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EH2208O

DESIGN PROJECT II (MARCH 2017)

PRODUCTION OF 20,000 METRIC TONNES OF


POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENEPER YEAR

CHAPTER 3: PYROLYSIS REACTOR (R-101)

STUDENTS NAME:
HANEARYTHA LITAD CHARLES
2014679702

SUPERVISOR:
MS CHRISTINA VARGIS

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
SHAH ALAM
CHAPTER 3

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

DESIGN BY: HANEARYTHA LITAD CHARLES

3.3 R-101 PYROLYSIS (TUBULAR FLOW REACTOR)

3.3.1 INTRODUCTION

The production of 20,000 metric tonnes of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)


involved Pyrolysis process in R-101 which convert Chlorodifluoromethane into
Tetrafluoroethylene and Hydrogen Chloride at 810 C and 655 kPa and
Polymerization process in R-102 which is then will produce PTFE . The reactant
(Chlorodifluoromethane) is in the form of gas will enter Tubular Flow Reactor in
order to produce Tetrafluoroethylene (Product) and Hydrogen Chloride (By-
product). Tubular reactor consists of a cylindrical pipes that and is normally
operated at steady state and it used more often for gas-phase reactions. In the
tubular reactor, the Chlorodifluoromethane will be gradually consumed as they
flow down the length of reactor.

Figure 3.1 Plug Flow Reactor Diagram.

Source : (H. Scott Fogler, Feb 12, 2016 www.informit.com)

289
Figure 3.2 Plug Flow Reactor Schematic.

Source: Excerpted by special permission from Chem. Eng., 63(10), 211 (Oct.
1956). Copyright 1956 by McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY 10020.

3.3.2 CHEMICAL DESIGN

3.3.2.1 PROCESS BACKGROUND AND GENERAL DESIGN CONCEPT

For the production of 20,000 metric tonnes of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)


involved two steps of processes which are Pyrolysis of Chlorodifluomethane to
produce Tetrafluoroethylene and Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene to
produce PTFE. In this section, the design will only cover for pyrolysis of
Chlorodifluoromethane in the Tubular Flow Reactor.

3.3.3 ASSUMPTION OF DESIGN

There are several assumptions that have been made in order to design the
reactor:

1. Steady state, no accumulation.


2. Pure Chlorodifluoromethane is used.
3. The fluid is perfectly mixed in radial direction but not in axial direction.
4. First order chemical reaction.

290
3.3.4 SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT

There are many types of reactor that can be applied to produce the
Tetrafluoroethylene through the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane. Basically,
the types of reactor that can be used in the worldwide for the pyrolysis of
Chlorodifluoromethane are Tubular Flow Reactor and Packed Bed Reactor. For
this plant, Tubular Flow reactor was chosen as it does not require any catalyst.
Below are the comparisons of three types of reactor that are commonly used for
continuous production.

Table 3.1 Comparison on advantages and disadvantages of several reactors.

Reactor Advantages Disadvantages


Produces highest
conversion per reactor The undesired thermal
Tubular Flow Reactor / volume gradients may occur
Plug Flow Reactor Suitable for gaseous
(PFR) phase reaction
Low operating cost Poor temperature control
Good heat transfer Shutdown and cleaning
suitable for continuous may be expensive.
operation
Higher conversion per
unit mass of catalyst Undesired heat gradient
Suitable for gaseous may occur
phase reaction
Packed Bed Reactor Low operating cost Poor temperature control
(PBR) Suitable for continuous Channeling may occur
operation
Catalyst stays in reactor Difficult to clean
(Packed)
Effective at high Difficult to replace
operating temperature catalyst
and pressure
Suitable for continuous Lowest conversion per
Continuous Stirred operation unit volume
Tank Reactor (CSTR) Effective in temperature Not suitable for gaseous
control phase reactant

291
3.3.5 DESIGN INPUT PARAMETER

The Tubular Flow Reactor (PFR) is used for the production of


Tetfrafluoroethylene (TFE) at temperature of 810 C and 6.55 kPa. The tubular
reactor is flowing continuously at steady state is operates at horizontal position.
Figure below shows the inlet and outlet stream of the reactor that was calculated
from the mass balance of the reactor.

