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A TECHNICAL REPORT

ON

STUDENTS INDUSTRIAL WORK EXPERIENCE SCHEME (SIWES)

UNDERTAKEN AT

RITASELL SERVICES LIMITED

NO 45 AWKA ROAD, ONITSHA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA.

BY

CHIJIOKE CHIEMELIE MAURIUS-LEO

(13/ENG04/010)

SUBMITTED TO

THE DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING &

COMPUTER ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,

AFE BABALOLA UNIVERSITY, ADO-EKITI, NIGERIA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF

THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING (B.ENG) IN

ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

SEPTEMBER, 2017.

CERTIFICATION
This is to certify that this work titled Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)
was undertaken at Pan Ocean Oil Corporation by CHIJIOKE CHIEMELIE MAURIUS-LEO
with matriculation number 13/ENG04/010 and the report was submitted to the Department of
Mechanical & ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING, College of Engineering, Afe
Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti.

____________________ ______________________

Engr. A. Funsho Signature & Date

Supervisor

____________________ _______________________

Engr. Prof. S. O. Fatoki Date

Head of Department

Mechanical & ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING


DEDICATION

This report is dedicated foremost to God almighty for his favour, mercy and grace upon my
life especially during my six (6) months SIWES programme at Ritasell Services Limited IT
Place.

I would also like to dedicate it to my parents and siblings for their love and support and
everyone else that contribute towards making my SIWES training a fun and successful one
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My appreciation goes to the industrial Training Fund for their foresight in putting this
program in place.

I am grateful to Ritasell Services Limited for providing me with the necessary skills to be
exposed in my field. I also want to say a big thank you to my industry based supervisors Mr.
Kelvin and Mr. Segun and my able colleague for making my stay at Ritasell Services Limited
an exciting and blissful one. To my parents and siblings thank you all for your moral and
financial support. I cannot wish for a better family.

I am deeply indebted to God almighty, the giver of all wisdom, knowledge and understanding,
without whom i would have achieved nothing at all.

Finally to my Institution based supervisor for his support and to my other friends and colleagues.
Thank you all, I am highly grateful
ABSTRACT

This industrial report presents the experience gained during my six (6) months of industrial
training undertaken at Ritasell Services Limited. NO. 45 Awka road, Onitsha, Anambra.

My training was on Web Design and advanced Web Design.

I acquired practical knowledge on how to design a web site and how to add and manage
records in a database. This report discusses the technical skills gained during the training
period and justifying the relevance of the scheme in equipping students with needed technical
competence to thrive in the real world
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE ATTACHMENT

The establishment is called Ritasell Services Limited; it is an information and communication


technology company with broad expertise in ICT consultancy. Ritasell Services Limited Digital
Technologies ltd (RC 365322) is a Nigerian based telecommunications and technology
conglomerate in co-operated in 1999 and offering a wide range of automated and integrated
solution in broad spectrum of computers and telecommunication technology. This large
technology-oriented corporation is on record to be the cheapest source for high quality goods
and services and has a high reputation for performance in customization, distribution and after-
sales services of laptop, desktops, printers, software and all kinds of system accessories,
security gadgets and communication equipments supplies, maintenance, software
development, training and software customization.

1.2 OBJECTIVES AND VISION OF RITASELL SERVICES LIMITED IT PLACE

1. To serve as a catalyst for both individual and collective development through the
provision of cutting edge technological servers solution, resources and guidance.

2. To produce professionals in this era of global technologies.

3. To offer a wide range of automated and integrated solution in broad spectrum of


computer and telecommunication.

4. To build bridges between need and the solution.

5. Ritasell Services Limited IT PLACE is position to offer unique and innovative solution
to client in terms of technologies.

6. Our vision is to become the leading full-service information and communication


technology.

1.3 COMPANYS AREA OF SPECIALIZATION

With a team of seasoned computer Engineers and Programmers with proven track records in
computer and communication business, the company offers the following wide areas of
specialization
1. Repairs, Assembling and Maintenance of computers

2. Sales and Lease of all up-to date Computers, Computer peripherals and other
consumables

3. Sales of Photocopying and Fax Machines

4. Software Development and Maintenance

5. Computer Networking and Maintenance

6. VSAT Installation and Maintenance, Radio and other communication equipment

7. Web Development

8. Internet and E-mail Services

9. Training Services

1.4 DEPARTMENTS IN THE COMPANY

A. Computer repair and maintenances department

B. Networking department

C. Software development department

D. Sales department

E. Internet cafe

F. Web design department

G. Computer appreciation department

H. Desktop Publishing department

1.5 Background of SIWES

The Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES), is a skills development program
initiated by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF), in 1973 to bridge the gap between theory and
practice among students of engineering and technology in Institutions of Higher Learning in
Nigeria. It provides for on-the- job practical experience for students as they are exposed to
work methods and techniques in handling equipment and machinery that may not be available
in their Institutions.

