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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Timoshenko beam-column

Pablo M. Pez , Beradi Sensale

Facultad de Ingeniera, Universidad de la Repblica, Julio Herrera y Reissig 565, Montevideo, Uruguay

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: A new formulation for the analysis of guyed towers in which the mast is modeled as a continuous equiv-

Received 11 July 2017 alent beam-column on non-linear elastic supports, is proposed. Because second-order effects must not be

Revised 16 August 2017 neglected and given the importance of consider the shear deformation in the analysis of this type of

Accepted 16 September 2017

structures, the method proposes the calculation of the second-order deformation using the stability func-

tions based on the Timoshenko beam column. The equivalent beam-column properties of the mast are

calculated depending on the pattern construction of the tower and the guys are replaced by non-linear

Keywords:

elastic supports. Based on the catenary configuration of the cable, the spring constant is obtained from

Guyed towers

Stability functions

the secant modulus of the cable. In order to validate the proposed method, a comparative study is carried

Second order analysis out analyzing a guyed mast using the proposed method and a numerical model through the use of finite

Geometric non-linearity elements. As a main conclusions we will mention that, the proposed method are sufficiently accurate

compared to the finite element method, confirming the validity of the hypotheses adopted in the devel-

opment of the method and; the reduction of the computational effort, since the structure does not need

to be discretized into a large number of elements for the convergence.

2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

one consists of an elastic three-dimensional truss model where

Radio and television communications, as well as cellular tele- the mast is modeled as a space framework whose bars are con-

phony, are possible in the modern world thanks to structures that nected by ideal frictionless joints and consequently can only pro-

support equipment transmitting signals from one place to another. duce axial force, and finally, an elastic three-dimensional model

Due to the great resistance in relation to the material consumption can be performed where some of the members of the mast are

and permeability, steel trussed towers are structures in wide use in modeled as elements that can produce both bending moments

support of communication systems. These structures are usually and axial forces, and others as elements that can only produce axial

slender and light elements, mostly located in exposed places, so force. In the last two methods of analysis, the guys are modeled as

environmental loads prevail in the design. cable elements.

Two types of trussed towers are used according to their struc- The complexity in the analysis of the guyed towers lies in the

tural behavior: the self-supporting and the guyed mast. When inherent non-linearity that these structures present: the non-

large heights are required and conditions at the installation site linearity of the guys and the geometric non-linearity. The slender-

permit, guyed masts, because of their steel economy relative to ness of these towers makes them susceptible to the buckling phe-

the self-supporting ones, are the ones usually used. However, the nomenon; in other words, second-order effects must not be

presence of the guys confers a complex structural behavior on neglected. The horizontal actions cause displacements that

the environmental loads. increase the level of tension in the guys and in turn the forces of

For the analysis of guyed masts several methods can be applied. compression on the tower. These compression forces tend to

The TIA 222-G standard specifies three types of analysis [1]. The increase displacement and so on, a phenomenon commonly

first one consists of an analysis where the tower is modeled as an referred to as the P-D effect.

equivalent beam-column supported by cables represented either Among the methods of the first type, based on the beam-

column model, different researchers have made different proposals

Corresponding author. for more than fifty years. Cohen and Perrin [2] proposed a

E-mail addresses: ppaez@fing.edu.uy (P.M. Pez), sensale@fing.edu.uy two-dimensional analysis using a beam-column model on elastic

(B. Sensale).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.09.036

0141-0296/ 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

598 P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606

supports, considering only the flexural stiffness of the beam. In the One of the main advantages of the method is the reduction of

same sense, Ezra [3] proposed a two-dimensional analysis based the computational effort, since the structure does not need to be

on the beam-column model on non-linear elastic supports and discretized into a large number of elements for the convergence

considering the torsion of the structure by torsion springs. Basi- and hence the method can be more useful in the pre-design stages.