Table 3.2 The condition of inlet and outlet stream of reactor.

Inlet Outlet
Condition Stream 4 Stream 5
Temperature ( C) 450 810
Pressure (kPa) 705 655
Phase vapor vapor

Table 3.3 Inlet and outlet stream of the Pyrolysis reactor R-101.

Inlet (kmol/h) Outlet (kmol/h)


Components Molecular Formula Stream 4 Stream 5
Chlorodifluoromethane 120.91 g/mol 50.00 -
Tetrafluoroethylene 100.02 g/mol - 25.00
Hydrogen Chloride 36.46 g/mol - 48.10

Table 3.4 Properties and volumetric flow rate of reactant and product.

Description Values
3.66 kg/m3
Density of Chlorodifluormethane
1122.301 m3/hr
Total volumetric flow rate at inlet stream
1.52 kg/m3
Density of Tetrafluoroethylene
1.49 kg/m3
Density of Hydrogen Chloride
1122.301 m3/hr
Total volumetric flow rate at outlet stream

292
3.3.6 DESIGNING PROCEDURE OF TUBULAR FLOW REACTOR (PFR).

Figure below shows the flow chart of the chemical design of the Tubular Flow
Reactor (R-101).

Step 1: Determination of
the Chemical Reaction rate
Law.

Step 2:Determination of
the Reaction Rate
Constant.

Step 3: Determinatio of the


Volume of the Reactor

Step 4: Determination of
residence time

Step 5: Determination
diameter and height of
reactor.

Step 6: Calculating the


Velocity of the gas reactant
across the reactor

Step 7 : Designing of tube


reactor

Step 8 : Pressure Drop


across the Reactor

Figure 3.3 Steps in determining the chemical design of Pyrolysis Reactor (R-101)

293
Step 1: Determination of the Chemical Reaction Rate Law

The reactions that involves in the process are pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane


in gas phase that produced Tetrafluoroethylene as product and Hydrogen
Chloride as by product. F. Gozzo et al., (1966), the reaction is elementary and
the major feature of the reaction expressed by the following mechanism:

Forward Reaction:


22 2 = 2 + 2, = [2 ]2


2 + 2 , = [ ]2

Reverse Reaction:

2 = 2 + 2 22 , = [2 = 2 ][]2


+ 2 2, = [ ][ ]2

= +

= [ ]2 + [ ][ ]2


= [2 2]

1
=1+ 1
2

= 0.5

294
Concentration of each component

A stoichiometry table was constructed as below in order to find the concentration of each component that exists in the reactor.

Table 3.5 Stoichiometry table for the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane.

SPECIES COMPONENT INITIAL CHANGE REMAINING CONCENTRATION

Chlorodifluoromethane, 2 A = (1 )
=
(1+ )

Tetrafluoroethylene, 2 4 D = (1 )
=
(Product) (1+ )

Hydrogen Chloride, C = (1 )
=
(By-product) (1+ )

The concentration of Component B does not included in the stoichiometry table due to very small concentration and it is also an
intermediate product.
Where,

, = Molar flow rate of each component,


, = Concentration of each component,
3

295
1. Component A (Chlorodifluoromethane)
In order to find the initial concentration of chlorodifluoromethane, the molar
flowrate of reactant at inlet of reactor is divided with the density of reactant.

Initial concentration:


0 = 47.50 1122.30 3


0 = 0.04232
3

Final Concentration:


= 0.04232 (1 0.95)
3


= 0.002116
3

2. Componenent D (Tetrafluoroethylene)
In this reaction, Tetrafluoroethylene only exist in the outlet stream. Therefore,
there is no initial concentration of Tetrafluoroethylene at the inlet stream. The
final concentration of Tetrafluoroethylene can be obtained by multiplying the
molar fraction with the molar flowrate of Chlorodifluoromethane at inlet stream
and conversion of 95%.

