parameter
energy parameter responsible
responsible for
for fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth [FL1
[FL ]] 11 -1
-1
B
B B
B specimen thickness
specimen thickness [L]
[L] 00 11
C
C K 22ff cc
K cyclic
cyclic stress
stress intensity
intensity factor
factor raised
raised to
to the
the power
power ofof two
two [F 22 L
[F L3
3
]] 22 -3
-3
22 22 3
D
D KImax
K Imax maximum
maximum stress
stress intensity
intensity factor
factor raised
raised to
to the
the power
power ofof two
two [F
[F L L3 ]] 22 -3
-3

According to
According to above
above and
and [11],
[11], five
five hyper-planes
hyper-planes have
have been
been proposed;
proposed; Y AB ,, Y
YAB YAD
AD ,, Y
YAC
AC ,, Y
YBC
BC ,, Y
YBD
BD .. The
The dimensionless
dimensionless
point has
point has been
been obtained
obtained for
for each
each hyper-plane:
hyper-plane:
AB
AB = ABY 1
= ABY 1
YAB
,Y AB =
1
= AB
AB AB,
1
AB, (6)
(6)
33 1
1 1 1 33 1
1
AD =A
AD = A DD Y 1
Y ,Y YAD
AD == AD
AD A
A DD1 , (7)
(7)
AC
AC ==AA33CC 1
1 1
Y YAC
Y 1 , Y AC =
1 33 1
1
= AC
AC A
AC C 1 , (8)
(8)
BC =B
BC = B1.5
1.5 0.5
C Y 1
C 0.5 Y 1
YBC
,Y BC =
1
= BC
1
=B
BC = B1.5
1.5 0.5
C
C 0.5 , (9)
(9)
BD =B
BD = B1.5
1.5 0.5
D
D0.5 YY 1
1
YBD
,Y BD =
1
= BD
1
=B
BD = B1.5
1.5 0.5
D
D0.5 . (10)
(10)
The orbital
The orbital structure
structure can
can be
be written
written as:
as:
1 33 1 1 33 1
1
AB AB =
AB AB
1 1
= AD
AD A
A D
D1 = 1
= AC
AC A
ACC 1 = 1
= BC
1
=B
BC = B1.5
1.5 0.5
C
C 0.5 = 1
= BD
1
=B
BD = B1.5
1.5 0.5
D
D0.5 . (11)
(11)
Due to
Due to dimensional
dimensional dependency,
dependency, it
it is
is clear
clear that:
that:
22 22
AC BC
AC = AD
BC = AD BD
BD , AD = AC
AD = AC . (12)
(12)
Considering
Considering the
the identity
identity (12)
(12) and
and using
using the
the substitution:
substitution:
ii1
1
= ii jj ,
jj = (13)
(13)
we obtain
we obtain aa new,
new, simplified
simplified structure
structure of
of orbits:
orbits:
AB AB =
AB AB = AD A3D1
AD A3D
1
= BC
= B1.5
BC B
1.5 0.5
C
C 0.5 . (14)
(14)
Considering
Considering the
the transformation
transformation to
to new
new dimensionless
dimensionless variables
variables the
the universal
universal graph
graph is
is described
described by
by the
the equation:
equation:
(11 , 22 , 33 )) =
( const,
= const, (15)
(15)
AD BC
where 11 =
where = AB =
AB ,, 22 =
AD
AB
AB
,, =
33 = BC
AB
AB
.. Using linear
Using linear regression
regression (here
(here a=b=1),
a=b=1), it
it was
was possible
possible to
to obtain
obtain the
the approximation
approximation
formula:
formula:
11 =
= aa b22 2323 .
b (16)
(16)
Finally, after
Finally, after the
the transformation
transformation and
and returning
returning to
to the
the initial
initial physical
physical quantities,quantities, the new H
the new energy parameter
H energy parameter is
is
introduced:
introduced:
Wcc
W
H
H = =   22 ! . (17)
(17)
B KKKKII MAX
B 11 MAX
ff cc