cally, the analysis consists of calculating the displacements of the Another advantage of the method is that the effects of shear defor-

structure in iterative form from an arbitrary set of initial displace- mation are taken into account directly from the geometrical prop-

ments. Kalha [4] proposes an approximate method for the analysis erties of the tower by the use of stability functions based on the

of guyed masts using an equivalent beam-column for the tower Timoshenko beam-column, without the need for mathematical

model and cable elements for the guys model. Although the artifice to consider such effects. In addition, the proposed analyti-

method takes into account the geometric coupling among the dif- cal method uses the basic and more general concepts from the

ferent degrees of freedom and the second-order effects, it is diffi- point of view of structural engineering, this means that the engi-

cult to apply because it requires a high degree of computational neer can quickly visualize the parameters that influence the design.

programming. Wahba et al. [5] analyzed three different models In order to validate the proposed method, a comparative study

for the guyed masts, one of which consisted of modeling the tower is carried out, analyzing a guyed mast using the proposed method

as an equivalent beam-column and non-linear cable elements for and a numerical model through the use of finite elements by SAP

the guys. Their results validated the conclusions of the previous 2000 software [14].

studies by Kahla and confirmed the non-linear geometric response

of these structures to wind loads. Margariti and Gantes [6] propose

2. The guyed towers

an approximate method based on the classic expressions of buck-

ling for the calculation of the elastic critical load in guyed masts

The towers are constructed from a series of vertical bars, gener-

and pylons of cable-stayed bridges. This method is based on a sin-

ally denominated as legs, horizontal bars and diagonal bars, thus

gle span beam-column model, considering only the flexural stiff-

forming a space truss. The frequently used tower cross-section is

ness of the mast or pylon. The non-linearity of the guys is taken

the equilateral triangular, although square sections may be used

into account by the equivalent modulus of elasticity obtained from

in some cases. For smaller structures, the structural elements of

the tangent modulus of the cables. Williamson and Margolin [7]

the lattice are materialized by solid circular steel bars, while for

studied the effect of shear force in the design of guyed masts. For

larger sized structures circular steel tubes, angles profiles, and steel

this, they used an equivalent beam-column model on elastic sup-

cold-formed profiles are used.

port, replacing the trussed web system of each face by a fictitious

The guys provide side support to the towers. In general, they are

solid web of the same shear stiffness but having zero flexural stiff-

placed uniformly distributed on the height and are prestressed. In

ness. Their results showed the importance of considering the

the case of towers of triangular section, three cables are placed at

effects of shear deformation in the analysis of guyed masts. Based

each level of guys and in the case of a square section four cables are

on the equivalent beam-column method, Pez and Sensale [8] pro-

placed per level. The guys are anchored to the ground in such a way

pose an analytical method for the calculation of guyed masts using

that the angles that form the planes constituted by each cable and

the stability functions based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory. The

the tower are equal. The typical inclinations used for the cables,

guys are replaced by non-linear elastic supports and the effect of

measured as the angle formed by the cable with the horizontal,

the shear deformations are taken into account by a reduced second

are of the order of 4060, being able to reach smaller inclinations

order moment obtained from the Timoshenko beam theory.

for the cables of the first level.

Among the different methods of analysis, the most commonly

The initial stress of pretensioning of the cables is one of the

used today are based on finite elements. These methods are very

main parameters that affect the stability of this type of structure

accurate; however, for convergence of the solutions, it is necessary

[15]. This is imposed during the construction of the mast and must

to discretize the structure into a large number of elements, and

be checked periodically. The TIA 222-G standard recommends

requires a great effort of computer programming [4,5]. On the

average values of 10% of the cable breaking stress, with a range

other hand, analytical methods require complex analyses, and

of variation between 7% and 15% of the breaking stress, since

although they allow us to obtain solutions whose results are close

within this range the effects of vibration and the aeroelastic insta-

to those obtained by the use of finite elements, in general they pre-

bility can be neglected. For its part, the EN 1993-1-11 standard

sent significant differences [2,3,6,7]. It is for this reason that in this

provides somewhat more general guidelines, allowing initial stres-

work it is proposed to develop a new analytical method for the

ses of up to 45% of the breaking stress. However, it requires the

analysis of guyed masts based on the equivalent beam-column

verification of vibration and the aeroelastic instability [16].

model. In this sence, the method maintains the rigor of the analyt-

This work will focus on towers of equilateral triangular cross-

ical methods but their application is simple. In other words, suffi-

section, although most of the reasonings presented here can

ciently accurate solutions are obtained for the design of guyed

extend to towers of square cross-section.

towers in a reasonable time and with a reasonable effort. The pro-

posed method is motivated by the work of Pez and Sensale [8].