At inception in 1974, the Scheme started with 784 Students from 11 Institutions and 104
eligible courses. By 2008, 210,390 Students from 219 Institutions participated in the Scheme
with over 112 eligible courses.

One of the primary goals of the SIWES is to help students integrate leadership development
into the experiential learning process. Students are expected to learn and develop basic non-
profit leadership skills through a mentoring relationship with innovative non-profit leaders.

By integrating leadership development activities into the Industrial Training experience, we


hope to encourage students to actively engage in non-profit management as a professional
career objective.

1.6 Aims and Objectives of SIWES

The following are some of the objectives of SIWES:

1. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to test their interest in a particular career
before permanent commitments are made.

2. SIWES students will develop skills in the application of theory to practical work
situations.

3. SIWES will provide avenue for students in institution of higher learning to acquire
industrial skills and experience in their course of study.

4. SIWES students will develop skills and techniques directly applicable to their careers.

5. SIWES will aid students in adjusting from college to full-time employment.

6. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to develop attitudes conducive to effective
interpersonal relationships.

7. SIWES will increase a student? sense of responsibility

8. SIWES students will be prepared to enter into full-time employment in their area of
specialization upon graduation.

9. SIWES students will acquire good work habits.


10. . SIWES students will develop employment records/references that will enhance
employment opportunities.

11. SIWES Students will be able to outline at least positive specific goals with several staff
members by comparing performance with job duties and develop a draft plan with staff to
accomplish performance needs, supervision plan and rewards.

12. SIWES will provide students the opportunity to understand informal organizational
interrelationships.

13. SIWES Students will be able to develop a draft agency or project budget and will be
able to identify methods of obtaining revenue to support the budget.

14. . SIWES Students will be able to develop a model policy that gives current front-line
leaders the permission and expectation to work with other staff on convict resolution and
explain how this works to current front line leaders.

15. SIWES Students will be able to describe different skills leaders can use to foster
commitment and collaboration with both internal and external constituents.

The above objective of SIWES shows that proper implementation by institution and industries
will help to ascertain the student level of practical capability in line with the business ethics and
characteristics in office environment.

1.3 Impacts and Importance of SIWES on Students Life

Science students need actual work experience and technical exposure in order to fit in to the
ever advancing technological era we are in. Industrial training will enable students to learn how
to apply theories learnt in school to real life situation in order to appreciate the value of science.

1. Students learn how to apply the latest technology in their professional callings.

2. It helps to develop entrepreneurship skills in the students.

3. To expose students to critical skills, quality control measure and safety regulations in
their field of work.

4. To control characters, morals and relationship of students towards work.


1.7 Safety Equipment and Precautions

Pan Ocean Oil Corporation is very concerned when it comes to safety in and out of site. On the
work site, safety is even a more serious business than the job itself. To ensure safety of
workers, environment and equipment, certain rules were put in place.

Some of these rules include:

1. Work with a valid work permit when required.

2. Do not walk under a suspended load.

3. Conduct gas tests when required.

4. While driving, do not use your phone and do not exceed speed limits.

5. Do not smoke outside designated smoking areas.

6. Verify isolation before work begins and use the specified life protecting equipment.

7. No alcohol or drugs while working or driving.

8. Obtain authorization before entering a confined space.

9. Wear your seat belt.

10. Obtain authorization before overriding or disabling safety critical equipment.

11. Protect yourself against a fall when working at height.

12. Follow prescribed journey management plan.

Aside the above, the company also has a strong PPE policy (Figure 1.1). The companys NO
PPE, NO ENTRY policy holds for all workers on site.
Figure 1.1:
Personal Protective Equipment

1.8 Log Book

This is the booklet for recording daily and weekly activities by the students, the industry base
supervisor is required to endorse the log book every week, the institutional supervisor is to sign
the log book during supervision. The training logbook clearly states the training objectives. It
emphasizes and shows ones personal observations and interest in the training, ones capability
on problem solving and the ability to comment and make suggestions for improvement in a
constructive and professional manner.
CHAPTER 2

INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE

2.0 WEB DESIGN DEPARTMENT

This department was where my Industrial Training took place where i was grounded and
expose to the website world especially the creation of websites taking me step by step with
practical all through the process.

2.1 DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are terms that were made use of, in this department

WEBSITE:

A website is a set of related webpages containing content such as texts, images, videos, audios,
etc. A website is hosted on at least one web server, accessible via a network such as the internet
or a private LAN through an internet address known as a URL (Universal Resource Locator). A
publicly accessible websites collectively constitutes the World Wide Web (WWW).

WEBPAGE:

A webpage is a document, typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting


instructions of hypertext nark up language (HTML, XHTML). A webpage may incorporate
elements from other websites with suitable anchors. Webpages are accessed and transported
with the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), which may occasionally employ encryption
(HTTP secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the use of the webpage content. The
users application often a web browser renders the page content according to its HTML mark-
up instructions into a display terminal.

