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You are on page 1of 9

Pawe Kucharski, Grzegorz Lesiuk, and Mieczysaw Szata

View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4965950

View Table of Contents: http://aip.scitation.org/toc/apc/1780/1

Published by the American Institute of Physics

Numerical estimation of stress intenisty factors and crack propagation in lug connector with existing flaw

AIP Conference Proceedings 1780, 050002 (2016); 10.1063/1.4965949

AIP Conference Proceedings 1738, 480060 (2016); 10.1063/1.4952296

AIP Conference Proceedings 1780, 060002 (2016); 10.1063/1.4965955

Description of

Description of Fatigue

Fatigue Crack

Crack Growth

Growth in

in Steel

Steel Structural

Structural

Components Using

Components Using Energy

Energy Approach

Approach -- Influence

Influence of

of the

the

Microstructure on

Microstructure on the

the FCGR

FCGR

Pawe Kucharski11 ,, Grzegorz

Pawe Kucharski Grzegorz Lesiuk 1,a)

Lesiuk1,a) and Mieczysaw

and Szata11

Mieczysaw Szata

11

Wroclaw

Wroclaw University

University of

of Science

Science and

and Technology,

Technology, Department

Department of

of Mechanics,

Mechanics, Materials

Materials Science

Science and

and Engineering,

Engineering,

Smoluchowskiego str,

Smoluchowskiego str, 25

25 Wrocaw,

Wrocaw, 50-370

50-370 Poland

Poland

a)

a)

Corresponding author:

Corresponding author: grzegorz.lesiuk@pwr.edu.pl

grzegorz.lesiuk@pwr.edu.pl

Abstract. In

Abstract. In this

this paper,

paper, the

the theoretical

theoretical and

and experimental

experimental results

results of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth in

in AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel have

have been

been presented.

presented.

According to

According to the

the previous

previous theoretical

theoretical background

background -- the

the energy

energy parameter

parameter HH is is introduced

introduced as

as aa crack

crack driving

driving force

force in

in construction

construction

of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth rate

rate (FCGR)

(FCGR) diagrams.

diagrams. The

The physical

physical explanation

explanation ofof this

this model

model is

is also

also presented.

presented. In

In experimental

experimental parts

parts

of

of this

this work,

work, the

the kinetics

kinetics fatigue

fatigue fracture

fracture diagrams

diagrams (KFFD)

(KFFD) forfor AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel were

were constructed.

constructed. The

The main

main goal

goal of

of experimental

experimental

works

works was

was to

to investigate

investigate the

the influence

influence of

of microstructure

microstructure onon kinetics

kinetics of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth.

growth. TheThe AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel were

were tested

tested in

in

three

three different

different heat

heat treatment

treatment conditions.

conditions. As

As it

it has

has been

been confirmed,

confirmed, the

the energy

energy parameter H describes

parameter H describes the

the kinetics

kinetics of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack

growth

growth much

much more

more synonymously

synonymously thanthan the

the classical

classical stress

stress intensity

intensity factor K.

factor -- K.

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The

The fatigue

fatigue and

and fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth are

are ones

ones of

of main

main reasons

reasons of

of structure

structure failures.

failures. For

For over

over 50

50 years,

years, description

description of

of

kinetics

kinetics ofof the

the fatigue

fatigue fracture

fracture is

is one

one of

of the

the most

most important

important aspects

aspects of

of fracture

fracture mechanics.

mechanics. The

The pioneer

pioneer work

work in

in this

this

field

field is

is the

the Paris

Paris work

work [1]

[1] and

and his

his well-known

well-known empirical

empirical model

model of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth:

growth:

da

da m

= C(K)m

= C(K) , (1)

(1)

dN

dN

where: C,

where: C, m m are

are the

the constants

constants obtained

obtained experimentally

experimentally and and K represents the

K represents the stress

stress intensity

intensity factor

factor (SIF)

(SIF) range

range

corresponding to

corresponding to the

the alternating

alternating stress.

stress. The

The Paris

Paris law

law is

is one

one ofof the

the most

most popular

popular fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth rate

rate law.

law. In

In the

the

literature there

literature there isis aa high

high number

number of of modification

modification ofof the

the equation

equation (1).