The main difference between this method and that of Pez and 3. Model of the tower: Equivalent beam-column properties

Sensale is essentially in the way the two methods compute the

second-order deformation. The model of the tower as an equivalent beam-column is based

The proposed method considers the non-linearity of the cables on the following assumptions: the material of the beam presents a

and the second-order effects. For this purpose, the tower is mod- linear elastic behavior, the deformations of the beam are small, and

eled as a continuous equivalent beam-column, on non-linear elas- let us assume that, under the action of the bending moment and

tic supports, whose axial stiffness, flexural stiffness and shear the shear force, the perpendicular plane sections to the longitudi-

stiffness are calculated depending on the pattern construction of nal axis of the beam before it is deformed, remain plane but not

the tower [9]. The guys are replaced by non-linear elastic supports necessarily perpendicular to the deformed longitudinal beam axis.

whose spring constant is obtained from the secant modulus of These hypotheses correspond to the Timoshenko beam theory.

elasticity of the cables [10]. The method proposes the calculation Fig. 1 shows the typical lacing configuration of the trussed web

of the second-order deformation using the stability functions of one of the faces of the tower. For each of these patterns, the geo-

based on the Timoshenko beam-column [1113]. metrical properties of the equivalent beam-column can be

P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606 599

Fig. 1. Typical lacing configurations of the trussed web of one of the faces of the tower.

Table 1

Geometric properties of equivalent beam-column section according to the pattern of one face of the tower (adapted from [8]).

EA 3 E Am 3 E Am 3 E Am 3 E Am Ab

E Iy , E Iz 1

E Am a2 1

E Am a2 1

E Am a2 b

2 E a Am A

1 2

2 2 2

G Ay , G Az 1 3 E Ad w1

u 3

2E Ad w1 3

2E Ad w1

3

2

1

EAd w1 tan

EAh

E and G are the modulus of elasticity and the shear modulus of the material.

E A is the equivalent axial stiffness of the beam-column.E Iz , E Iy , G Az and G Ay are the flexural stiffness and shear stiffness of the equivalent beam-column with respect to

coordinate axes z and y, respectively.

Am, Ad and Ah are the cross-sections of the legs of the diagonal and horizontal bars that make up the lattice, respectively.

a and b are the distance between the legs and the distance between the horizontal bars, respectively.

u is the angle formed by the legs with the diagonal bars.

2

w1 sin u cos u

b Ad Ah cos3 3u

A

Ah 2Ad sin u

2

obtained using the principle of virtual works. Table 1 shows these d r1 r0 ccb c1 1

cb r1 sinhccb c cb r1 r0 sinh ccb c cb r0

2 1

properties for the case of triangular cross-section towers [4,9]. lcb 2Ecb ccb cosh 1=2ccb ccb r1 1

4Ecb ccb r0 sinh1=2ccb ccb r1

1

r1 sinh 1=2ccb ccb r1

4. The guys model 0

1

2Ecb ccb cosh 1=2ccb ccb r11

Consider an inclined cable whose chord length is lcb and its hor- where Ecb is the modulus of elasticity of the cable, r1 and r0 are the

izontal projection ccb, subjected to the action of a chord force T0 and stresses in the cable due to the chord forces T1 and T0, respectively,

to a vertical dead load gcb (Fig. 2). Based on the catenary configura- and ccb is the density of the cable material.

tion of the cable, by applying a chord force T1, the cable elongation The non-linearity between the chord force and the elongation

d can be expresed by Eq. (1) [10]: due to the sagging change under different load conditions can be

Fig. 2. Inclined cable subjected to a vertical dead load per unit length: relationship between the chord force and the chord length (adapted from [8]).