HTTP:

This stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol which is the set of rules for transferring files (text,
graphic, images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web.

URL:

This stands for Uniform Resource Locator and as the name suggests, it provides a way to locate
a resource on the web, the hypertext system that operates over the internet.
2.2 HTML AND ITS PROPERTIES

HTML stands for Hypertext Mark-up Language, and it is the most widely used language to
write Web Pages.

Hypertext refers to the way in which Web pages (HTML documents) are linked
together. Thus, the link available on a webpage is called Hypertext.

As its name suggests, HTML is a Markup Language which means you use HTML to
simply "mark-up" a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to structure it to
display.

Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like
headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information
between researchers.

Now, HTML is being widely used to format web pages with the help of different tags available
in HTML language.

2.2.1 HTML TAGS:

As told earlier, HTML is a markup language and makes use of various tags to format the
content. These tags are enclosed within angle braces <Tag Name>. Except few tags, most of
the tags have their corresponding closing tags. For example, <html>has its closing
tag</html>and <body>tag has its closing tag </body>tag etc.

The following are the names of tags and their description.

Tag Description

<html> This tag encloses the complete HTML document and

mainly comprises of document header which is

represented by <head>...</head> and document body

which is represented by <body>...</body> tags.


<head> This tag represents the document's header which can keep

other HTML tags like <title>, <link>, <script language

=javascript> etc.

<title> The <title> tag is used inside the <head> tag to mention

the document title.

<body> This tag represents the document's body which keeps other

HTML tags like <h1>, <div>, <p>, <table> etc.


<h1> This tag represents a heading

<P> This tag represents a paragraph.

<b>, <i>, <li>, <ul> Bold, italic, list, unordered list

2.2.2 HTML TABLE:

The HTML table model allows web designers to arrange data -text, preformatted text, images,
links, forms, form fields, other tables, etc. into rows and columns of cells. It is defined with the
<table> tag.

Table are divided into table rows with the <tr> tag. Table rows are divided into table data with
the <td> tag. A table row can also be divided into table headings with the <th> tag. Table data
<td> are the data containers of the table. They can contain all sorts of HTML elements like text,
images, lists, other tables.

CODE VIEW

<!doctype htnl>

<htnl>

<head>

<*eta charst='utf-8>

F0W</title>

</head>

<body Dgcolor=PFF0e*)f)'>

<fom naire='registration'>

<table bonders*2px bgcolor="#FFFFFF">


UrxtdXfser ID:</td>

<tdxinput type"text" nane=uid naxlengtfl=10x/tdx/tr> <trxtd>Pass*ord:</td>

rtdxinput typa=passiord* nana='passid"x/tdx/tr> <tcxtd>>wtiex/td>

<tdxinput typ*="text'' nant="uMM* naxler.gtd=20>


DESIGN VIEW

2.3 CSS AND ITS PROPERTIES

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet used for formatting html document. It is a style sheet
language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a mark-up language.

Note: CSS code is not written the same way as HTML code is. This makes sense because css is
not HTML, but rather a way of manipulating existing HTML.

2.3.1 REASONS FOR CSS

The following are reasons why CSS is better

1. It saves time

2. It eradicate the idea of using repeating codes

3. It provides efficiency in design and updates: with css, we are able to create rules, and
apply those rules to many elements within the website.

4. It can lead to faster page downloads: since rules are only downloaded once by the
browser, then are the cached and used for each page load, the use of css can lead to
lighter page loads, and improved performance. This contributes to lighter server loads and
lower requirements, which overall saves money for our clients.

5. It creates external file (server side) for managing html content

2.3.2 METHOD USED BY CSS IN FORMATTING HTML DOCUMENT

1. Inline Style: It is used to apply a unique style to a single HTML element. An inline

CSS uses the style attribute of an HTML element.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

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2. Embedded / Internal Style: It is used if one single page has a unique style. Internal styles
are defined within the <style> element, inside the <head> section of an HTML

page.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW


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3. External Style: With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire website by
changing just one file. Each page must include a reference to the external style sheet file inside
the <link> element. The <link> element goes inside the <head> section. Also when using
external css it is preferable to keep the css separate from your HTML. Placing CSS in a
separate file allows the web designer to completely differentiate between content (HTML) and
design (CSS). External CSS is a file that contains only CSS code and is saved with a .css file
extension. This CSS is then referenced in your HTML using the <link> instead of <style> as
earlier stated.

