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BIOL 1005 Learning objectives for cumulative portion of final exam.

Focus your studying on these concepts from the lessons 1-19 of the course.

Lesson 1
Describe the shared characteristics of living things.
Summarize the hierarchical organization of living systems.

Lesson 2
Explain the properties of water that are important for life.
Describe the basis of the pH scale.

Lesson 3
Describe the structure and function of the 4 classes of biological molecules.
Explain the significance of hydrogenated oils and trans fats.

Lesson 4
Describe the basic attributes of cells
Describe the major features of eukaryotic cells.
Describe the major features of prokaryotic cells.

Lesson 5
Describe the fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane
Compare passive and active membrane transport.
Predict the direction of water movement by osmosis.

Lesson 6 Energy and Metabolism


Compare anabolic and catabolic reactions in metabolism.
Explain how the laws of energy govern the use of energy in cells.
Discuss the role of enzymes as biological catalysts.

Lesson 7 Cell Respiration Part 1


Explain the role of ATP in cells
Summarize the steps of glycolysis.
Distinguish between aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation.

Lesson 8 Cell Respiration Part 2


Explain oxidative phosphorylation including the role of the electron transport chain and
ATP synthase.
Calculate the energy yield from aerobic respiration.
Explain the versatility of the cell respiration pathway.

Lesson 9 Photosynthesis
Explain how most organisms on Earth depend on photosynthesis for energy rich
molecules and oxygen.
Differentiate between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions.
Describe the role of photosynthesis in global carbon cycling.

Lesson 10 DNA Structure and Replication


Summarize the key features of the Watson-Crick model of DNA.
Describe the significance of complementarity for DNA structure and function.
Illustrate the products of semiconservative replication.

Lesson 11 Gene expression


Describe the relationship between genes and proteins.
Explain the Central Dogma.
Distinguish between transcription and translation.
Compare DNA and RNA.

Lesson 12 Gene Expression 2


Describe the critical features of the genetic code.
List the different types of DNA mutations and predict the effects of each.
Explain the Central Dogma.

Lesson 13 Control of gene expression


Discuss why every cell does not express every gene.
Compare the control of gene expression in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes.

Lesson 14: Reproduction at the cellular level: Cell cycle and mitosis
Describe the eukaryotic genome.
Summarize the structure and packaging of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Diagram the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Summarize the events that take place during interphase and during M phase.

Lesson 15: Cell cycle and mitosis II


Explain the role of checkpoints in cell cycle control.
Explain how cancer may result from failure of cell cycle control.
Distinguish between proto-oncogenes, oncogenes, and tumor-suppressor genes.

Lesson 16: Cellular basis of inheritance: Meiosis and sexual reproduction


Explain the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
Describe the importance of synapsis, crossing over, and reductive division during
meiosis.
Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis.

Lesson 17: Patterns of inheritance


Explain Mendels Principle of Segregation.
Explain Mendels Principle of Independent Assortment.
Correlate the segregation of alleles for different genes with the behavior of
different homologues in meiosis.

Lesson 18: Patterns of inheritance II


Provide examples of patterns of inheritance that do not fit Mendels model.
Describe how sex chromosomes are important for sex determination.
Explain how genetic mutations may lead to human diseases.
Describe the consequences of nondisjunction in humans.

Lesson 19: Biotechnology .


Explain how DNA molecules may be separated by gel electrophoresis.
Explain how DNA may be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction.
Provide examples of the role of biotechnology in agriculture and medicine.
Define genomics and proteomics.