600 P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606

Fig. 3. Secant modulus of elasticity vs. final cable stress, taking Ecb = 185 GPa and r0 0:1 f u 140 (adapted from [8]).

of the cable. In this way, the non-linear phenomenon can be trea-

ted as a linear one. However, the tangent modulus of elasticity

should be used when the relationship between the stresses r1

and r0 is small; otherwise, the secant modulus of elasticity must

be used. Its expression is given by Eq. (2) [10]:

Dr r 1 r 0

Esec ccb 2

De d

The graph of Fig. 3 shows the variation of the secant modulus of

elasticity as a function of the final stress r1 for cable lengths of

60 m, 100 m and 160 m, whose modulus of elasticity is Ecb 185

GPa and whose initial stress is r0 140 MPa, corresponding to

10% of the breaking stress. It can be seen that for final stresses of

the order of 50% of the breaking stress, the ratio of the modulus

of elasticity of the cable to the secant modulus of elasticity does

not exceed 10% for a cable length of 160 m, or 4% for a cable length

of 100 m.

Fig. 5. Chord force vs. elongation of the cable from the initial tensioning condition

4.2. The cable system: the equivalent spring stiffness (adapted from [10]).

equilibrium, formed by the mast and two guys (Fig. 4). If we deform and its position can be described as a horizontal displace-

apply a horizontal force at the upper end of the mast, it will ment u and a vertical one w, both components of the displace-

ment being small. Since the mast displacement is composed of

a rigid movement and by the flexion thereof, it can be assumed

that the displacement w is an infinitesimal of the second order

of u (w O u2 ) [17].

When the mast deforms, the cable to the left will lengthen while

the one to the right will be shortened. If both cables are subjected to

an initial chord force T0, the cable on the left will experience a

rapid increase in tension while the cable on the right will undergo

a rapid drop. Fig. 5 shows schematically the foregoing reasoning.

Referring to Fig. 4, the elongation of the left cable d1 and the

shortening of the right cable d2 as a function of the horizontal dis-

placement u can be expressed by Eq. (3):

ccb

d1 d2 u 3

lcb

If the applied force F is of unit value and considering a linear

Fig. 4. Symmetrical plane system formed by the mast and two guys. Deformed

relationship between stress and strain by using the secant modulus

configuration when applying a horizontal force F at the upper end of the mast of elasticity, Eq. (2), the equivalent spring constant used to replace

(adapted form [17]). the cable system is Eq. (4):

P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606 601

ccb

d1 u

2 lcb

ccb 5

d2 u

lcb

Equating the horizontal forces, Eq. (6),

c2cb

Esec;1 2 Esec;2 Acb u 3

1 6

2 lcb

Therefore, the equivalent elastic spring constant used to replace

the cable system is determined by Eq. (7):

c2cb

keq Esec;1 2 Esec;2 Acb 3

7

2 lcb

From Eqs. (1), (5) and (7), we can conclude that, under the

assumptions made, the structure of Fig. 6 is more flexible in the

positive direction of the U-axis than in the negative direction.

5. Proposed method

Fig. 6. Three-dimensional system formed by the mast and three cables of equal

chord length and equal inclination (adapted from [8]).

Consider a guyed mast structure of height ht , with n levels of

guys uniformly spaced by a distance hj. Without loss of generality,

c2cb

keq Esec;1 Esec;2 Acb 3

4 let us consider that the structure is fixed at the base, as shown in

lcb Fig. 7a.