EXTERNAL CSS FILE HTML CODE DESIGN VIEW


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2.3.3 CSS SELECTORS AND HOW THEY CAN BE USED

CSS selectors are used to find or select HTML elements based on their element name, id or
class

1. Element Selector: The element selector selects elements based on the element name.

2. Id Selector: The id selector uses the id attribute of an HTML element to select a


specific element. The id of an element should be unique within a page, so the id selector is used
to select one unique element. e.g. id-hello css #hello { color;red;}
2.3.4 Class Selector: The class selector selects elements with specific class attribute. To
select elements with a specific class, write a period (.) character followed by the name of the
class. e.g. .center {text-align:center;}

2.3.5 CSS RULES OVERRIDING

1. Any inline style sheet takes the highest priority, so it will override any rule defined in

<style> </style> tags.

2. Any rule defined in <style> </style> tags will override the rules defined in any

external style sheet file.

2.3.6 CSS COMMENTS

To simply put comment inside a style sheet you use /* */, you can use it to

comment multi-line blocks in similar way as you do in c and c++ programming language.

2.3.7 BACKGROUND AND FONT OF VARIOUS HTML ELEMENTS

You can set the following background properties of an element.

1. The background-color: Is a property used to set the color background of an element.

2. The background-image property: is used to set the background image of an element.

3. The background repeat: Is used to control the repetition of an image in the


background.

4. The background position: Is used to control the position of an image in the


background.

5. The background attachment: Is used to control the scrolling of an image in the


background.

6. The background property: Is used as a short hand to specify a number of other


background properties.

FONT WHICH ARE;

1. The Font-family property: This is used to change the face of a font


2. The Font-style property: This is used to make a font italic or oblique.

3. The Font-weight property: This is used to increase or decrease how bold or light a font
appears.

4. The Font-size property: This is used to increase or decrease the size of a font.

2.3.8 TEXT DECORATION:

This demonstrate how to decorate a text in css, the values are none, underline, over line, line
through and blink.

2.3.9 PROPERTIES OF HYPERLINK USING CSS

1. The link signifies unvisited hyperlinks

2. The link visited signifies visited hyperlinks

3. The link hovered signifies an element that currently has the users mouse pointer
hovering over it.

4. The link active signifies an element on which the user is currently clicking.
2.4 WEBSITE DESIGN USING HTML AND CSS HTML CODING VIEW

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<td id=*teKt_color" width='l$8px align=ceflterxa
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CSS CODING VIEW
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This website was designed by PHOTO MENU


2.5 JAVASCRIPT AND ITS PROPERTIES

JavaScript is a dynamic computer programming language. It is lightweight and most


commonly used as a part of web pages, whose implementations allows client side script to
interact with the user and make dynamic pages. It is an interpreted programming language
with object oriented capabilities. It was developed by Brenan Eich 1995-1996; it is an
implementation of ECMA Script (European Computer Manufacturers Association). It was also
known as livescript later change to javascript. It is use for client side web form validation.
Javascript cannot run with been embedded in the HTML.

2.5.1 FUNCTIONS OF JAVASCRIPT

1. It is most commonly used as a client side scripting language, which implies that
javascript is written into an HTML page and when a user request an HTML page with
javascript in it, the script is sent to the browser.

2. It used for form validation.

2.5.2 BROWSER DETECTION

This refers to a feature of a web browser to execute a javascript code without any error
irrespective of its version.

2.5.3 ADVANTAGES OF JAVASCRIPT

1. Less server interaction: You can validate user input before sending the page off to the
server. This saves server traffic, which means fewer loads on your server.

2. Immediate feedback to the visitors: They dont have to wait for a page to reload to see
if they forgotten to enter something.

3. Increased interactivity: You can create interfaces that react when the user hovers over
them with a mouse or activates them via the keyboard.

4. Richer interfaces: You can use javascript to include such items as drag and drop
component and sliders to give a rich interface to your site visitors.

2.5.4 JAVASCRIPT DEVELOPMENT TOOLS

One of the major strengths of javascript is that it does not require expensive development
tools. One can begin with a simple text editor such as notepad or notepad++. Since it is an
interpreted language inside the context of a web browser, you dont even need to buy a
compiler.

However to make life simpler, various vendors have come up with very nice javascript editing
tools, they are macromedia Dreamweaver.

2.5.5 JAVASCRIPT SYNTAX

JavaScript can be implemented using javascript statements that are placed within the

<script> </script> HTML tags in a web page. You can place the <script> tags,

containing your javascript, anywhere within your web page, but it is normally recommended
that we should keep it within the <head> tags The script tag takes two important attributes:

1. Language: This attribute specifies what scripting language i am using.

2. Type: This attribute is what is now recommended to indicate the scripting language in
use and its value should be set to text/javascript.
2.5.6 COMMENTS IN JAVASCRIPT

JavaScript supports both c-style and c++ style comments. Thus:

1. Any text between a // and the end of a line is treated as a comment and is ignored by
JavaScript.

2. Any text between the characters /* and */ is treated as a comment. This may span
multiple lines.

3. JavaScript also recognizes the HTML comment opening sequence <!--. JavaScript
treats this as a single-line comment, just as it dos the //comment.