(1). However,

However, manymany others

others are are still

still semi-empirical

semi-empirical

models. It

models. It means

means thatthat description

description ofof fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth is is not

not physically

physically clear.

clear. One

One reason

reason of of this

this inadequacy

inadequacy is is the

the

influence of

influence of the

the R-ratio

R-ratio on on kinetics

kinetics ofof fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth.

growth. There

There are

are not

not any

any exact

exact physical

physical explanation

explanation of of such

such anan

effect. One

effect. One ofof the

the hypothesis

hypothesis states,

states, that

that this

this problem

problem isis connected

connected with

with the

the crack

crack closure

closure effect.

effect. Since

Since the

the publication

publication

of Elbers

of Elbers work

work [2],[2], the

the problem

problem ofof crack

crack closure

closure effect

effect is

is aa major

major topic

topic in

in fracture

fracture mechanics

mechanics and and fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth

in terms

in terms of

of the

the mean

mean loadload influence.

influence. DueDue toto the

the correction

correction of the K

of the K to the K

to the Kee ff ff with

with consideration

consideration of of aa partial

partial

closure

closure of

of the

the fatigue

fatigue crack

crack it

it has

has been

been proved

proved that

that the

the R-ratio

R-ratio effect

effect is

is negligible.

negligible. The

The K Kee ff ff is

is defined

defined as:

as:

K =K

Kee ff ff = Kmax K

max op ,

Kop (2)

(2)

where

where the

the K max corresponds

Kmax corresponds to to aa maximal

maximal value

value of

of stress

stress intensity

intensity factor

factor and and the Kop

the Kop means

means the

the value

value of

of stress

stress intensity

intensity

factor

factor in

in the

the first

first stage

stage of

of the

the opening

opening fatigue

fatigue crack

crack inin each

each cycle

cycle of

of loading.

loading. However,

However, another

another group

group ofof the

the authors

authors

-- [3]

[3] indicates

indicates that

that the Kee ff ff does

the K does not

not always

always (not

(not fully)

fully) consolidate

consolidate the the experimental

experimental data

data in

in one

one line.

line. It

It seems

seems that

that

the

the crack

crack driving

driving force

force in

in this

this case

case should

should be

be much

much more

more complicated.

complicated. As As an

an example,

example, Kujawskis

Kujawskis parameter

parameter of of crack

crack

driving

driving force

force [4]

[4] can

can be

be presented:

presented:

K =

K = (K

(Kmax m

(K ++ ))1m

max )) (K

m 1m

, (3)

(3)

AIP Conf. Proc. 1780, 050003-1050003-8; doi: 10.1063/1.4965950

Published by AIP Publishing. 978-0-7354-1442-6/$30.00

050003-1

where: K ++ represents

where: K represents the

the positive

positive part

part of

of aa stress

stress intensity

intensity factor

factor range.

range. According

According to

to the

the above

above equation,

equation, we

we can

can

conclude that

conclude that the

the crack

crack driving

driving force

force is

is connected

connected with

with aa plastic

plastic zone

zone ahead

ahead of

of the

the crack

crack tip.

tip. The

The more

more physical

physical way

way

seems to

seems to be

be the

the energy

energy approach

approach described

described in

in aa further

further part

part of

of this

this work.

work.

THEORETICAL

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF ENERGY

BACKGROUND OF ENERGY DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION OF

OF FATIGUE

FATIGUE CRACK

CRACK

GROWTH PROCESS

GROWTH PROCESS

The energy

The energy approach

approach in

in fatigue

fatigue crack

crack modeling

modeling isis still

still developed

developed and

and more

more efficient

efficient with

with comparison

comparison to the K

to the crack

K crack

driving force.

driving force. The

The main

main characteristic

characteristic feature

feature of

of energy

energy models

models is

is proportionality

proportionality of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth rate

rate to K 44 ..

to K

As an

As an example,

example, the

the well-known

well-known model

model ofof Weertman

Weertman [5] [5] can

can be

be presented:

presented:

da

da AK 44

AK

=

= , (4)

(4)

dN

dN 22cc U

U

where: A

where: A -- experimental

experimental constant,

constant, U U -- aa critical

critical energy

energy necessary

necessary for for creating

creating thethe unit surface, -- shear

unit surface, modulus, 22cc

shear modulus,

-- critical

critical stress

stress at

at fracture.

fracture. The

The general

general consideration

consideration ofof energy modeling is

energy modeling is connected

connected with

with aa local

local damage

damage in

in process

process

zone

zone ahead

ahead of

of aa crack

crack tip.

tip. In

In this

this case,

case, the

the low

low cycle

cycle fatigue

fatigue approach

approach is is involved.

involved. One

One of

of the

the most

most important

important physical

physical

quantities

quantities isis the

the irrevocably

irrevocably dissipated

dissipated energy

energy ahead

ahead of

of aa crack

crack tip.

tip. The

The dissipated

dissipated energy

energy inin one

one cycle

cycle of

of loading

loading

can

can be

be calculated

calculated duedue to

to appearance

appearance of of the

the hysteresis

hysteresis loop Wcc .. A

loop -- W A general

general model

model of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth has

has been

been

proposed by

proposed by Bodner

Bodner [6]:

[6]:

da

da 11 dW

dW pp

=

= , (5)

(5)

dN

dN B(dW pp /dA) dN

B(dW dN

where aa is

where is the

the length

length of

of aa thru-thickness

thru-thickness crack,

crack, BB is

is aa specimen

specimen thickness,

thickness, and dW pp /dA represents

and dW represents the

the work

work per

per unit

unit

required

required forfor crack

crack surface

surface creation.

creation. The

The dW can be

dW pp /dA can be considered

considered as

as aa material

material property,

property, and

and it

it characterizes

characterizes mate-

mate-

rials resistance

rials resistance toto crack

crack growth.

growth. The

The numerical

numerical simulations

simulations have

have confirmed

confirmed thethe theoretical

theoretical energy

energy balance

balance modeling

modeling

for aa fatigue

for fatigue crack

crack using

using dissipated

dissipated energy

energy as

as aa main

main parameter

parameter responsible

responsible for

for fatigue

fatigue fracture

fracture process.

process. The

The authors

authors

of [7]

of [7] and

and [8]

[8] propose

propose the

the method

method ofof calculation

calculation of

of dissipated

dissipated energy

energy and

and they

they discussed

discussed some

some aspects

aspects inin experimental

experimental

verification and

verification and energy

energy measuring.

measuring.

Phenomenological Approach

Phenomenological Approach Based

Based on

on the

the Dimensional

Dimensional Analysis

Analysis

According to

According to the

the first

first principle

principle of

of thermodynamics

thermodynamics and and taking

taking into

into consideration

consideration the the energy

energy approach

approach forfor the

the fatigue

fatigue

crack

crack growth

growth (under

(under mode

mode II condition),

condition), Szata

Szata proposed

proposed inin 2002

2002 [11]

[11] the

the exact

exact closed

closed model

model for

for description

description ofof kinetics

kinetics

of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack surface

surface growth.

growth. One

One ofof the

the interesting

interesting proposals

proposals inin experimental

experimental mechanics

mechanics is is Dimensional

Dimensional Analysis.

Analysis.

Ciavarella

Ciavarella and

and Carpinteri

Carpinteri [9],

[9], [10]

[10] demonstrate

demonstrate thethe usefulness

usefulness of of the

the classical -Buckingham theorem

classical -Buckingham theorem inin fracture

fracture

mechanics. On

mechanics. On this

this ground,

ground, isis well

well elaborated

elaborated physical

physical interpretation

interpretation of of the

the empirical

empirical C,mC,m constants

constants from

from Paris

Paris law

law

(1). On

(1). On the

the other

other hand,

hand, the

the construction

construction of of mathematical

mathematical models

models isis not

not unique

unique and

and some

some ambiguity

ambiguity appears

appears duedue to

to

the dimensional

the dimensional basis

basis [12].

[12]. In

In this

this light,

light, one

one of

of interesting

interesting methods

methods in in Dimensional

Dimensional Analysis

Analysis isis the

the Universal

Universal Graph

Graph

method. This

method. This method

method has has been

been described

described byby Rybaczuk

Rybaczuk in in [12],[13]

[12],[13] and

and developed

developed in in [11].

[11]. This

This non-classical

non-classical method

method

reduces the

reduces the dimensional

dimensional dependences

dependences to to some

some functions

functions at

at the

the dimensionless

dimensionless fiber.

fiber. It

It should

should be

be underlined

underlined that

that it

it does

does

not break

not break aa symmetry

symmetry among

among incoming

incoming arguments

arguments [12].

[12]. The

The main

main algorithm

algorithm ofof this

this method

method should:

should:

identify

identify all

all dimensional

dimensional basis

basis related

related to

to the

the main

main process,

process,

treat

treat one

one of

of the

the physical

physical quantity

quantity as

as aa main

main parameter;

parameter; in

in this

this case

case this

this quantity

quantity should

should appear

appear in

in each

each product,

product,

construct

construct the

the hyper-plane

hyper-plane for

for each

each basis

basis -- treating

treating dimension

dimension A A as

as aa AA ..

