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Homework 2

(Due date: October 11, 2017)

1. (Prob.3.13 in the text book)

(a) Evaluate the partition function and the major thermodynamic properties of an ideal

gas consisting of N1 molecules of mass m1 and N2 molecules of mass m2 , confined to a space

of volumne V at temperature T . Assume that the molecules of a given kind are mutually

indistinguishable, while those of one kind are distinguishable from those of the other kind.

(b) Compare your results with the ones pertaining to an ideal gas consisting of (N1 + N2 )

molecules, all of one kind, of mass m, such that m(N1 + N2 ) = m1 N1 + m2 N2 .

2. (Prob.3.15 in the text book)

Show that the partition function QN (V, T ) of an extreme relativistic gas consisting of

N monatomic molecules with energy-momentum relationship = pc, c being the speed of

light, is given by

{ ( )3 }N

1 kT

QN (V, T ) = 8V . (1)

N! hc

1 4

P V = U, U/N = 3kT, and = . (2)

3 3

Next, using the inversion formula (3.4.7), derive an expression for the density of states g(E)

of this system.

3. (Prob. 3.16 in the text book)

Consider a system similar to the one in the preceding problem but consisting of 3N

particles moving in one dimension. Show that the partition function in this case is given by

[ ( )]3N

1 kT

Q3N (L, T ) = 2L , (3)

(3N )! hc

L being the length of the space available. Compare the thermodynamics and the density of

states of this system with the corresponding quantities obtained in the preceding problem.

4. (Prob. 3.18 in the text book)

Show that for a system in the canonical ensemble

{ ( ) }

CV

(E) = k T

3 2 4 3

+ 2T CV . (4)

T V

1

Verify that for an ideal gas

( )2 ( )3

E 2 E 8

= and = . (5)

U 3N U 9N 2

Show that in the relativistic case, the equipartition theorem takes the form

u2 1/2

m0 2 (1 ) = 3kT, (6)

c2

where m0 is the rest mass of the particle and is its speed. Check that in the extreme

relativistic case, the mean thermal energy per particle is twice its value in the nonrelativisitc

case.

6. (Prob. 3.26 in the text book)

The energy eigenvalues of an s-dimensional harmonic oscillator can be written as

s

j = (j + ); j = 0, 1, 2, ... (7)

2

Show that the jth energy level has a multiplicity (j+s1)!/[j!(s1)!]. Evaluate the partition

function, and the major thermodynamic properties, of a system of N such oscillators, and

compare your results with a corresponding system of sN one-dimensional oscillators. Show,

in particular, that the chemical potential s = s1 .

7. (Prob. 3.42 in the text book)

Consider the system of N magnetic dipoles, studied in Section 3.10, in the microcanonical

ensemble. Enumerate the number of microstates, (N, E) accessible to the system at energy

E and evaluate the quantities S(N, E) and T (N, E). Compare your results with equations

(3.10.8) and (3.10.9).

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