4. The HTML comment closing sequence --!> is not recognized by JavaScript so it


should be written as //-->

2.5.7 MY JAVASCRIPT PROGRAM TO OUTPUT MY NAME

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

<!OOCW ht*l>

<hnd>

<title>)avacript</title>

azritt lanjusjej'jarrtKPlft
?jiie='tt,'jafascrl?t> Hare Is tjlfd
. srta<eti)

</serlpt>

<fteU>

<body>

2.5.8 HOW TO ENABLE JAVASCRIPT IN BROWSER

I was taught that all the modern browsers come with built-in support for JavaScript.
Frequently, we may need to enable or disable this support manually. The following procedure
will help us to enable and disable JavaScript in our browsers.
2.5.8.1 JAVASCRIPT IN INTERNET EXPLORER

Here are the steps to turn on JavaScript in Internet Explorer:

Follow Tools-> Internet Options from the menu.

Select Security tab from the dialog box.

Click the Custom Level button.

Scroll down till you find the Scripting option.

Select Enable radio button under Active Scripting.

Finally, click Ok.

2.5.8.2 JAVASCRIPT IN MOZILLA FIREFOX

Here are the steps to turn on JavaScript in Firefox:

Open a new tab -> type about: config in the address bar.

Then you will find the warning dialog. Select Ill be careful, I promise.

Then you will find the list of configure options in the browser.

In the search bar, type javascript.enabled.

There you will find the option to enable javascript by right clicking on the value of that
option -> select toggle.

Note: Ifjavascript.disabled; it gets enabled upon clicking toggle.

2.5.8.3 JAVASCRIPT IN GOOGLE CHROME Here are the steps to turn on JavaScript in
Chrome:

Click the Chrome menu at the top right hand corner of your browser.

Select Settings.

Click Show advanced settings at the end of the page.

Under the Privacy section, click the Content settings button.

In the JavaScript section Allow any site to run to JavaScript.


2.5.9 DATA TYPES IN JAVASCRIPT

One of the most fundamental characteristics of a programming language is the set of data
types it support. These are the type of values that can be represented and manipulated in a
programming language. They include:

Numbers: This represents numeric values e.g. 100.

Strings: This represents sequence of character e.g. Hello.

Boolean: This represents Boolean value either true or false

Null: This represents nothing i.e. it can be empty.

Undefined: This represents undefined values.

Object: This represent values return by functions.

2.5.10 JAVASCRIPT VARIABLES

This is a memory location used for holding values or used for storing values in a memory. var
(keyword) is used to hold a value or declare a value, it makes it known to a compiler,
interpreter.

E.g. var name Declaration

Name = John Initialization

2.5.10.1 VARIABLE NAMES

While naming the variables in JavaScript, the following rules should be kept in mind.

You should not use any of the JavaScript reserved keywords as a variable name. For
example, break or boolean
JavaScript variable names should not start with a numeral (0-9). They must begin with
a letter or an underscore character. For example, 876ejiro is an invalid name but _876ejiro,
ejiro is a valid one.

JavaScript variable names are case-sensitive. For example, Ejiro and ejiro are two
different variables.

CODE VIEW

Working with Javascript


file:///C:/Users/ejiro-pc/Desktop/WEB/Javascript2.html

The Area is: 21.419999999999998 The


Pemnter is: 24.599999999999998

DESIGN VIEW

2.5.11 OPERATORS

Let me take a simple expression to give its meaning 4 + 5 = 9. Here 4 and 5 are called

operands and + is called the operator. JavaScript support the following types of operators
they are:
1. Arithmetic Operators: JavaScript supports the following arithmetic operators using an
expression. Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then

a. Addition (+) e.g. A + B = 30

b. Subtraction (-) e.g. A - B = -10

c. Multiplication (*) e.g. A * B = 200

d. Division (/) e.g. B/A = 2

e. Modulus (%) e.g. B%A = 0

f. Increment (++) e.g. A++ = 11

g. Decrement (--) e.g. A-- = 9

2. Comparison Operators: JavaScript support the following comparison operators.


Assume variable A holds 10 and variable B holds 20, then;

a. Equal (==): Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if yes, then the
condition becomes true. e.g. (A == B) is not true.

b. Not Equal (!=): Checks if the value of two operands are equal or not, if the values are
not equal, then the condition becomes true. e.g. (A != B) is true.

c. Greater Than (>): Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than the value of the
right operand, if yes, then the condition becomes true. e.g. (A > B) is not true.

d. Less Than (<): Checks if the value of the left operand is less than the value of the right
operand, if yes, then the condition becomes true. e.g. (A < B) is true.

e. Greater Than or Equal To (>=): Checks if the value of the left operand is greater than
or equal to the value of the right operand, if yes, then the condition becomes true. e.g. (A >=
B) is not true.

f. Less Than or Equal To (<=): Checks if the value of the left operand is less than or
equal to the value of the right operand, if yes, then the condition becomes true. e.g. (A <= B)
is true.
3. Logical (or Relational) Operators: JavaScript supports the following logical operators.
Assume variable A holds 10 and variable holds 20, then;

a. Logical AND (&&): If both the operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes
true. e.g. (A && B) is true.

b. Logical OR (||): If any of the two operands are non-zero, then the condition becomes
true. e.g. (A || B) is true.

c. Logical NOT (!): Reverses the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, the
logical NOT operator will make it false. e.g. !(A && B) is false.