Initial concentration
0 = 0
Final concentration:

= 0.5783 0.04232 3
(0.95) = 0.0232
3

= 0.0232
3

3. Component C (Hydrogen Chloride)


Hydrogen Chloride also only exists at the outlet stream of reactor. So, there is no
initial concentration of Hydrogen Chloride at the inlet stream. The final
concentration of Hydrogen Chloride can be found by multiplying the molar
fraction with the molar flowrate of Chlorodifluoromethane at inlet stream and
conversion of 95%.

296
Initial concentration

0 = 0

Final concentration:

= 0.4217 0.04232 3
(0.95) = 0.0169
3

Step 2: Determination of the Reaction Rate Constant

Rate of Reaction

The main reaction that involves in the Tubular Flow Reactor is the pyrolysis of
Chlorodifluoromethane to produce Tetrafluomethane and Hydrogen Chloride.
The kinetics of pyrolysis of chlorodifluoromethane that been studied by Percy B.
Chinoy et al., (1987) and states that equations below be applied to obtained the
reaction rate constant of the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane that occur in the
Tubular Flow Reactor.

. 1
1 ( 1 ) = 1013.84 exp (55.79 )

R = 1.987 cal deg -1 mole -1


22 2 = 2 + 2 at T = 1083K (810 C)

= [2 ]2

. 1
( 1 ) = 1013.84 exp (55.79 (1.987103 )(1083))

= .

297
Step 3: Determination Volume of Reactor

The volume of reactor is the functions of the inverse of the reaction rate. Table
3.6 Shows the rate data to plot Levenspiel plot.

Table 3.6 Levenspiel plot data for the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane.

x -rA 1/-rA FAO/-rA,(m3)


0 0 0 0

0.1 950332.3729 1.0522E-06 1.3884E-05

0.2 148321.9555 6.7421E-06 8.8959E-05

0.3 38641.6032 2.5879E-05 0.0003

0.4 11732.4984 8.5233E-05 0.0011

0.5 3621.1414 0.0003 0.0036

0.6 1030.0136 0.0010 0.0128

0.7 239.4387 0.0042 0.0551

0.8 36.2114 0.0276 0.3643

0.9 1.78821 0.5592 7.3785

0.95 6.6788 1.7587 10.9761

0.99 0.0001 6766.5127 89280.0756

Thus from table 6, it can be concluded that 10.9761 m 3 volume of Tubular Flow
Reactor needed for the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane with 95 % conversion.
Although the conversion of reaction is 100 % at 810 and 655 kPa (Ebnesajjad,
2016), the volume of reactor needed for that conversion is very large and this will
contribute to high cost of equipment. Therefore, volume of 10.9761 m 3 was
taken as the volume of the reactor with optimum conversion which is 95 %.

Volume of Reactor = 10.9761 m3

298
Graph of Conversion, X Versus 1/-ra
0.6

0.5

0.4
1/-ra
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Conversion, X

Figure 3.4 Conversion X versus 1/-ra

Step 4: Determination of residence time

The reactant spent inside the reactor before converting into product.


=
0
10.9761 3
=
3 1
1122.3
3600
= .

Step 5: Determination diameter and height of Reactor

Diameter of reactor

3
=

3 10.9761
=

= .

299
Height of reactor

4
=
2
4(10.9761)
=
(1.517)2
= .

Step 6: Calculating the Velocity of the gas reactant across the reactor

Calculation velocity of the gas reactant across the reactor

0
=
( )
3
0.3117
=
(1.517)2 /4

= .

Step 7: Designation of tube reactor

From Table 12.3 (Colson & Richardsons Chemical Engineering), below is the
standard tube diameter and length that was chosen for the Tubular Flow Reactor:

Inside diameter, Di = 46 mm
Outside diameter, DO = 50 mm
Length of Tube = 6.10 m

Volume of a tube

02
=
4

(50 103 )2
= 6.10
4

= .

300
Number of tube required

The tube in the Tubular Flow Reactor will be arranged in Triangular pitch, =
1.25 . The information of number of passes and constant, K 1 and N1 were
obtained from Table 12.4 (Coulson Richardsons Chemical Vol.6 Chemical
Engineering Design).