According to

According to energy

energy consideration

consideration -- presented

presented inin [11],

[11], the

the quantity

quantity YY is

is treated

treated as

as the

the main

main variable

variable responsible

responsible for

for

fatigue crack

fatigue crack growth

growth process.

process. In

In this

this case,

case, for

for the

the two

two dimensions

dimensions (F,

(F, L)

L) five

five different

different multiplications

multiplications of

of the

the variables:

variables:

AB, AC,

AB, AC, AD,

AD, BC,

BC, BD

BD are

are available

available In

In order

order to

to construct

construct the

the hyper-plane

hyper-plane forfor each

each combination,

combination, itit is

is necessary

necessary to

to

obtain the

obtain the non-dimensional

non-dimensional point.

point. The

The generated

generated hyper-plane

hyper-plane can

can intersect

intersect the

the non-dimensional

non-dimensional fiber

fiber in

in one

one point

point or

or

may include

may include it.

it. The

The next

next step

step is

is to

to perform

perform the

the orbital

orbital structure.

structure. From

From geometric

geometric point

point of

of view,

view, the

the Universal

Universal Graph

Graph is

is

aa specific

specific cross-section

cross-section of

of the

the manifold

manifold ofof orbits.

orbits.

050003-2

TABLE 1.

TABLE 1. The

The dimensional

dimensional analysis

analysis variable

variable and

and its

its description

description

ID

ID VARIABLE

VARIABLE DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION DIMENSION

DIMENSION F

F L

L

Y

Y Wcc

W dissipated energy

dissipated energy per

per one

one cycle

cycle (reffered

(reffered to

to the thickness)

the thickness) [F]

[F] 11 00

1

A

A H

H energy parameter

energy parameter responsible

responsible for

for fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth [FL1

[FL ]] 11 -1

-1

B

B B

B specimen thickness

specimen thickness [L]

[L] 00 11

C

C K 22ff cc

K cyclic

cyclic stress

stress intensity

intensity factor

factor raised

raised to

to the

the power

power ofof two

two [F 22 L

[F L3

3

]] 22 -3

-3

22 22 3

D

D KImax

K Imax maximum

maximum stress

stress intensity

intensity factor

factor raised

raised to

to the

the power

power ofof two

two [F

[F L L3 ]] 22 -3

-3

According to

According to above

above and

and [11],

[11], five

five hyper-planes

hyper-planes have

have been

been proposed;

proposed; Y AB ,, Y

YAB YAD

AD ,, Y

YAC

AC ,, Y

YBC

BC ,, Y

YBD

BD .. The

The dimensionless

dimensionless

point has

point has been

been obtained

obtained for

for each

each hyper-plane:

hyper-plane:

AB

AB = ABY 1

= ABY 1

YAB

,Y AB =

1

= AB

AB AB,

1

AB, (6)

(6)

33 1

1 1 1 33 1

1

AD =A

AD = A DD Y 1

Y ,Y YAD

AD == AD

AD A

A DD1 , (7)

(7)

AC

AC ==AA33CC 1

1 1

Y YAC

Y 1 , Y AC =

1 33 1

1

= AC

AC A

AC C 1 , (8)

(8)

BC =B

BC = B1.5

1.5 0.5

C Y 1

C 0.5 Y 1

YBC

,Y BC =

1

= BC

1

=B

BC = B1.5

1.5 0.5

C

C 0.5 , (9)

(9)

BD =B

BD = B1.5

1.5 0.5

D

D0.5 YY 1

1

YBD

,Y BD =

1

= BD

1

=B

BD = B1.5

1.5 0.5

D

D0.5 . (10)

(10)

The orbital

The orbital structure

structure can

can be

be written

written as:

as:

1 33 1 1 33 1

1

AB AB =

AB AB

1 1

= AD

AD A

A D

D1 = 1

= AC

AC A

ACC 1 = 1

= BC

1

=B

BC = B1.5

1.5 0.5

C

C 0.5 = 1

= BD

1

=B

BD = B1.5

1.5 0.5

D

D0.5 . (11)

(11)

Due to

Due to dimensional

dimensional dependency,

dependency, it

it is

is clear

clear that:

that:

22 22

AC BC

AC = AD

BC = AD BD

BD , AD = AC

AD = AC . (12)

(12)

Considering

Considering the

the identity

identity (12)

(12) and

and using

using the

the substitution:

substitution:

ii1

1

= ii jj ,

jj = (13)

(13)

we obtain

we obtain aa new,

new, simplified

simplified structure

structure of

of orbits:

orbits:

AB AB =

AB AB = AD A3D1

AD A3D

1

= BC

= B1.5

BC B

1.5 0.5

C

C 0.5 . (14)

(14)

Considering

Considering the

the transformation

transformation to

to new

new dimensionless

dimensionless variables

variables the

the universal

universal graph

graph is

is described

described by

by the

the equation:

equation:

(11 , 22 , 33 )) =

( const,

= const, (15)

(15)

AD BC

where 11 =

where = AB =

AB ,, 22 =

AD

AB

AB

,, =

33 = BC

AB

AB

.. Using linear

Using linear regression

regression (here

(here a=b=1),

a=b=1), it

it was

was possible

possible to

to obtain

obtain the

the approximation

approximation

formula:

formula:

11 =

= aa b22 2323 .

b (16)

(16)

Finally, after

Finally, after the

the transformation

transformation and

and returning

returning to

to the

the initial

initial physical

physical quantities,quantities, the new H

the new energy parameter

H energy parameter is

is

introduced:

introduced:

Wcc

W

H

H = = 22 ! . (17)

(17)

B KKKKII MAX

B 11 MAX

ff cc

Finally, it

Finally, it lead

lead us

us to

to the

the kinetic

kinetic equation

equation of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth which

which is

is presented

presented and

and physically

physically elaborated

elaborated in

in [11],

[11],

[14] ::

[14]

da

da W

Wcc

=

= 22 ! , (18)

(18)

dN pl

dN ff cc

pl ff

B KKKKII MAX

B 11 MAX

ff cc

where

where pl and ff cc represent

pl ff and represent respectively

respectively the

the cyclic

cyclic yield

yield stress

stress and

and cyclic,

cyclic, critical

critical strain

strain and

and the

the is

is aa constant.

constant.

This

This equation

equation can

can bebe rewritten

rewritten to to the

the similar

similar Paris-like

Paris-like model:

model:

da

da H nn

=

= = (H ))nn ,

= 11 (H (19)

(19)

dN pl

dN ff cc

pl ff

where H =

where H = H

H B

B and

and 11 is

is aa constant

constant value.

value.

050003-3

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

In order

In order to

to investigate

investigate implementation

implementation possibilities

possibilities into

into engineering

engineering practice

practice (as

(as an

an alternative

alternative for K) of

for K) of model

model (18)

(18) aa

series of

series of experiments

experiments was

was performed.

performed. Some

Some results

results and

and the

the R-ratios

R-ratios problem

problem has

has been

been discussed

discussed inin previous

previous works

works of

of

the authors.

the authors. InIn this

this case,

case, the

the main

main object

object of

of investigation

investigation was

was the

the AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel with

with different

different microstructure

microstructure types.

types.

Material Properties

Material Properties

For all

For all experiments

experiments the

the AISI

AISI 5140

5140 (41Cr4)

(41Cr4) steel

steel was

was used.

used. Chemical

Chemical composition

composition of

of this

this steel

steel is

is shown

shown in

in Tab.

Tab. 2.

2. The

The

TABLE

TABLE 2. 2. Chemical

Chemical composition

composition of

of AISI

AISI 5140

5140

steel

steel (in

(in mass

mass percent)

percent)

C

C Si

Si Mn

Mn Cr

Cr Ni

Ni Mo

Mo S

S

0.4

0.4 0.2

0.2 0.6

0.6 0.9

0.9 0.2

0.2 0.1

0.1 0.03

0.03

detailed data

detailed data of

of heat

heat treatment

treatment procedure

procedure and

and the

the basic

basic mechanical

mechanical properties

properties are

are collected

collected in

in table

table 3.

3. Three

Three types

types

TABLE 3.

TABLE 3. The

The heat

heat treatment

treatment details

details and

and basic

basic mechanical

mechanical properties

properties of

of AISI

AISI 5140

5140

ID

ID HEAT TREATMENT

HEAT TREATMENT HARDNESS MICROSTRUCTURE YTS

HARDNESS MICROSTRUCTURE YTS [MPa]

[MPa] UTS [MPa]

UTS [MPa]

H870O200

H870O200 Q870T200 -- oil

Q870T200 oil 49 HRC

49 HRC martensite

martensite 1641

1641 1790

1790

H870O450

H870O450 Q870T450

Q870T450 -- oil

oil 39

39 HRC

HRC sorbite

sorbite 1150

1150 1306

1306

H870O700

H870O700 Q870T700

Q870T700 -- oil

oil 27

27 HRC

HRC troostite

troostite 660

660 756

756

of

of heat

heat treatment

treatment procedures

procedures has

has been

been performed

performed in

in order

order to

to obtain

obtain the

the different

different material

material hardness

hardness and

and stress-strain

stress-strain

behavior.

behavior.

Kinetics

Kinetics of

of Fatigue

Fatigue Crack

Crack Growth

Growth

Fatigue

Fatigue crack

crack growth

growth experiments

experiments were

were performed

performed according

according to

to the ASTM E647

the ASTM E647 [15]

[15] using

using CT

CT specimens

specimens with

with char-

char-

acteristics

acteristics dimensions

dimensions (all

(all in

in mm):

mm): W=48, t=18. Before

W=48, t=18. Before aa main

main part

part of

of experiment,

experiment, the

the specimen

specimen were

were grinded

grinded and

and

polished

polished to

to aa mirror

mirror surface

surface and

and precracked.

precracked. The

The experimental setup is

experimental setup is shown

shown in

in Fig.