4. Assignment Operators

5. Conditional Operators

2.5.12 SELECTION STATEMENTS

When writing a program, there may be a situation when we need to adopt one out of a given
set of paths. In such cases, conditional statement were used which allows our program to make
correct decisions and perform right actions. The following selection statements are supported
by JavaScript are:
1. IF STATEMENT: This is the fundamental control statement that allows JavaScript

to make decisions and execute statements conditionally.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

Working vurth Javascript jti * Srn^e IF Script * 1+


1file///GAhefs/<qMO*fK/DesfctOfiAMBl/ script html

Total is 401

2. IF-ELSE STATEMENT: This is the next form of the selection statement that allows
JavaScript to execute statements in a more controlled way.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

<!doctype tita 1 >


, IFEh
T+
<head> file:///C:/Users/ejiro-pc/Desktop/WEB/lf Else.html
! <title>IF Else</title*
<script ltnguage=Javascript> :
var s=10;
var bell;
; var total; Total is: 11
if (a**b)
( total(a*b)*4;
docunent.wrltelnfTotal is; vtotal)
>
else
{ total=(a+b)-10;
ck>ciment.xriteln("Total is; total)
>

</script>
3. IF-ELSE-IF STATEMENT: This is an advanced form of if else that allows

JavaScript to make a correct decision out of several conditions.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

<htai>

<hed>

If ELSE IF</titl*>

<script>

var book * 'naths'*; if (boot* ~a history*)


(d(xunnt.wrltln ("<6>Mtory book</b>");) else If (book - "nattis'-)

(docurtent.v*riteln (**<b>This is the right book</6>*);) else if (book == economics*>

(dotunant.<*rit*ln (<b>corua*ic* Bookc/bx");) clsefdccuner.t .uritcln (-<b*unWno*r


boakc/b"); }

</script>

</head>

<body>

</botfy>

4. SWITCH CASE: Switch case is used to handle situation more efficiently than repeated
if-else-if statements.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

This Is an Odd Num be r

2.5.13 LOOP STATEMENT

While writing a program, you may encounter a situation where you need to perform an action
over and over again. In such situations, you would need to write loop statements to reduce the
number of lines. JavaScript supports all the necessary loops to ease down the pressure of
programming.

1. WHILE LOOP: The purpose of a while loop is to execute a statement or code block
repeatedly as long as an expression is true. Once the expression becomes false, the loop
terminates.
CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW
^ WHILE LOOP 7 \+
9 file:///C:/Users/ejiro-pc/Deslctop/WEB/while loopjs.html

Current Count: 1
Current Count: 2
Current Count: 3
Current Count: 4
Current Count: 5
Opps! Loop
Stopped
2. DO WHILE LOOP: This is similar to the while loop except that the condition checks what
happens at the end of the loop. This means that the loop will always be executed at least once,
even if the condition if false.

CODE VIEW
Do whil^ loop
f!lci///C:/wamp/www/Lio while loop.html

Starting Loop Current Count- O Current Count 1


Current Count 2 Cuucxit Count. 3 Cuzxexxt Count. 4
Loop Stopped

DESIGN VIEW

3. FOR LOOP: This is the most compact form of looping. It includes the following three (3)
important parts:

Loop Initialization where we initialize our counter to a starting value. The initialization
statement is executed before the loop begins.

Test statement which will test if a given condition is true or not. If the condition is
true, then the code given inside the loop will be executed, otherwise the control will come out
of the loop.

Iteration statement where you can increase or decrease your counter. Note: All this
three (3) parts are inserted in a single line separated by semicolons.

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW


2.5.14 FUNCTIONS

A function is a group of reusable code which can be called anywhere in your program. This
eliminates the need of writing the same code again and again. It helps programmers in writing
modular codes. It allows a programmer to divide a big program into a number of small and
manageable functions.

Before we use a function, we need to define it. The most common way to define a function in
JavaScript is by using the function keyword, followed by a unique function name, a list of
parameters (this might be empty), and a statement block surrounded by curly braces.

Also to invoke a function somewhere later in the script, you would simply need to write the
name of that function.