Finally, it
Finally, it lead
lead us
us to
to the
the kinetic
kinetic equation
equation of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth which
which is
is presented
presented and
and physically
physically elaborated
elaborated in
in [11],
[11],
[14] ::
[14]
da
da W
Wcc
=
=   22 ! , (18)
(18)
dN pl
dN  ff cc
pl ff 
B KKKKII MAX
B 11 MAX
ff cc

where
where pl and  ff cc represent
pl ff and represent respectively
respectively the
the cyclic
cyclic yield
yield stress
stress and
and cyclic,
cyclic, critical
critical strain
strain and
and the
the is
is aa constant.
constant.
This
This equation
equation can
can bebe rewritten
rewritten to to the
the similar
similar Paris-like
Paris-like model:
model:
da
da H nn
=
= = (H ))nn ,
= 11 (H (19)
(19)
dN pl
dN  ff cc
pl ff 

where H =
where H = H
H B
B and
and 11 is
is aa constant
constant value.
value.

050003-3
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In order
In order to
to investigate
investigate implementation
implementation possibilities
possibilities into
into engineering
engineering practice
practice (as
(as an
an alternative
alternative for K) of
for K) of model
model (18)
(18) aa
series of
series of experiments
experiments was
was performed.
performed. Some
Some results
results and
and the
the R-ratios
R-ratios problem
problem has
has been
been discussed
discussed inin previous
previous works
works of
of
the authors.
the authors. InIn this
this case,
case, the
the main
main object
object of
of investigation
investigation was
was the
the AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel with
with different
different microstructure
microstructure types.
types.

Material Properties
Material Properties
For all
For all experiments
experiments the
the AISI
AISI 5140
5140 (41Cr4)
(41Cr4) steel
steel was
was used.
used. Chemical
Chemical composition
composition of
of this
this steel
steel is
is shown
shown in
in Tab.
Tab. 2.
2. The
The

TABLE
TABLE 2. 2. Chemical
Chemical composition
composition of
of AISI
AISI 5140
5140
steel
steel (in
(in mass
mass percent)
percent)
C
C Si
Si Mn
Mn Cr
Cr Ni
Ni Mo
Mo S
S
0.4
0.4 0.2
0.2 0.6
0.6 0.9
0.9 0.2
0.2 0.1
0.1 0.03
0.03

detailed data
detailed data of
of heat
heat treatment
treatment procedure
procedure and
and the
the basic
basic mechanical
mechanical properties
properties are
are collected
collected in
in table
table 3.
3. Three
Three types
types

TABLE 3.
TABLE 3. The
The heat
heat treatment
treatment details
details and
and basic
basic mechanical
mechanical properties
properties of
of AISI
AISI 5140
5140
ID
ID HEAT TREATMENT
HEAT TREATMENT HARDNESS MICROSTRUCTURE YTS
HARDNESS MICROSTRUCTURE YTS [MPa]
[MPa] UTS [MPa]
UTS [MPa]
H870O200
H870O200 Q870T200 -- oil
Q870T200 oil 49 HRC
49 HRC martensite
martensite 1641
1641 1790
1790
H870O450
H870O450 Q870T450
Q870T450 -- oil
oil 39
39 HRC
HRC sorbite
sorbite 1150
1150 1306
1306
H870O700
H870O700 Q870T700
Q870T700 -- oil
oil 27
27 HRC
HRC troostite
troostite 660
660 756
756

of
of heat
heat treatment
treatment procedures
procedures has
has been
been performed
performed in
in order
order to
to obtain
obtain the
the different
different material
material hardness
hardness and
and stress-strain
stress-strain
behavior.
behavior.

Kinetics
Kinetics of
of Fatigue
Fatigue Crack
Crack Growth
Growth
Fatigue
Fatigue crack
crack growth
growth experiments
experiments were
were performed
performed according
according to
to the ASTM E647
the ASTM E647 [15]
[15] using
using CT
CT specimens
specimens with
with char-
char-
acteristics
acteristics dimensions
dimensions (all
(all in
in mm):
mm): W=48, t=18. Before
W=48, t=18. Before aa main
main part
part of
of experiment,
experiment, the
the specimen
specimen were
were grinded
grinded and
and
polished
polished to
to aa mirror
mirror surface
surface and
and precracked.
precracked. The
The experimental setup is
experimental setup is shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig. 1.
1. The
The crack
crack length
length was
was mon-
mon-
itored
itored using
using two
two methods;
methods; visual
visual method
method (traveling
(traveling microscope)
microscope) and
and automated
automated compliance
compliance one.
one. The
The stress
stress intensity
intensity
factor
factor for
for CT
CT specimen
specimen has
has been
been calculated
calculated using
using the
the formula
formula ([15]):
([15]):
 aa aa aa aa aa aa 1.5  F
F
K = (2
KII = (2 +
+ )(0.886 + 4.64
)(0.886 + 4.64 13.32( ))22 +
13.32( 14.72( ))33
+ 14.72( 5.6( ))44 )(1
5.6( ))1.5
)(1
, (20)
(20)
W
W W
W W
W W
W W
W W
W BBnn W
BB W

