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Major Types of Intermolecular Forces _____________________________________

(from weakest to strongest) :


1. VAN DER WAALS FORCES or
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LONDON DISPERSION FORCES _____________________________________
2. DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES _____________________________________
3. HYDROGEN BONDING FORCES _____________________________________
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London dispersion forces _____________________________________


> operate in all molecular substances. _____________________________________
> account for nearly all the forces of _____________________________________
attraction between atomic substances, _____________________________________
e.g noble gases, and between non-
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polar
molecules, such as H2, Cl2, CH4, and CO2. _____________________________________
> weak attractive forces that arise from _____________________________________
momentary fluctuations in electron _____________________________________
densities within the atom or molecule.
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How do the strength of London
dispersion forces vary in different
molecules?
Halogen Molecular Physical State Melting Boiling
Mass at room Point,oC Point,oC
temperature
F2 38 gas -223 -188
Cl2 70.9 gas -103 -34.6
Br2 159.8 liquid -7.2 58.8
I2 253.8 solid 113.7 184.3

Strength with molar mass


Dipole-dipole forces _____________________________________
> exist between polar molecules
> the positively-charged end of each
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molecule is attracted to the negatively _____________________________________
charged end of a neighboring molecule. _____________________________________
> add to the London Dispersion forces ______________________________________
present between the molecules.
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Substance Molecular Mass Boiling Point, 0C
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Oxygen, O2 (non-polar) 32.0 -183 _____________________________________
Nitric oxide, NO (polar) 30.0 -152
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Krypton, Kr (non-polar) 83.8 -152
Hydrogen bromide, 80.9 -67 _____________________________________
HBr(polar)
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Bromine. Br2 (non- 159.8 59
polar) 162.4 97 _____________________________________
Iodine Chloride, ICl
(polar) _____________________________________
The polar substance will always exhibit _____________________________________
the higher boiling point due to the
stronger dipole-dipole forces that hold
the molecules together
When is a covalent compound polar or ______________________________________
non-polar?
For Diatomic Particles
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If identical -> non-polar _____________________________________
ex. H2, N2, O2 _____________________________________
If atoms are not identical -> polar _____________________________________
ex. HCl, HBr, NO
For Polyatomic Particles _____________________________________
Consider the ff. _____________________________________
Polarity of bonds _____________________________________
Oriientation of bonds _____________________________________
Polarity of Covalent Molecule ______________________________________
Diatomic: _____________________________________
Polar if bonds are polar always true for _____________________________________
binary covalent compounds
ex. HF
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Non-polar if bonds are non-polar always _____________________________________
true for covalent compounds of _____________________________________
identical elements exs. H2, F2 _____________________________________
Polyatomic:
Polarity of bonds
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Orientation of bonds _____________________________________
Non-Polar: _____________________________________
When individual bonds are non-polar. ______________________________________
When individual polar bonds cancel off
because of symmetry. _____________________________________
Polar: _____________________________________
When you have a net dipole moment. _____________________________________

Polyatomic covalent compounds ______________________________________


polarity depends on molecular
shape.
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Shape of a molecule - determined by the _____________________________________
arrangement of atoms in space around _____________________________________
the central atom of a molecule. ______________________________________
determined by the arrangement of
electron pairs.
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The best arrangement of electron _____________________________________
pairs is the one where there is minimum _____________________________________
repulsion among electron pairs. For _____________________________________
minimum repulsion, electron pairs stay as
far apart as possible. ______________________________________
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ____________________________________
or VSEPR Theory _____________________________________
Electron pairs tend to arrange
themselves as far away from each
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other to minimize repulsions. _____________________________________
Electron Groups _____________________________________
* a single bond ______________________________________
* a double bond bonding pairs
* a triple bond ____________________________________
* a lone pair _____________________________________
* a single nonbonding e- _____________________________________
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Strength of Repulsion
Non-bonding pair (NBP) _____________________________________
Bonding Pair (BP) ______________________________________
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Between NBP-NBP > Between NBP-BP>
Between BP-BP
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Application of VSEPR Theory _____________________________________
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Hydrogen bonding _____________________________________


> the relatively strong dipole-dipole
attractive force that exists between
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the hydrogen atom in a polar bond _____________________________________
(particularly an H-F, H-O, or H-N bond) _____________________________________
and an unshared electron pair on a ______________________________________
ion or atom usually an F, O, or N atom
on another molecule ___________________________________
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