Fig. 1.

1. The

The crack

crack length

length was

was mon-

mon-

itored

itored using

using two

two methods;

methods; visual

visual method

method (traveling

(traveling microscope)

microscope) and

and automated

automated compliance

compliance one.

one. The

The stress

stress intensity

intensity

factor

factor for

for CT

CT specimen

specimen has

has been

been calculated

calculated using

using the

the formula

formula ([15]):

([15]):

aa aa aa aa aa aa 1.5 F

F

K = (2

KII = (2 +

+ )(0.886 + 4.64

)(0.886 + 4.64 13.32( ))22 +

13.32( 14.72( ))33

+ 14.72( 5.6( ))44 )(1

5.6( ))1.5

)(1

, (20)

(20)

W

W W

W W

W W

W W

W W

W BBnn W

BB W

where: F

where: F -- applied

applied load,

load, WW -- specimen

specimen width,

width, aa -- crack

crack length,

length, B B -- specimen

specimen thickness,

thickness, Bn

Bn -- specimen

specimen thickness

thickness after

after

side grooving.

side grooving. AllAll the

the experiments

experiments werewere performed using K

performed using K decreasing

decreasing test.

test. In

In order

order toto obtain

obtain the

the critical

critical stress

stress

intensity factor

intensity factor range the K

range -- the K -- increasing

increasing test

test was

was used.

used. TheThe initial

initial maximum

maximum force force was

was FF= 10kN for

= 10kN for the

the H870O200

H870O200

specimen and

specimen and FF = 15kN for

= 15kN for H870O450,

H870O450, H870O700

H870O700 (K (K decreasing

decreasing test).

test). Two

Two different

different levels

levels of

of stress

stress ratio

ratio was

was

used; R=0.1

used; R=0.1 andand R=0.75

R=0.75 withwith keeping

keeping loading

loading frequency

frequency on on the level ff =

the level 10Hz. In

= 10Hz. In Fig.

Fig. 2,2, the

the FCGR-curves

FCGR-curves were were

shown for

shown for the

the different

different heat

heat treatments

treatments of of material.

material. AsAs it it was

was expected,

expected, the the differences

differences in in kinetics

kinetics of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack

growth are

growth are observed.

observed. The

The fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth rate

rate is

is increasing

increasing withwith hardness

hardness of of the

the material

material for

for different

different R-ratios.

R-ratios.

In order

In order toto satisfy

satisfy the

the equation

equation (18),

(18), the

the W quantity -- hysteresis

Wcc quantity hysteresis loop

loop area

area was

was registered.

registered. For

For this

this purpose,

purpose, the

the

force (F)

force (F) signal

signal and

and COD

COD (v)(v) signal

signal (measured

(measured in in load

load line)

line) were

were periodically

periodically stored

stored for

for aa few

few cycles.

cycles. The

The periods

periods ofof

data stored

data stored correspond

correspond with the a

with the a = 0.2mm -- crack

= 0.2mm crack growth

growth interval.

interval. TheThe energy

energy parameter

parameter was was calculated

calculated using

using the

the

automatic algorithm

automatic algorithm implemented

implemented in in HP

HP VEE

VEE [16]

[16] visual

visual object

object programing

programing language.

language. The

The most

most important

important part

part of

of the

the

signal processing

signal processing in in hysteresis

hysteresis loop

loop area

area calculations

calculations is is the

the problem

problem of of the

the discrete

discrete nature

nature of of the

the F(force)-COD(crack

F(force)-COD(crack

opening displacement)

opening displacement) registration.

registration. This

This problem

problem is is aa crucial

crucial when

when thethe hysteresis

hysteresis loops

loops are

are almost

almost straight

straight lines

lines in

in

near threshold

near threshold regime.

regime. The

The first

first and

and last

last point

point of

of the

the hysteresis

hysteresis looploop are

are not

not always

always coincident.

coincident. This

This problem

problem can can cause

cause

aa significant

significant differences

differences inin energy

energy calculation.

calculation. InIn order

order to to avoid

avoid this,

this, aa special

special signal

signal processing

processing procedure

procedure has has been

been

050003-4

FIGURE 1.