where: F
where: F -- applied
applied load,
load, WW -- specimen
specimen width,
width, aa -- crack
crack length,
length, B B -- specimen
specimen thickness,
thickness, Bn
Bn -- specimen
specimen thickness
thickness after
after
side grooving.
side grooving. AllAll the
the experiments
experiments werewere performed using K
performed using K decreasing
decreasing test.
test. In
In order
order toto obtain
obtain the
the critical
critical stress
stress
intensity factor
intensity factor range the K
range -- the K -- increasing
increasing test
test was
was used.
used. TheThe initial
initial maximum
maximum force force was
was FF= 10kN for
= 10kN for the
the H870O200
H870O200
specimen and
specimen and FF = 15kN for
= 15kN for H870O450,
H870O450, H870O700
H870O700 (K (K decreasing
decreasing test).
test). Two
Two different
different levels
levels of
of stress
stress ratio
ratio was
was
used; R=0.1
used; R=0.1 andand R=0.75
R=0.75 withwith keeping
keeping loading
loading frequency
frequency on on the level ff =
the level 10Hz. In
= 10Hz. In Fig.
Fig. 2,2, the
the FCGR-curves
FCGR-curves were were
shown for
shown for the
the different
different heat
heat treatments
treatments of of material.
material. AsAs it it was
was expected,
expected, the the differences
differences in in kinetics
kinetics of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack
growth are
growth are observed.
observed. The
The fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth rate
rate is
is increasing
increasing withwith hardness
hardness of of the
the material
material for
for different
different R-ratios.
R-ratios.
In order
In order toto satisfy
satisfy the
the equation
equation (18),
(18), the
the W quantity -- hysteresis
Wcc quantity hysteresis loop
loop area
area was
was registered.
registered. For
For this
this purpose,
purpose, the
the
force (F)
force (F) signal
signal and
and COD
COD (v)(v) signal
signal (measured
(measured in in load
load line)
line) were
were periodically
periodically stored
stored for
for aa few
few cycles.
cycles. The
The periods
periods ofof
data stored
data stored correspond
correspond with the a
with the a = 0.2mm -- crack
= 0.2mm crack growth
growth interval.
interval. TheThe energy
energy parameter
parameter was was calculated
calculated using
using the
the
automatic algorithm
automatic algorithm implemented
implemented in in HP
HP VEE
VEE [16]
[16] visual
visual object
object programing
programing language.
language. The
The most
most important
important part
part of
of the
the
signal processing
signal processing in in hysteresis
hysteresis loop
loop area
area calculations
calculations is is the
the problem
problem of of the
the discrete
discrete nature
nature of of the
the F(force)-COD(crack
F(force)-COD(crack
opening displacement)
opening displacement) registration.
registration. This
This problem
problem is is aa crucial
crucial when
when thethe hysteresis
hysteresis loops
loops are
are almost
almost straight
straight lines
lines in
in
near threshold
near threshold regime.
regime. The
The first
first and
and last
last point
point of
of the
the hysteresis
hysteresis looploop are
are not
not always
always coincident.
coincident. This
This problem
problem can can cause
cause
aa significant
significant differences
differences inin energy
energy calculation.
calculation. InIn order
order to to avoid
avoid this,
this, aa special
special signal
signal processing
processing procedure
procedure has has been
been