The tower will be subject to vertical distributed loads pz z;

where Acb is the cross-sectional area of the cables, Esec;1 and Esec;2 are

being their self-weight; to vertical concentrated loads P z , due, for

the secant modulus of elasticity of the cable being stretched and the

example, to the weight of the ancillaries, but in general they will

cable being shortened, respectively, and a the inclination of the

be due to the lengthening and shortening of the cables and the

cables with respect to the horizontal.

wind load on them; and to horizontal concentrated and distributed

Let us now consider the three-dimensional system constituted

loads Px and px z, respectively, basically due to the action of the

by the mast and three cables of equal chord length lcb, equal incli-

wind on the tower, the guys and the ancillaries.

nation a and such that the planes formed by each cable and the

Taking into account the static equilibrium in the deformed posi-

mast are equidistant to each other, to which a horizontal force F

tion in node j, referring to Fig. 7b, we can write for the continuity

of unit value is applied in the upper end of the mast in the direction

bending moment, j-1, Eq. (8) [8]:

of the U-axis (Fig. 6). If the force is applied in the positive direction

of the U-axis (as shown in the figure), the relationship between the X

in

X

in

M j1 M j Hi P x;i keq;i v i hi M e;i v j v j1

elongation d1 of the cables to windward and the horizontal dis- ij ij

in

placement u, as well as the relationship between the shortening X Esec;1 Esec;2 zcb;i zcb;i

d2 of the cable to leeward and the horizontal displacement can Pz0;i Pz;i 2 keq;i v i 3 T 0;i 8

Esec;1 2 Esec;2 i ccb;i ccb;i

be expressed by Eq. (5) [8]: ij

Fig. 7. (a) External loads on the guyed mast. (b) Mathematical model of calculation, deformed position (adapted from [8]).

602 P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606

Fig. 8. Deformed position of the continuous beam-column on discrete elastic supports for the bars between the nodes j 1, j and j + 1. Free-body diagrams to apply the slope-

deflection equations based on the beam-column of Timoshenko (adapted from [8]).

where zcb;j is the height corresponding to the level j of guys, v j is the According to the hypotheses proposed by Haringx, we can

value of the lateral deflection for said level of guys, keq;j is the value deduce the slope-deflection equations that allow us to consider

of the equivalent spring constant for the level j of guys, ccb;j is the the bending deformations and the shear force deformations; its

horizontal distance between the guys anchor on the ground and expression for the bar j between nodes j-1 and j (Fig. 8) is given

the tower for the level j of guys, Hj is the horizontal resultant force by Eq. (10) [12]:

R zcb;j hj =2

between two levels of guys, obtained as Hj zcb;j hj =2 px zdz; and EI v j v j1

M j1;j C hj1 S hj C S M F;j

Pz0;j is the vertical resultant force due to the uniformly distributed h j h j

vertical load between two levels of guys, obtained as

R zcb;j hj =2 EI v j v j1

M j;j1 S hj1 C hj C S M F;j

Pz0;j zcb;j hj =2 pz zdz, P z;j is the vertical force at the level j of guys h j h j

due to the action of the wind on these, and Me;j is the bending 10

moment due to the cables eccentricity at the level j of guys and

is given by Eq. (9): where Mj1;j and Mj;j1 are the fixed end moments for the bar j; C j

! and Sj are the stability functions based on the Timoshenko beam-

p p

3 3 a Acb;j zcb;j ccb;j v j column for the bar j, Eq. (11):

M e;j Esec;1 Esec;2 3

9

6 3 lcb:j 1 wj bj cot bj

j

Cj 2 tanbj =2

bj

wj

11

5.1. Slope-deflection equations based on the Timoshenko beam- wj bj cosec bj 1

Sj 2tanbj =2

column: the modified approach wj

bj

Two different formulations have been proposed to analyze the bj is the stability function in the plane bending and its expression is

influence of shear force on the elastic critical buckling load and given by Eq. (12):

the second-order effect in beam-columns, one performed by v

u

Engesser and another by Haringx [18]. The Haringx model has been u
Pj h2j

applied and discussed by Timoshenko and Gere and is known as bj t
12

w E Ij

the modified approach [11].

