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Homework 1

(Due date: September 24, 2017)

1. (Prob.1.4 in the text book)

In a classical gas of hard sphere (of diameter D), the spatial distribution of the particles

is no longer uncorrelated. Roughly speaking, the presence of n particles in the system leaves

only a volume (V nv0 ) available for the (n + 1)th particle; clearly, v0 would be proportional

to D3 . Assuming that N v0 V , determine the dependence of (N, V, E) on V (compare

to equation (1.4.1)) and show that, as a result of this, V in the ideal-gas law (1.4.3) gets

replaced by (V b) where b is four times the actual volume occupied by the particles.

2. (Prob.1.7 in the text book)

Study the statistical mechanics of an exterme relativistic gas characterized by the single-

particle energy states

hc 2

(nx , ny , nz ) = (n + n2y + n2z )1/2 , (1)

2L x

instead of (1.4.5), along the lines followed in Section 1.4. Show that the ratio Cp /Cv in this

case is 4/3, instead of 5/3.

3. (Prob.1.8 in the text book)

Consider a system of quasi-particles whose energy eigenvalues are given by

Obtain an asymptotic expression for the number of this system for a given number N of

the quasiparticles and a given total energy E. Determine the temperature T of the system

as a function of E/N and h, and examine the situation for which E/(N h) 1.

4. (Prob.1.16 in the text book)

Establish thermodynamically the formulae

( ) ( )

P P

V = S, and V = N. (3)

T T

Express the pressure P of an ideal classical gas in terms of the variables and T , and verify

the above formulae.

5. (Prob.2.6 in the text book)

1

The generalized coordinates of a simple pendulum are the angular displacement and

the angular momentum m2 . Study, both mathematically and graphically, the nature of

the correspondig trajectories in the phase space of the system, and show that the area A

enclosed by a trajectory is equal to the product of the total energy E and the time period

of the pendulum.

6. (Prob.2.7 in the text book)

Derive (i) an asymptotic expression for the number of ways in which a given energy E can

be distributed among a set of N one-dimensional harmonic oscillators, the energy eigenvalues

of the oscillators being (n+ 12 ) ; n = 0, 1, 2, ..., and (ii) the corresponding expression for the

volume of the relevant region of the phase space of this system. Establish the correspondence

between the two results, showing that the conversion factor 0 is precisely hN .

7. (Prob.2.8 in the text book)

Show that

N

( ) (8R3 )N

V3N = N

4ri2 dri = . (4)

0 i=1 ri R i=1

(3N )!

Using this result, compute the volume of the relevant region of the phase space of an extreme

relativisitc gas ( = pc) of N particles moving in three dimensions. Hence, derive expressions

for the various thermodynamic properties of this system and compare your results with those

of Problem 2 above.

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