050003-4
FIGURE 1.
FIGURE Measurement stand
1. Measurement stand a)
a) scheme,
scheme, b) b) experimental
experimental setup;
setup; 11 -- clevis
clevis and
and CT
CT specimen,
specimen, 22 -- extensometer,
extensometer, 33 --
traveling
traveling microscope,
microscope, 4
4 -- eyepieces,
eyepieces, 5
5 -- digital
digital CMOS
CMOS camera,
camera, 66 -- tripod,
tripod, 77 -- PC
PC computer
computer

implemented.
implemented. According
According to
to Kaleta
Kaleta [17]
[17] the
the algorithm
algorithm of
of hysteresis
hysteresis loop
loop area
area calculation
calculation can
can be
be used
used with
with the
the FFT
FFT
(Fast
(Fast Fourier
Fourier Transformation)
Transformation) method.
method. The experimental force
The experimental force signal
signal can
can be
be treated
treated as
as aa sinusoidal
sinusoidal wave form:
wave form:



X
F() =
F() = (c
(c pp sins + dd pp coss),
sins + coss), (21)
(21)
p=1
p=1

where cc pp and
where and dd pp represent
represent the
the sine
sine and
and cosine
cosine (Fourier
(Fourier series
series coefficients).
coefficients). Of
Of course,
course, the
the COD
COD signal
signal v()
v() can
can be
be
divided
divided into
into the
the same
same manner:
manner:

X

v() =
v() = (a ss sins
(a + bb ss coss).
sins + coss). (22)
(22)
s=1
s=1

In
In this
this case
case we
we can
can calculate
calculate the
the dissipated
dissipated energy
energy (W
(Wcc )) using
using the
the following
following equation:
equation:
  TT 

dv()
I Z
dv() X
W =
W = F()dv =
F()dv = F()
F() d =
d = p(a
p(a pp dd pp
bb pp cc pp ).
). (23)
(23)
00 d
d p=1
p=1

Lack
Lack of
of coicidence
coicidence of
of starting
starting and
and ending
ending points
points of
of the
the hysteresis
hysteresis loop
loop is
is resolved
resolved using
using the
the resampling
resampling procedure
procedure
(well
(well described
described in
in [17]).
[17]).

(a)
(a) (b)
(b)

FIGURE
FIGURE 2. Kinetic fatigue
2. Kinetic fatigue fracture
fracture diagram
diagram for
for AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel based
based on
on the K parameter:(a)
the K parameter:(a) -- R=0.1,
R=0.1, (b)
(b) -- R=0.75
R=0.75

The experimental
The experimental constants
constants required
required by
by the
the equations
equations (1
(1 and
and 19)
19) has
has been
been collected
collected in
in tables:
tables: 44 and
and 5.
5.

050003-5
(a)
(a) (b)
(b)

FIGURE 3.
FIGURE 3. Kinetic
Kinetic fatigue
fatigue fracture
fracture diagram
diagram for
for AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel based
based on
on the H parameter:(a)
the H parameter:(a) -- R=0.1,
R=0.1, (b)
(b) -- R=0.75
R=0.75

(a)
(a) (b)
(b)

FIGURE 4.
FIGURE 4. Elber
Elber closure
closure parameter
parameter as
as aa function
function of:
of: (a) K, (b)
(a) -- K, W, [18]
(b) -- W, [18]

TABLE
TABLE 4. 4. Experimental
Experimental data
data of
of the
the FCGR
FCGR (R=0.1)
(R=0.1) experiments
experiments
for
for AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel
C
C m
m R22
R 11 nn R22
R
H870O200
H870O200 6e-10
6e-10 3.89
3.89 0.99
0.99 1e-4
1e-4 1.46
1.46 0.98
0.98
H870O450
H870O450 1e-9
1e-9 3.75
3.75 0.94
0.94 3e-4
3e-4 1.63
1.63 0.95
0.95
H870O700
H870O700 2e-10
2e-10 3.83
3.83 0.99
0.99 1e-4
1e-4 1.27
1.27 0.96
0.96
all
all data
data 1e-9
1e-9 3.54
3.54 0.94
0.94 2e-4
2e-4 1.47
1.47 0.95
0.95