P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606 603

wj is the shear reduction factor, Eq. (13): For a beam-column with n spans, from Eq. (16) a 2n-1 2n-1

1 system of equations is formed whose unknowns are the rotations

Pj and the lateral deflection of the nodes h1 hj hn1 and

wj 1 13

Gj Xred;j v 1 v j v n , respectively, since, on the one hand, the upper end

Xred is the effective shear area of the beam-column cross-section, of the tower is considered as pinned, implying that hn can be writ-

namely, Xred A (Table 1); Pj is the compression force in the bar j, ten as a function of hn1 ; and on the other hand, when the lower

it is deduced from the equilibrium equations and their expression end is fixed h0 v 0 0 and when it is pinned v 0 0 and h0 can

is given by Eq. (14) [8]: be written as a function of h1 .

in

X

Esec;1 Esec;2 zcb;i zcb;i

Pj P 0;i P z;i 2 keq;i v i 3 T 0;i 5.3. Obtaining the lateral displacement: second order analysis,

ij

Esec;1 2 Esec;2 ccb;i ccb;i iterative method

14

Under the action of the external forces, the proposed method

The subscripts for the expressions in parentheses indicate the assumes the initial shape of the elastic curve correspond to a

corresponding bar; for example EIh j

indicates that the modulus parabolic function and such that the maximum value of the elas-

of elasticity, the second-order moment and the span length are tic curve is less than an assumed value v m;i , with v m;i 0:001 ht .

those corresponding to the bar j. The equivalent spring constants at each of the levels are calcu-

M F;j is the fixed end moment for a beam subjected to a uni- lated from the assumed lateral displacements. In this way the

formly distributed load in its plane bending and an axial compres- relationship between the compressive force in the bar j and the

sive force. Its expression depends on the support conditions; for compression force in the end bar n can be reasonably estimated.

the case of a beam fixed at both ends, its expression is given by Let f be the ratio factor between these forces, this is P j f P n , in

Eq. (15) [13]: this way the relationship between the buckling parameters can

2

! !" # be written as Eq. (18):

px;j hj 12 1 bj

M F;j 1 15 s

12 b2j wj 2 tan bj =2 E I n hj

bj f bn 18

E I j hn

5.2. Analysis of the structure

The steps of the iterative procedure to obtain the lateral dis-

Consider a continuous equivalent beam-column on discrete placement are [8]:

elastic supports, for which both the sectional and material proper-

ties are known, subjected to the action of external loads. Taking 1. The lateral displacements of the tower are calculated, that is vj

into account the static equilibrium in the deformed position for for j = 1 to n. The proposed method assumes that the initial

the elements between the nodes j-1, j and j+1 (Fig. 8) and according shape of the elastic curve is a parabolic function.

to the slope-deflection equations based on the Timoshenko beam- 2. With the values of lateral displacements calculated in Step 1,

column with axial compression force (Eq. (10)), we obtain the the modulus of elasticity Esec;1 and Esec;2 are obtained for each

Equations (16): level of guys.

a2j;1 hj1 a2j;2 v j1 a2j;3 hj a2j;4 v j a2j;5 hj1 a2j;6 v j1 Me;j MF;j1 MF;j

3. According to Eq. (16), the new lateral displacement of the tower

a2j1;1 hj1 a2j1;2 v j1 a2j1;3 hj a2j1;4 v j a2j1;5 hj1 a2j1;6 v j1 Hj Px;j under the action of the acting loads is obtained by solving the

16

2n-1 2n-1 system of equations.

4. If for each of the guys levels the difference between the dis-

The coefficients aij in Eq. (16) depend on the geometrical prop- placement obtained in Step 3 and the displacement of Step 1

erties of the beam, the material properties, the stability functions, is less than a predetermined value, the process is finished.

the compressive forces and the equivalent spring constants. Their Otherwise, with the displacement obtained in Step 3, the pro-

expressions are given by Eq. (17): cess is repeated until convergence.

EI 5. If the difference between the displacements at each level of

a2j;1 h

S j1

guys cannot be made less than a predetermined value, the

a2j;2 a2j1;1 EI h2

C S structure is unstable under the action of the acting loads. The

j1

EI rigidity of the beam-column and/or the rigidity of the spring

a2j;3 EI C j1

C

h h j constants should be modified.