No. passes =4
K1 = 0.175
N1 = 2.285


= 1 ( ) 1

Where;
: Number of tubes
: bundle diameter, mm
: Tube outside diameter, mm

1517 2.285
= 0.175( )
50

Step 8: Pressure Drop across the reactor

The pressure drop for gases flowing through pipes without packing / catalyst can
be neglected (H. Scott Fogler, Element of Chemical Reaction Engineering Fourth
Edition 2006). For the pyrolysis of Chlorodifluoromethane the pressure drop can
be neglected as there is no catalyst being used for the reaction.

301
Table.3.7 Summary of Chemical design for Pyrolysis Reactor R-101

Parameter Value
Volume of reactor 10.9761 m3

Length of reactor 6.120 m

Diameter of reactor 1.517 m

Residence time 35.208 s

Terminal gas velocity across reactor 0.1725 m/s

Number of tubes 426 tubes

Volume of a tube 0.0119 m3

302
3.3.7 MECHANICAL DESIGN

The mechanical design is core design that consider of a function of the


equipment, operating pressure and temperature, material of construction and
equipment dimensions. This mechanical design for the fixed bed reactor is
carried out based on the approach to sinnot (Coulson & Richardsons, 1999)

Step 4:
Step 1: Design Step 2: Design Step 3: Material
Corrosion
Pressure Temperature of construction
allowance

Step 6:
Step 8: Weight Step 7: head and Step 5: Welded
Minimum wall
load closure Joint efficiency
thickness

Step 12: Design


Step 9: Wind Step 10: Analysis Step 11: Elastic
of heating coils
loading of stress stability
(Furnace)

Step 15: Step 14: Base Step 13: Design


Step 16: Design
Standard flanges ring and anchor of vessel
of nozzle
design bolt design support

Step 17:
Manhole design

Figure 3.5 The flow chart of the mechanical design for Pyrolysis reactor (R-101)

303
Step 1: Design Pressure

The Pyrolysis reactor (Tubular Reactor) must be designed so that it can


withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be subjected in operation.
The safety margin for the design pressure normally be 5 to 10 percent above the
normal working pressure to avoid rupture during minor process upsets. For this
design, 10 percent was taken as safety margin.

Operating pressure,

1
= 705 103
1 105

= 7.05

Designed pressure,

= (7.05 1) 1.1

= 6.655


= 0.6655
2

Step 2: Design Temperature

It is crucial to identify the design temperature as the strength of material


decreases with increasing temperature. Therefore, design temperature will help
to choose the suitable material for the reactor. The design temperature at which
the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working
temperature of the material.

Design Temperature,

= 810

304
Step 3: Material of construction

Based on thorough selection of materials from various sources, it is decided that


stainless steel will be the type of material that can be used to construct the
reactor. This is most contributed to the fact that the present of HCl (by-product)
which is corrosive can lead to corrosion if carbon steel is being chosen.

In ASME sec II part D version 2010, it cover in material SA 312 up to temperature


825 , in this case interpolation rules can be applied as there is no information
on Maximum Allowable Stress at temperature 810 .

Material: SA 312 (Stainless Steel)

Table 3.8 Maximum allowable stresses. source : ASME sec II part D version
2010

Temperature () Maximum Allowable stress (Psi)


40 20000
810 545
825 166

Step 4: Corrosion allowance

Corrosion allowance is the additional thickness that is allowed for the material to
loss through corrosion, erosion or scaling (Coulson Richardsons Chemical,
Vol.4). The corrosion allowance for this reactor will be 4.00 mm as it will be
operated at more severe condition (very high temperature).

Step 5: Welded Joint Efficiency

The Joint efficiency for this reactor is 1 as lower joint factor will result in a thicker
and heavier vessel (Sinnot, 2005)

Step 6: Minimum wall thickness

The minimum wall thickness is required to ensure that the vessel can withstand
its own weight and any incidental loads.

305

= +
2 1.2

(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
= +4
2(37.577)(1) 1.2(0.6655)

= .