TABLE
TABLE 5.5. Experimental
Experimental data
data of
of the
the FCGR
FCGR (R=0.75)
(R=0.75) experi-
experi-
ments
ments for
for AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel
C
C m
m R22
R 11 nn R22
R
H870O200
H870O200 1e-8
1e-8 3.51
3.51 0.95
0.95 2e-4
2e-4 1.21
1.21 0.99
0.99
H870O450
H870O450 2e-8
2e-8 2.97
2.97 0.94
0.94 2e-4
2e-4 1.17
1.17 0.96
0.96
H870O700
H870O700 9e-9
9e-9 2.85
2.85 0.99
0.99 1e-4
1e-4 1.24
1.24 0.98
0.98
all data
all data 3e-8
3e-8 2.71
2.71 0.88
0.88 1e-4
1e-4 1.18
1.18 0.95
0.95

It is
It is noticeable
noticeable that
that for
for the
the (R=0.75)
(R=0.75) the higher data
the higher data scatter
scatter (for
(for all
all the
the materials
materials in
in comparison
comparison with
with the
the R=0.1)
R=0.1)
in K diagram
in K diagram is is observed.
observed. The
The values
values of
of R-ratio
R-ratio were
were chosen
chosen duedue to
to the
the expected
expected crack
crack closure
closure effect.
effect. In
In case
case of
of
R=0.75, this
R=0.75, this effect
effect can
can be
be negligible
negligible on
on the
the contrary
contrary to
to R=0.1.
R=0.1. InIn case,
case, of
of the H diagram
the H diagram it
it can
can be
be concluded
concluded that,
that,
the
the differences
differences inin kinetics
kinetics of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth are
are smaller.
smaller. It
It is
is observed
observed that
that differences
differences in
in FCGR
FCGR curves
curves are
are much
much
higher
higher (closure
(closure free,
free, R=0.75)
R=0.75) especially
especially between
between H870O200
H870O200 (brittle
(brittle behavior)
behavior) and
and H870O700
H870O700 (ductile
(ductile behavior).
behavior). In
In

050003-6
R=0.1, there
R=0.1, there are
are not
not any
any significant
significant differences
differences in
in FCGR
FCGR curves.
curves. This
This effect
effect can
can be
be caused
caused by
by the
the crack
crack closure
closure effect.
effect.
In
In another
another work
work [18]
[18] it
it was
was demonstrated
demonstrated thatthat the
the energy
energy parameter
parameter isis more
more synonymous
synonymous than K. The
than K. The exemplary
exemplary
results for
results for ancient
ancient type
type of
of low
low carbon
carbon steel
steel has
has been
been shown
shown in
in Fig.
Fig. 4.
4. According
According toto above,
above, the
the history
history of
of loading
loading caused
caused
some differences
some differences inin closure
closure level.
level. It
It seems,
seems, that
that the
the incorporation
incorporation of
of the
the extra
extra parameter
parameter to
to the
the Szata
Szata model
model (19)
(19) plays
plays
the important
the important role
role in
in microstructural
microstructural sensitivity
sensitivity of
of this
this model.
model.

SUMMARY AND
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
CONCLUSIONS
In the
In the paper,
paper, the
the problem
problem of of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth rate
rate description
description from
from the
the energy
energy point
point of
of view
view has
has been
been presented
presented and
and
discussed. The
discussed. The Universal
Universal Graph
Graph method
method (based
(based onon Dimensional
Dimensional Analysis
Analysis approach)
approach) waswas used
used for
for phenomenological
phenomenological
formulation of
formulation of the
the kinetic
kinetic equation.
equation. TheThe invariance
invariance from
from R-ratio
R-ratio has
has been
been confirmed
confirmed in in the
the previous
previous works
works [11]
[11] and
and
[14]. The
[14]. The experimental
experimental results
results ofof kinetics
kinetics of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth for
for the
the AISI
AISI 5140
5140 steel
steel have
have been
been presented.
presented. Three
Three
different heat
different heat treatments
treatments procedures
procedures werewere involved.
involved. The
The kinetic
kinetic fatigue
fatigue fracture
fracture diagrams
diagrams werewere constructed
constructed using
using the
the
K
K and H parameters.
and H parameters. As As itit was
was expected,
expected, the
the models
models were
were sensitive
sensitive for
for the
the different
different mechanism
mechanism of of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack
propagation due
propagation due toto different
different microstructures.
microstructures. TheThe crack
crack closure
closure effect
effect was
was observed
observed (not
(not fully,
fully, considered
considered analyti-
analyti-
cally) in
cally) in case
case of
of the
the R=0.1.
R=0.1. In In case
case of
of the
the energy
energy description, the 11 scatter
description, the scatter is
is smaller
smaller than
than Paris
Paris C
C -- constants.
constants. The
The
independency the
independency the Elber
Elber parameter
parameter from
from aa history
history of
of loading
loading was
was presented
presented (based
(based onon [18]).
[18]). The
The further
further development
development
of the
of the energy
energy model
model should
should be be focused
focused onon incorporation
incorporation of
of the
the crack
crack closure
closure effect
effect and
and microstructural
microstructural parameter
parameter
consideration.
consideration.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This
This work
work has
has been
been supported
supported by
by the
the Wroclaw
Wroclaw University
University of
of Technology
Technology and
and Science
Science Grant
Grant no
no B50090/W10/K10.
B50090/W10/K10.