EI EI

a2j;4 a2j1;3 2

C S 2

C S

h j h j1 Referring to Fig. 8, for the bar j and for a section at a distance x

EI from the end j-1, the bending moment in said section is given by

a2j;5 S

h j

Eq. (19):

!2

EI 2

px;j hj

a2j;6 a2j1;5 C S 1

h

2

j

Mj x

wj bj

EI Pj1 " ! #

a2j1;2 2 3 C S 1 cosbj

h j1 hj1 sinbj =hj x cosbj =hj x 1

sinbj

EI EI Pj1 Pj

a2j1;4 2 3 C S 2 3 C S keq;j

h h hj1 hj 1

j1

j

Mj1;j cosbj M j;j1 sinbj =hj x

EI Pj sinbj

a2j1;6 2 3 C S

h j hj M j1;j cosbj =hj x

17 19

604 P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606

6. Case study: comparison between the finite elements method analysis (Fig. 9). The results will be compared with those

and the proposed method obtained by the PM.

The tower has a triangular cross-section of 1.2 m width. The

In order to validate the proposed method (PM), a guyed mast bars are materialized by circular steel tubes with modulus of elas-

structure of 120 m height are analyzed. For this, one model is ticity Es = 200 GPa. The legs (vertical bars) are 73.00 mm outside

designed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) through the diameter and 5.20 mm thick and the horizontal bars and diagonals

use of the SAP 2000 program. In this model (FEM: 3D truss), are 42.16 mm outside diameter and 3.42 mm thick. The inclination

the structure is modeled as a three-dimensional truss where of the diagonals is 45.

the bars work mainly in axial force and the cables are modeled The guys are EHS steel with an ultimate tensile strength of

as cable elements. The tower has pinned base connections and 1400 MPa and modulus of elasticity Ecb = 185 GPa. They are placed

the second-order effects are considered from a non-linear P-D with spacings of 12 m in height. The guys whose anchorage levels

to the tower are +12 m, +24 m and +36 m are anchored to the

ground at a distance of 23 m from the tower axis and are

6.35 mm nominal diameter (Acb = 24.632 mm2). The guys whose

anchorage levels to the tower are +48 m, +60 m and +72 m are

anchored to the ground at a distance of 46 m from the tower axis

and are 8.00 mm nominal diameter (Acb = 38.511 mm2). The

remaining cables, whose anchorage levels to the tower are

+84 m, +96 m, +108 m and +120 m, are anchored to the ground

at a distance of 69 m from the tower axis and their nominal diam-

eters are 8.00 mm.

The wind loads on the structure are calculated from the guide-

lines established by the TIA 222-G standard and a basic wind speed

of 43.4 m/s is considered.

The graphs of Figs. 1012 show the lateral deflection, the axial

forces diagram and the bending moment diagram obtained from

the PM and the finite element FEM: 3D truss models in the case

that the tower base connection is pinned.

difference between the PM and FEM: 3D truss models is of the

order of 0.86%. The difference between the maximum positive

bending moments is of the order of 1.5%, whereas between

the maximum negative bending moments is of the order of

Fig. 9. Three-dimensional model of the guyed tower of 120 m height in FEM. Initial 12.8%. In relation to axial force, only small differences are

configuration: pretensioning of cables at 10% of the breaking strength. observed.

Fig. 10. Lateral deflection vs. tower height for the PM and for the FEM: 3D truss models when the base connection of the tower is pinned.

P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606 605

Fig. 11. Axial force diagram for the PM and FEM: 3D truss models when the base connection of the tower is pinned.