2.6 JAVASCRIPT WORK USING HTML, CSS AND JAVASCRIPT

Code View CSS AREA

<!CCTVPE htil)

<bead>

<title>Oiscourt Calculator</title)

<style>

*{rpji:8;

padding:;}

input[type="te)(t']Jirp'Jt[type:pa5s>rd>]{display:bloci(;

wdth:92px; padding:5px; border: lpx solid colorJFW; text-aligr.:certer;}

label{color;it$f;

font-si2e:19px;

display:bleck;
------- n --------- n
coloriWM;
citer{{olor:#0fO;} piidth:86px;
padding:5pi;
.ccntai'er{color:t8f8; rsargin:10px;
border:thick; border:lpx solid W9*';
ocrter-color:P8F3;) bcrder-radius:18p;}
select{uiiflth:92pK; . button:hover{backgrcurd-color :*F30;}
padding:2px;
bordenlpx solid P8F3; ;topDivl {
color:##;} position: absolute;
nidth: 2Mpx;
. back{bacs<grourd-color: P J03;} height: llSpx;
z-index: 1;
.twtton{bckgroun4-color:Wf8; left: 647px;
color top: 116px;

JAVASCRIPT AREA

top: lltpa; visibility: visible; color: W6;


addtocart();
resetcartO;
</style>
//void calculate()//var Rate, var Price);
(script ia?fwge:jivascript'> function calc()
var o'ijfr;ce=R;

var discRate^i {
var discount^;
var reRrice=?; //alertpHello Nigga*}
var pjantity=$;
var totaldiscifl;
var Wtalprtce=8;
calc();
//cartxQ;
aiitxart;);
discRate=docunant.gtEler*entById{*discRate").value;
origP'iceadoanent.getEienentByldCorigPrice'), value; disco,jnt=discRate*c<~igPrice*0.ai;
ne*Price=origPrice-discowit;

//alert{discount* discount V\n*+ netvPrice: "+ne*Price)

docunem.jetEienentByld(discResult).value*discount
docunertt.|etElenent8yId(currentPrice).value^neuPrice
)
HTML AREA

<input typntext ne=*origprice*


actiascheckoutpage.litiil"
idscrifrice* requi-ed
cn$utnit="cofifini(Heady to sub*it')>
placexlder='l!rigyial Price./ xbr />
<fieldse*>
dabebDiscount late: (/label)
(iegendxceuter) Discooit Calculator
<input typestest* naa^disdate'
</center></legend>
required(input type='tert
(labebCurrencyx/label)
rare="discRaterequired
(select) placebcldersTliscoart Kate"
ids'discRate" /xlabel id*ax/label>
copicn usl=">Select
Currey(/cptit>n> ccptior value^HS* <br />
>N6< /option>
<label>Discount:</label>
<cptior valu="JSO*>USO<.''opticfi>
(input type=tert' wfle**text* required
<cption placeholdef*'Discouiit* idi'discfiesult
valuee~EUR05a,>uros</optioii> class:back" /><br />

(/select) <3afcei>lte Pricex/label)

<br /xbr /> (input typestext' rare^text retired


placeholder:'ten- Price*
<labfl>Crifiral ?nice:l*j (/label)
id=*currentPrice* dass="back*
/xbr/>8nbsp;Jnb;irEp;8nb$p;iresp;Srb Jrtsp;!nbsp;Wi5p;hbsp;Snbsp;Wisp;S(i
5pj bsp;8nbsp;JrtBp;

(input type"buttcn class="button* (input type="buttw' class="buttao'


value"Calculste value="6dd To Cart' nanessubiit
onclick='addtocart()7 >
nane:subit* onclidt*calc{)7>

squired placeholcer=*Quantity" /> nane=sub*it' anclidp'jddtocart() 7 >


&nbsp;Snbspj&nbsp;&^sp]Snbsp;&ros
</l3beix/td>
9;irbsp;Snbsp;
</tr>
(input type=button' class=button
<tr> value="Checlc Out' nare^subiit

<td>Total Discourtx/td) onclick:if{co(r?im(A'e you ready to


checkout"?)/)
(tdxlabel)
l'esp;8nbsp;inosp;Jrtsp;8nbsp;i?DSj;
(input type=*text" nar8=*cartiliscount* jftsp;Snbsp;i'OSp;
id=*cartDiscoirt* squired
(div id="apOivl>
pkeholcer:Total Discomt" />
(table aidth=*2B0 beigbt='B7 mer^T
</laWx/td>
cellpa3Cirg= ft" cellspacing^' >
</tr>
(tr>
<tr>
(td colspat=2" xcenter>C48T
<td>Total Price:</td> OETHLS</centerx/td>

(tdxlabel) </tr>

(input typpstot are=:artPrice* (tr>


ifccartPrice equired placeholcer:otal
(td>Quantity:</td>
Price />
(tdxlabel)
</labelx/td>
(input typestext" nawscartQuantity"
icJ=cartQuan:ity required
placetolde^IJuantity* />
2.7 PHP AND ITS PROPERTIES

PHP was originally called PHP/FI which means Personal Home Page/Form Interpreter in 1995
by Ramus Leardof It was a collection of Perl Script for handling form submission but lack
many useful language features such as for loop.