REFERENCES
REFERENCES
[1]
[1] P.C.
P.C. Paris,
Paris, M.P.
M.P. Gomez,
Gomez, andand W.E.
W.E. Anderson,
Anderson, A A rational
rational analytic
analytic theory
theory of
of fatigue,
fatigue, The
The Trend
Trend in
in Engineering,
Engineering,
1961,
1961, 13:
13: pp.
pp. 9-14
9-14
[2]
[2] W.
W. Elber,
Elber, Fatigue
Fatigue crack
crack closure
closure under
under cyclic
cyclic tension,
tension, Engineering
Engineering Fracture
Fracture Mechanics,
Mechanics, 2, 2, pp.
pp. 37-45,
37-45, 1970
1970
[3]
[3] Y.
Y. Xiong,
Xiong, J.
J. Katsuta,
Katsuta, K.
K. Kawano,
Kawano, T. T. Sakiyama, Examination of
Sakiyama, Examination of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack driving
driving force
force parameter,
parameter, Fatigue
Fatigue
Fracture
Fracture of
of Engineering
Engineering Materials
Materials Structures,
Structures, 2008
2008 Blackwell
Blackwell Publishing
Publishing Ltd.
Ltd. Fatigue
Fatigue Fract
Fract Engng
Engng Mater
Mater
Struct
Struct 31,
31, pp.754765
pp.754765
[4]
[4] D.
D. Kujawski,
Kujawski, A A fatigue
fatigue crack
crack driving
driving force
force parameter
parameter withwith load
load ratio
ratio effects, International Journal
effects, International Journal of
of Fa-
Fa-
tigue,
tigue, Volume
Volume 23,23, Supplement
Supplement 1, 1, 2001,
2001, Pages
Pages 239-246,
239-246, ISSN
ISSN 0142-1123,
0142-1123, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-
1123(01)00158-X.
1123(01)00158-X.
[5]
[5] J.
J. Weertman, Theory of
Weertman, Theory of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth based
based onon aa BCS
BCS crack
crack theory
theory with
with work
work hardening, International
hardening, International
Journal
Journal of
of Fracture
Fracture 1973;9:pp.12531.
1973;9:pp.12531.
[6]
[6] SR.
SR. Bodner,
Bodner, DLDL Davidson,J.
Davidson,J. Lankford,
Lankford, A A description
description of of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth inin terms
terms ofof plastic
plastic work, Engi-
work, Engi-
neering Fracture
neering Fracture Mechanics
Mechanics 1983;17(2):pp.18991.
1983;17(2):pp.18991.
[7]
[7] N.W. Klingbeil,
N.W. Klingbeil, A
A total
total dissipated
dissipated energy
energy theory
theory of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth inin ductile
ductile solids, International Journal
solids, International Journal
of Fatigue
of Fatigue 25
25 (2003),
(2003), pp.117128
pp.117128
[8]
[8] N. Ranganathan,
N. Ranganathan, F. F. Chalon,
Chalon, S.S. Meo,
Meo, Some
Some aspects
aspects ofof the
the energy
energy based
based approach
approach to to fatigue
fatigue crack
crack propagation,
propagation,
International Journal
International Journal of
of Fatigue
Fatigue 3030 (2008),pp.
(2008),pp. 19211929
19211929
[9]
[9] M. Ciavarella,
M. Ciavarella, M.
M. Paggi,
Paggi, A.A. Carpinteri,
Carpinteri, One,
One, nono one,
one, and
and one
one hundred
hundred thousand
thousand crack
crack propagation
propagation laws:
laws: aa
generalized Barenblatt
generalized Barenblatt and
and Botvina
Botvina dimensional
dimensional analysis
analysis approach
approach to to fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth, Journal of
growth, Journal of the
the
Mechanics and
Mechanics and Physics
Physics of
of Solids
Solids 56.12
56.12 (2008):
(2008): pp.3416-3432.
pp.3416-3432.
[10]
[10] A. Carpinteri,
A. Carpinteri, M.
M. Paggi,
Paggi, Self-similarity
Self-similarity and
and crack
crack growth
growth instability
instability inin the
the correlation
correlation between
between the
the Paris
Paris
constants, Engineering
constants, Engineering Fracture
Fracture Mechanics
Mechanics 74.7
74.7 (2007):
(2007): pp.1041-1053.
pp.1041-1053.
[11]
[11] M. Szata,
M. Szata, Modeling
Modeling ofof fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth using
using energy
energy method,
method, Publishing
Publishing House
House of of Wroclaw
Wroclaw UNiversity
UNiversity
of Technology,
of Technology, Wroclaw
Wroclaw 2002
2002 (in
(in Polish)
Polish)
[12]
[12] W. Kasprzak,
W. Kasprzak, B.B. Lysik,
Lysik, M.
M. Rybaczuk,
Rybaczuk, Measurements,
Measurements, Dimensions,
Dimensions, Invariant
Invariant Models
Models andand Fractals,
Fractals, Publishing
Publishing
House Spolom,
House Spolom, Lviv,
Lviv, Ukraine,
Ukraine, 2004
2004