Where,


= (0.6655 )
2

= (1.517 )


= (37.577 )
2

= (4 )

= (1)

Step 7: Head and Closure

Heads usually serve as closure which positioned at the end of cylindrical vessel.
There are three types of heads that typically used in industries which are
Hemispherical heads, Ellipsoidal heads and Torispherical heads.

1. Hemispherical head

=
4 0.4
(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
=
4(37.577)(1) 0.4(0.6655)
= 6.730
2. Ellipsoidal head


=
2 0.2

306
(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
=
2(37.577)(1) 0.2(0.6655)

= 13.457

= 13.457 + 4 ( )

= 17.457

3. Torispherical head

0.885
=
0.1

0.885(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
=
(37.577)(1) 0.1(0.6655)

= 23.819

The ellipsoidal type of head was chosen as the closure of the reactor because
the thickness is nearly equivalent to the wall thickness which is 18 mm. It is
crucial to select the suitable type of head to avoid any possibility of reactors
failure which might trigger undesired event of accident. Therefore, ellipsoidal
head was chosen as the closure of the reactor.

Step 8: Weight Load

Weight of vessel

= 240 ( + 0.8 )

Where,

= 1.15 (A factor weight of nozzle)

= 1.517 m (mean diameter of vessel)

= 6.120 m (Height / length of vessel)

= 18 x 10-3 m (Thickness of vessel)

307
= 240(1.15)(1.517)(5.31 + 0.8 1.345) 18 x 10 3 m

= .

Weight of tube

(02 2 )
, =
4

Where,

= Total number of tubes (426 tubes)

0 = Outlet diameter of tube (0.05 m)

= Inlet diameter of tube (0.046 m)

= Length of tube (6.10 m)

= Density material of vessel (7700 kg/m3)

(426)(0.052 0.0462 )(6.10)(7700)(9.81)


=
4

= .

Volume of insulator

*thickness of mineral wool is assumed to be 75 103 (Caoulson & Richardsons,


Vol.6)

= (1.517)(6.12)(75 103 )

= .

Weight of insulator

= 1

= (130)(2.187)(9.81)

= .

308
Where,

= 130 kg/m3 (Density of mineral wool)(Coulson & Richardsons, Vol.6)


mineral wool was chosen because it is normally used to insulate vessel
operating at high temperature.

Total weight of vessel

= + +

= 48.128 + 59.199 + 2.789

= .

Step 9: Wind Loading

Bending moment at any plane of vessel

2
=
2

Where,

= Wind loading per unit length of reactor

X = Height /length of reactor (6.12 m)

Dynamic wind pressure

2
= 0.05

= 1280 /2

Where,

= Wind speed (Suitable values for preliminary studies is 160 km/hr)

Wind load per unit length of reactor

309
=

Where,

= Dynamic wind pressure

= Diameter reactor + 2(thickness vessel + thickness insulation)

= 1.517 + 2(0.018 + 0.0075)

=1.568 m

= (. ) = . /

Thus,

(. )(. )
= = .

Step 10: Analysis of stress

Longitudinal pressure stress


=
4

(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
= = 14.02
4(18) 2

Circumferential pressure stress


=
2

(0.6655)(1.517 1000)
= = 28.04
2(18) 2

310
Dead weight stress


=
( + )

110116
= = 1.268
(1517 + 18)18 2

Bending stress


= ( + )
2

Where,

M = Total bending moment

= Second moment area


= (04 4 ) = 1.828 1010 4
64

37586.24 103 1517


= ( + 18)
1.828 1010 2


= 1.596
2

The resulted longitudinal stress


() = 14.02 1.268 + 1.596 = 14.348
2


() = 14.02 1.268 1.596 = 11.156
2

311
14.348 11.156

28.04 28.04

The greatest difference is between the and


(downside)

= ()

= 28.04 11.156

= 16.884

The differential stress was found to be below the allowable design stress (fs =
37.75)

Step 11: Elastic stability

Critical bulking stress


= 2 104 ( )

18
= 2 104 ( )
1517 + 2 18

= 231.809 /2

Maximum compressive stress occurred when the vessel is not under pressure,

312
= +

= 1.268 + 1.596


= 2.864
2

From the calculation above, it shows that the maximum compressive stress is
below the critical value and thus it is acceptable.

