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Roll No: 4341

1 Title

K-Means Clustering

2 Problem Definition

Implement a simple approach for k-means/k-medoids clustering using C++

3 Objective

To understand various techniques of clustering.

To implement k-means clustering using C++.

4 Pre-requisite

Basic knowledge of object oriented programming

Knowledge of basic clustering approach

1. 64 bit Machine i3/i5/i7

2. 64-bit open source Linux OS Fedora 20

3. g++ library

4. Eclipse

1

6 Theory

Clustering :

Clustering is the classification of objects into different groups, or more precisely, the par-

titioning of a data set into subsets (clusters), so that the data in each subset (ideally) share

some common trait - often according to some defined distance measure.

Types of Clustering :

Hierarchical algorithms: these find successive clusters using previously established

clusters.

1. Agglomerative (bottom-up): Agglomerative algorithms begin with each element

as a separate cluster and merge them into successively larger clusters.

2. Divisive (top-down): Divisive algorithms begin with the whole set and proceed

to divide it into successively smaller clusters.

Partitional clustering: Partitional algorithms determine all clusters at once.

They include:

1. K-Means

2. K-Medoids

K-Means Method :

K-Means is one of the simplest unsupervised learning algorithms that solve the well-

known clustering problem.

The procedure follows a simple and easy way to classify a given data set through a

certain number of clusters (assume k clusters) fixed apriori.

The main idea is to define k centers, one for each cluster. These centers should be

placed in a cunning way because of different location causes different result. So, the

better choice is to place them as much as possible far away from each other.

The next step is to take each point belonging to a given data set and associate it to the

nearest center.

When no point is pending, the first step is completed and an early group age is done. At

this point we need to re-calculate k new centroids as barycenter of the clusters resulting

from the previous step.

After we have these k new centroids, a new binding has to be done between the same

data set points and the nearest new center.

A loop has been generated. As a result of this loop we may notice that the k centers

change their location step by step until no more changes are done or in other words

centers do not move any more.

2

Finally, this algorithm aims at minimizing an objective function know as squared error func-

tion given by:

Algorithm:

Input :

k : the number of the clusters

D : a data set containing n objects.

Method :

1. arbitrarily choose k - objects from D as the initial cluster centers

2. repeat

3. (re)assign each object to the cluster to which the object is the most similar, based on

the mean value of the objects in the clusters

4. update the cluster means, i.e.,calculate the mean value of the objects for each cluster ;

5. until no change.

3

7 Mathematical Model :

Let S be the solution perspective of the system such that,

S ={St ,Et ,I,O,DD,NDD,Fme ,Sc,Fc}

where,

St = start state .

I = {x,y}

where,

x represents the value of X-axis

y represents the value of Y-axis

(x,y) I+

O = {c[]}

Where, c[] = array of nodes having type of class

Fme ={f1,f2,f3,f4}

where,

f1= f1 represents the function to read the input.

f2= f2 represents the function to create a new cluster.

f3= f3 represents the function to calculate new mean values.

f4 = f4 to prints the cluster classes

Et =end state

=display clusters.

4

8 State Diagram :

q1 create clusters

9 Conclusion

We have thus understood the concept of clustering and successfully implemented the k-mean

algorithm.

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