FIGURE Measurement stand

1. Measurement stand a)

a) scheme,

scheme, b) b) experimental

experimental setup;

setup; 11 -- clevis

clevis and

and CT

CT specimen,

specimen, 22 -- extensometer,

extensometer, 33 --

traveling

traveling microscope,

microscope, 4

4 -- eyepieces,

eyepieces, 5

5 -- digital

digital CMOS

CMOS camera,

camera, 66 -- tripod,

tripod, 77 -- PC

PC computer

computer

implemented.

implemented. According

According to

to Kaleta

Kaleta [17]

[17] the

the algorithm

algorithm of

of hysteresis

hysteresis loop

loop area

area calculation

calculation can

can be

be used

used with

with the

the FFT

FFT

(Fast

(Fast Fourier

Fourier Transformation)

Transformation) method.

method. The experimental force

The experimental force signal

signal can

can be

be treated

treated as

as aa sinusoidal

sinusoidal wave form:

wave form:

X

F() =

F() = (c

(c pp sins + dd pp coss),

sins + coss), (21)

(21)

p=1

p=1

where cc pp and

where and dd pp represent

represent the

the sine

sine and

and cosine

cosine (Fourier

(Fourier series

series coefficients).

coefficients). Of

Of course,

course, the

the COD

COD signal

signal v()

v() can

can be

be

divided

divided into

into the

the same

same manner:

manner:

X

v() =

v() = (a ss sins

(a + bb ss coss).

sins + coss). (22)

(22)

s=1

s=1

In

In this

this case

case we

we can

can calculate

calculate the

the dissipated

dissipated energy

energy (W

(Wcc )) using

using the

the following

following equation:

equation:

TT

dv()

I Z

dv() X

W =

W = F()dv =

F()dv = F()

F() d =

d = p(a

p(a pp dd pp

bb pp cc pp ).

). (23)

(23)

00 d

d p=1

p=1

Lack

Lack of

of coicidence

coicidence of

of starting

starting and

and ending

ending points

points of

of the

the hysteresis

hysteresis loop

loop is

is resolved

resolved using

using the

the resampling

resampling procedure

procedure

(well

(well described

described in

in [17]).

[17]).

(a)

(a) (b)

(b)

FIGURE

FIGURE 2. Kinetic fatigue

2. Kinetic fatigue fracture

fracture diagram

diagram for

for AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel based

based on

on the K parameter:(a)

the K parameter:(a) -- R=0.1,

R=0.1, (b)

(b) -- R=0.75

R=0.75

The experimental

The experimental constants

constants required

required by

by the

the equations

equations (1

(1 and

and 19)

19) has

has been

been collected

collected in

in tables:

tables: 44 and

and 5.

5.

050003-5

(a)

(a) (b)

(b)

FIGURE 3.

FIGURE 3. Kinetic

Kinetic fatigue

fatigue fracture

fracture diagram

diagram for

for AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel based

based on

on the H parameter:(a)

the H parameter:(a) -- R=0.1,

R=0.1, (b)

(b) -- R=0.75

R=0.75

(a)

(a) (b)

(b)

FIGURE 4.

FIGURE 4. Elber

Elber closure

closure parameter

parameter as

as aa function

function of:

of: (a) K, (b)

(a) -- K, W, [18]

(b) -- W, [18]

TABLE

TABLE 4. 4. Experimental

Experimental data

data of

of the

the FCGR

FCGR (R=0.1)

(R=0.1) experiments

experiments

for

for AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel

C

C m

m R22

R 11 nn R22

R

H870O200

H870O200 6e-10

6e-10 3.89

3.89 0.99

0.99 1e-4

1e-4 1.46

1.46 0.98

0.98

H870O450

H870O450 1e-9

1e-9 3.75

3.75 0.94

0.94 3e-4

3e-4 1.63

1.63 0.95

0.95

H870O700

H870O700 2e-10

2e-10 3.83

3.83 0.99

0.99 1e-4

1e-4 1.27

1.27 0.96

0.96

all

all data

data 1e-9

1e-9 3.54

3.54 0.94

0.94 2e-4

2e-4 1.47

1.47 0.95

0.95

TABLE

TABLE 5.5. Experimental

Experimental data

data of

of the

the FCGR

FCGR (R=0.75)

(R=0.75) experi-

experi-

ments

ments for

for AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel

C

C m

m R22

R 11 nn R22

R

H870O200

H870O200 1e-8

1e-8 3.51

3.51 0.95

0.95 2e-4

2e-4 1.21

1.21 0.99

0.99

H870O450

H870O450 2e-8

2e-8 2.97

2.97 0.94

0.94 2e-4

2e-4 1.17

1.17 0.96

0.96

H870O700

H870O700 9e-9

9e-9 2.85

2.85 0.99

0.99 1e-4

1e-4 1.24

1.24 0.98

0.98

all data

all data 3e-8

3e-8 2.71

2.71 0.88

0.88 1e-4

1e-4 1.18

1.18 0.95

0.95

It is

It is noticeable

noticeable that

that for

for the

the (R=0.75)

(R=0.75) the higher data

the higher data scatter

scatter (for

(for all

all the

the materials

materials in

in comparison

comparison with

with the

the R=0.1)

R=0.1)

in K diagram

in K diagram is is observed.

observed. The

The values

values of

of R-ratio

R-ratio were

were chosen

chosen duedue to

to the

the expected

expected crack

crack closure

closure effect.

effect. In

In case

case of

of

R=0.75, this

R=0.75, this effect

effect can

can be

be negligible

negligible on

on the

the contrary

contrary to

to R=0.1.