050003-7
[13]
[13] M.Rybaczuk,Geometrical
M.Rybaczuk,Geometrical methodsmethods of
of dimensional
dimensional analysis
analysis inin problems
problems of
of mechanics,
mechanics, Scientific
Scientific Papers
Papers of
of
the
the Institute
Institute of
of Materials
Materials Science
Science and
and Applied
Applied Mechanics
Mechanics of of the
the Technical
Technical University
University of
of Wroclaw,
Wroclaw, Wroclaw
Wroclaw
1993
1993 (in
(in Polish).
Polish).
[14]
[14] M.
M. Szata,
Szata, G.
G. Lesiuk,
Lesiuk, Algorithms
Algorithms for
for the
the estimation
estimation of
of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth using
using energy
energy method,
method, Archives
Archives of
of
Civil
Civil and
and Mechanical
Mechanical Engineering
Engineering 9.1
9.1 (2009):
(2009): pp.119-134.
pp.119-134.
[15]
[15] ASTM
ASTM E647-15
E647-15 Standard
Standard Test
Test Method
Method forfor Measurement
Measurement of of Fatigue
Fatigue Crack
Crack Growth
Growth Rates,
Rates, USA
USA 2015
2015
[16]
[16] R.
R. Helsel,Visual
Helsel,Visual Programming
Programming language
language forfor HP-VEE
HP-VEE (2nd(2nd edition),Prentice
edition),Prentice Hall;
Hall; 2nd
2nd edition
edition (February
(February 26,
26,
1997)
1997)
[17]
[17] Kaleta
Kaleta J., The Experimental
J., The Experimental Foundations
Foundations of of Energetical
Energetical Fatigue
Fatigue Hypothesis
Hypothesis Formulation,Publishing
Formulation,Publishing House
House
of
of the
the Wroclaw
Wroclaw University
University of
of Technology,
Technology, Wroclaw
Wroclaw 1998.
1998.
[18]
[18] G.
G. Lesiuk,
Lesiuk, M.M. Szata,
Szata, P.
P. Kucharski, Analysis of
Kucharski, Analysis of fatigue
fatigue crack
crack growth
growth in
in long
long term
term operated
operated mild
mild low
low carbon
carbon
steel
steel in
in terms
terms of
of crack
crack closure
closure and
and energy
energy approach,
approach, Conference
Conference Proceedings
Proceedings of of the
the 33rd
33rd Danubia
Danubia Adria
Adria
Symposium
Symposium on on Experimental
Experimental Mechanics,
Mechanics, Portoroz,
Portoroz, Slovenia,
Slovenia, 2016
2016 (in
(in press).
press).

050003-8