Step 12: Design of heating coils (furnace)

The type of element that was chosen for the design of furnace is KANTHAL
SUPER 1700. This type of element is generally used in most types of industrial
furnaces for heat treatment for forging, sintering, melting and refining of glass.
This type of element can exceed to temperature of 1700 C. Since the operating
temperature is 810 C of reactor (R-101) (which is below the limit of maximum
temperature), this element can be used for the heating of chlorodifluoromethane
(product) to produce tetrafluoroethylene and hydrogen chloride (by-product).

Table 3.9 The mechanical and physical properties of the KANTHAL SUPER
electrical heating material.

Tensile strength at 1550 C 100 Mpa 25%


Bending strength at 20 C 450 Mpa 10%
Compression strength at 20 C 1400- 1500 Mpa
Density 5.6 g/cm3
Porosity < 1%
Thermal conductivity (600 1200 C) 15 W m-1K-1
Specific heat capacity at 20 C 0.42 kJ kg-1K-1

Element and tubes

Four-shank 1700 elements was chosen for this reactor because it is the best
choise for horizontally mounted elements (AB, 1999). The advantage of having
Four-shank 1700 elements is that fewer elements needed if compared to two-
shank elements and making four-shank element more economical. For this
design, KANTHAL SUPER 1700 9/18 was chose with the following standard
specifications;

313
Lu = 450 mm

Le = 450 mm

B = 400 mm

a = 3 x 60 mm

Figure 3.6 Four-shank element for horizontal use (AB, 1999).

Step 13: Design of vessel Support

Support structure of a vessel will be depending on the parameters of the vessel


such as size, shape, and vessel height, design temperature and pressure, vessel
location and fittings. Basically there are two types of vessel support that will be
used which are saddle and skirt support. Skirt support is suitable for tall and
vertical oriented vessel while saddle support is usually for horizontal oriented
vessel. For the reactor R-101, the type of support that fit is saddle support, as
the reactor will be mounted horizontally.

Total diameter of Reactor (R-101)

= + ( 2)
+ ( 2)

= 1.517 + (0.018 2) + (0.0075 2)

= 1.703

314
By referring to the standard steel saddles (adapted from Bhattacharyya, 1976) in
figure 3.7, vessel diameter of 1.8 m will be taken into consideration as the
standard vessel diameter shows the closest size with the DiameterTotal of Reactor
(R-101).

Figure 3.7 Standard steel saddles (Coulson & Richardson, 1999)

Step 14: Base ring and anchor bolt design

There are several guideline that was given by Scheiman for proper selection of
anchor bolt:

1. Bolt that have diameter that smaller than 25 mm should not be used.
2. Minimum number of bolt being used is 8.
3. Use multiple bolt of 4
4. Bolt pitch (distance between bolts) should be less than 600 mm.

315
Figure 3.8 Typical flange ring design. a) Rolled Angle b) Plain flange ring c)
Double ring with Gusset or bolt chair design (R.K. Sinnot, 2005)

Anchor bolt chair design

1 4
= [ ]

Where,

: Area of one bolt (mm 2)

: Number of bolt

: Maximum allowable bolt stress, (125 N/mm2) (Coulson Richardsons


Chemical Vol.4Chemical Engineering Design).
: Bending moment at the base of skirt (66.247 kNm)
: Total weight of reactor (96.746 kN)
: Bolt circle diameter (m)
Let the pitch circle diameter = 1500 mm
Circumference of bolt circle = 1500 = 4712.4 mm
Number of bolt required, Nb = 4712.4/600 = 7.854 8 bolts

1 4(66.247 103 )
= [ 96.746 103 ]
(12)(125) 1.5
= 53.28 2

316
Figure 3.9 Anchor bolt chair design

Based on the above calculation, M24 bolt size was chosen as it is the lowest root
area from the table.