R=0.1. InIn case,

case, of

of the H diagram

the H diagram it

it can

can be

be concluded

concluded that,

that,

the

the differences

differences inin kinetics

kinetics of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth are

are smaller.

smaller. It

It is

is observed

observed that

that differences

differences in

in FCGR

FCGR curves

curves are

are much

much

higher

higher (closure

(closure free,

free, R=0.75)

R=0.75) especially

especially between

between H870O200

H870O200 (brittle

(brittle behavior)

behavior) and

and H870O700

H870O700 (ductile

(ductile behavior).

behavior). In

In

050003-6

R=0.1, there

R=0.1, there are

are not

not any

any significant

significant differences

differences in

in FCGR

FCGR curves.

curves. This

This effect

effect can

can be

be caused

caused by

by the

the crack

crack closure

closure effect.

effect.

In

In another

another work

work [18]

[18] it

it was

was demonstrated

demonstrated thatthat the

the energy

energy parameter

parameter isis more

more synonymous

synonymous than K. The

than K. The exemplary

exemplary

results for

results for ancient

ancient type

type of

of low

low carbon

carbon steel

steel has

has been

been shown

shown in

in Fig.

Fig. 4.

4. According

According toto above,

above, the

the history

history of

of loading

loading caused

caused

some differences

some differences inin closure

closure level.

level. It

It seems,

seems, that

that the

the incorporation

incorporation of

of the

the extra

extra parameter

parameter to

to the

the Szata

Szata model

model (19)

(19) plays

plays

the important

the important role

role in

in microstructural

microstructural sensitivity

sensitivity of

of this

this model.

model.

SUMMARY AND

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

CONCLUSIONS

In the

In the paper,

paper, the

the problem

problem of of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth rate

rate description

description from

from the

the energy

energy point

point of

of view

view has

has been

been presented

presented and

and

discussed. The

discussed. The Universal

Universal Graph

Graph method

method (based

(based onon Dimensional

Dimensional Analysis

Analysis approach)

approach) waswas used

used for

for phenomenological

phenomenological

formulation of

formulation of the

the kinetic

kinetic equation.

equation. TheThe invariance

invariance from

from R-ratio

R-ratio has

has been

been confirmed

confirmed in in the

the previous

previous works

works [11]

[11] and

and

[14]. The

[14]. The experimental

experimental results

results ofof kinetics

kinetics of

of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack growth

growth for

for the

the AISI

AISI 5140

5140 steel

steel have

have been

been presented.

presented. Three

Three

different heat

different heat treatments

treatments procedures

procedures werewere involved.

involved. The

The kinetic

kinetic fatigue

fatigue fracture

fracture diagrams

diagrams werewere constructed

constructed using

using the

the

K

K and H parameters.

and H parameters. As As itit was

was expected,

expected, the

the models

models were

were sensitive

sensitive for

for the

the different

different mechanism

mechanism of of fatigue

fatigue crack

crack

propagation due

propagation due toto different

different microstructures.

microstructures. TheThe crack

crack closure

closure effect

effect was

was observed

observed (not

(not fully,

fully, considered

considered analyti-

analyti-

cally) in

cally) in case

case of

of the

the R=0.1.

R=0.1. In In case

case of

of the

the energy

energy description, the 11 scatter

description, the scatter is

is smaller

smaller than

than Paris

Paris C

C -- constants.

constants. The

The

independency the

independency the Elber

Elber parameter

parameter from

from aa history

history of

of loading

loading was

was presented

presented (based

(based onon [18]).

[18]). The

The further

further development

development

of the

of the energy

energy model

model should

should be be focused

focused onon incorporation

incorporation of

of the

the crack

crack closure

closure effect

effect and

and microstructural

microstructural parameter

parameter

consideration.

consideration.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This

This work

work has

has been

been supported

supported by

by the

the Wroclaw

Wroclaw University

University of

of Technology

Technology and

and Science

Science Grant

Grant no

no B50090/W10/K10.

B50090/W10/K10.

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