Fig. 12. Bending moment diagram for the PM and FEM: 3D truss models when the base connection of the tower is pinned.

accurate compared to those obtained by the finite element

In this work an approximate method has been proposed for the method, confirming the validity of the hypotheses adopted in

calculation of the deflection produced by the second-order effects the development of the method.

in guyed masts of triangular cross-section. The method is based 2. The PM maintains the complexity and mathematical rigor of

on the stability functions for the Timoshenko beam-column. The analytical methods, but it has been conceived as a simpler

geometrical properties for the equivalent beam-column are application method. It uses basic and more general concepts

obtained according to the lattice pattern of each of the faces of from the point of view of structural engineering, which means

the tower. The guys are modeled as equivalent spring constants that the engineer can quickly visualize the parameters that

from the secant modulus of elasticity of the cables, and the model influence the design.

takes into account the eccentricities of the cables to the anchor 3. The proposed method considers the effects of shear deforma-

points to the tower. tion and second-order effects directly from the stability func-

The proposed method has been numerically validated through a tions, which makes it possible to work with greater accuracy,

case study comparing it with finite element methods. From the without the need for mathematical artfice, to consider the

results presented, the following conclusions can be deduced: effect of the shear deformation, or to make approximations

and/or divisions of the elements between each guys levels.

1. Only small differences were observed in the calculation of the 4. It is very simple to program, even compared with the use of

effects produced by the second-order deformations of the struc- spreadsheets, as it does not need to discretize the structure into

ture between the PM and the finite element methods. In other a large number of elements for convergence. This is why the

words, the values of the stresses and displacements of the method can be very useful in the preliminary design stages,

606 P.M. Pez, B. Sensale / Engineering Structures 152 (2017) 597606

enabling a significant saving of time. In other words, the finite [6] Margariti G, Gantes G. Linear and nonlinear buckling response and

imperfection sensitivity of cable-stayed mast and pylon. Struct Eng Int

element method does not present greater advantages in the

2015;25(1):439.

preliminary design stage than the proposed method. [7] Williamson RA, Margolin MN. Shear effects in design of guyed towers. J Struct

5. Although this work has been focused on triangular cross- Div ASCE 1966;92:21333.

section towers, with an arrangement of three cables per guys [8] Pez PM, Sensale B. Calculating guyed towers without using finite elements.

Hormign y acero 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hya.2017.05.012.

level, the proposed method can be extended to other types of [9] Romstad KM, Chiesa M. Approximate analysis of guyed towers. ASCE; 1977.

cable arrangement and to other cross-section forms. Therefore, [10] Gimsing NJ, Georgakis CT. Cable supported bridges: concept and design. 3rd

the proposed method, initially developed for the analysis of ed. J. Wiley and Sons; 2012.

[11] Timoshenko S, Gere J. Theory of elastic stability. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 1961.

guyed towers, can be extended to the analysis of cable-stayed [12] Dario Aristizabal-Ochoa J. Slope-deflection equations for stability and second-

bridge pylons. order analysis of Timoshenko beam-column structures with semi-rigid

connections. Eng Struct 2008;30(9):251727.

[13] Lin FJ, Glauser EC, Johnston BJ. Behavior of laced and battened structural

members. J Struct Div ASCE 1960;123(5):1377401.

References [14] Computers and Structures, Inc. SAP2000. Analysis Reference Manual. Berkeley

California, USA; 2011.

[1] TIA 222-G. Structural Standard for Antenna: Supporting Structures and [15] Carrasco A, Parns V, Rodriguez P. Guy tension influence on the structural

Antennas, Telecommunications Industry Association, Arlington VA; 2006. behavior of a Guyed Mast. J Int Assoc Shell Spatial Struct 2012;53(2):1116.

[2] Cohen E, Perrin H. Design of multi-level guyed towers: structural analysis. J [16] UNE-EN 1993-3-1: 2013. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures Part 31:

Struct Div ASCE 1957;83:129. Tower, masts and chimneys tower and masts. CEN; 2013.

[3] Ezra GO. Analysis of high guyed towers. J Struct Div ASCE 1966;92:16998. [17] Irvine HM, OSullivan MJ. Elastic stability of simple guyed towers. Appl Ocean

[4] Kalha NB. Equivalent beam-column analysis of guyed towers. Comput Struct Res 1979;1(4):2037.

1995;55(4):63145. [18] Ziegler H. Arguments for and against Engessers buckling formulas. Ing Arch

[5] Wahba Y, Madugula M, Monforton G. Evaluations of non-linear analysis of 1982;52:10513.

guyed antenna towers. Comput Struct 1998;68:20712.

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