Bolt spacing

(1500)
=
8

= 589.04

Total compressive load on load base of ring

4
= [ 2 + ]

4(66.247 103 ) 96.746 103


= [ + ]
(1.517)2 (1.517)

= . /

The minimum width of the base ring

1
= +
103

Where,

: Maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete foundation pad


(Assume to be at maximum which is 7 N/mm 2 = 1000 psi.

56952.632 1
= +
7 103

= .

317
The minimum thickness

3
=

Where,

= The distance from the edge of skirt to outer edge of the ring (Assume to
be 150 mm)

= Actual bearing pressure on base (N/mm2)



= (
+ + 50) 103

56952.7
=(150
+ 13 + 50) 103

= 0.2674 N/mm2

= Allowable design stress in the ring material (Typically 140 N/mm 2)

3(0.2674)
= 150
140

= 11.35

318
Bolted flanged joints

Figure 3.10 Flange types and faces (a) Full-face (b) Gasket within bolt circle (c)
Spigot and socket (d) Ring type joint.

Step 15: Standard flanges design

There are various types of flange that available and used in industries in a range
of types, sizes and materials and flange is usually used for pipes, nozzles and
other attachments to pressure vessels. The standard that is provided is based
on pressure, temperature and material of construction.

Figure 3.11 Typical standard flange design

319
Step 16: Design of nozzle

Optimum duct diameter for carbon steel

1. Inlet (Reactant)

= 293 0.53 0.37

Where,

: Mass flow rate of fluid in pipe (1.141kg/s)

: density of fluid in pipe ( 3.66 kg/m 3)

= 293(1.141)0.53 (3.66)0.37

= 194 200

By referring to Figure 4, the nominal size of flange that suitable for that size is
200 mm.

2. Outlet (Product)

= 293 0.53 0.37

Where,

: Mass flow rate of fluid in pipe (1.141kg/s)

: Mixture density of fluid in pipe (1.50 kg/m3)

= 293(1.141)0.53 (1.50)0.37

= 270 300

By referring to Figure 4, the nominal size of flange that suitable for that size is
300 mm.

320
Step 17: Design of manhole

The maximum length of manhole is dependent on the manhole diameter. The


length is perpendicular distance for the face of the opening including lining or any
projection of the branch within the vessel.

The dimension of manholes is stated below:

Inside diameter = 1.517 m

Nominal size = 1.600 m

Outside diameter = 1.703 m

Nominal wall thickness = 0.018 m

Compensation for manholes

Actual thickness

= (0 )/2

= (1.703 1.517)/2

= 0.093 = 93

Minimum thickness

1 = /(2 )

1 = (0.6655)(1517)/(2(37.75) 0.6655)

1 = 13.49

Distance

= 2.5 = 2.5(93) = 232.5

Lengths

1517
= = = 758.5
2 2

Area removed

13.49 1517
= = = 10,232 2
2 2

321
Compensation area

= 1 + = (232.5)(93) (232.5)(13.49) + (758.5)

is the thickness of compensation

10,232 2 = 24,758.93 + 758.5

= 19.152

322
Table 3.10 Summary of Mechanical design

Parameter Value
Operating pressure 6.55 bar
Design pressure 0.6105 N/mm2
Material of construction Stainless steel
Weight load
weight of vessel 34.758 kN
weight of tube 59.199 kN
weight of insulator 2.789 kN
Total weight of vessel 96.746 kN
Wind loading
Wind load per unit length reactor 1994.24 N/m
Bending moment any plane vessel 37346.5 N/m
Analysis of stress
Longitudinal pressure stress 17.810 N/mm2
Circumferential pressure stress 35.620 N/mm2
Dead weight stress 1.548 N/mm2
Longitudinal stress upwind 17.838 N/mm2
Longitudinal stress downwind 14.686 N/mm2
Elastic stability
Critical bulking stress 168.502 N/mm2
Max compressive stress 3.124 N/mm2
Vessel support
Type of support Saddle support
Material Carbon steel
Nozzle
Inlet diameter 200 mm
Outlet diameter 300 mm

323
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