PHP/F2 was written in 1997 by Ramus yet with some lacking feature and poor execution
style. e.g. the while loop.

PHP 3 which means PHP Hypertext Pre-processor was later written by Ramus, Zeave
Audraski and Andi Gutman in 1998 with improvement and added feature like database access.

PHP 4 was written with the sluggard Compare First and execute LateF Style in late 1998.
The compile code will be use to execute the object code using the Zend Engine.

PHP 5 contain improve object oriented feature.

2.7.1 COMMON USES OF PHP

PHP performs system functions i.e. from files on a system it can create, open, read, write, and
close them. The other uses of PHP are:

PHP can handle forms, i.e. gather data from files, save data to a file, through email.

You add, delete, and modify elements within your database through PHP.

Access cookies variables and set cookies.

Using PHP, you can restrict users to access some pages of your website.

It can encrypt data.


2.7.2 PHP EMBEDDED IN HTML

Once you have PHP in your HTML do not save it with .html

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW

2.7.3 ENVIRONMENTAL SETUP

In order to develop and run my PHP web pages, three (3) vital components were installed on
my computer system.

Web Server: PHP will work with virtually all web server software, including Microsoft
Internet Information Server (IIS) and wamp server.

Database: PHP will work with virtually all database software, including MySQL,
Oracle.

PHP Parser: In order to process PHP script instructions, a parser must be installed to
generate HTML output that can be sent to the Web Browser.

2.7.4 COMMENTING PHP CODE

A comment is the portion of a program that exists only for the human reader and stripped out
before displaying the programs result. There are two commenting formats in PHP:
Single-line comments: They are generally used for short explanations or notes relevant
to the local code. e.g. #,//

Multi-lines comments: They are generally used to provide pseudocode

algorithms and more detailed explanations when necessary. The multiline style of commenting
is the same as in C. e.g. /* */

2.7.5 VARIABLE TYPES

The main way to store information in the middle of a PHP program is by using a variable. The
important thing to know about variable in PHP includes:

All variable in PHP are denoted with a leading dollar sign ($).

The value of a variable is the value of its most recent assignment.

Variables are assigned with the = operator, with the variable on the left hand side and
the expression to be evaluated on the right.

Variables can, but do not need, to be declared before assignment.

Variables in PHP do not have intrinsic types - a variable does not know in advance
whether it will be used to store a number or a string of characters.

Variables used before they are assigned have default values.

PHP does a good job of automatically converting types from one to another when
necessary.

2.7.6 DATA TYPES

PHP has a total of eight (8) data types which we use to construct our variables.

Integers: They are whole numbers, without a decimal point e.g. 4196

Doubles: They are floating-point numbers e.g. 3.14159 or 49.1

Booleans: They have only two possible values either true or false.

NULL: Is a special type that only has one value: NULL.

Strings: They are sequences of characters, like PHP supports strings operations.

Arrays: They are named and indexed collections of other values.


Objects: They are instances of programmer-defined classes, which can package up
both other kinds of values and functions that are specific to the class.

Resources: They are instances variables that hold references to resources external to
PHP (such as database connections).

2.7.7 VARIABLE NAMING

Rules for naming a variable are:

Variable names must begin with a letter or underscore character.

A variable name can consist of numbers, letters, underscores but you cannot use
character like +, -, %, (,), &, etc.

Note: There is no size limit for variables.

2.7.8 VARAIABLES

Scope can be defined as the range of availability a variable has to

program in which it is declared. PHP variables can be one of four scope types.

Local Variables: A variable declared in a function is considered local, i.e. it can be


referenced solely in that function. Note that any
assignment outside of that function will be considered to be entirely different variable from
the one contained in the function.

Global Variables: In contrast to local variables, a global variable can be accessed in any part
of the program. However, in order to be modified, a global variable must be explicitly
declared to be global in the function in which it is to be modified. This is accomplished,
conveniently enough, by placing the keyword GLOBAL in front of the variable that should be
recognized as global.

2.7.9 ARRAYS

An array is a data structure that stores one or more similar type of values in a single value. For
example, if you want to store 100 numbers, then instead of defining 100 variables, it is easy to
define an array of 100 lengths. An array consists of two (2) basic elements.

Key

Value

The general form of an array e.g. state1, 2, 3, 4 are called the names while the likes of Kaduna,
Abuja are called values. $state1 = Kaduna etc.

sate i = Abq a sate.=Lagos SUK?=Pott Karcoiin


satet=Kaisa

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW


2.7.10 GET AND POST METHODS

There are two ways the browser client can send information to the web

server.

The GET Method: It sends the encoded user information appended to the page request.
The page and the encoded information are separated by the ? character.

The POST Method: This method transfers information via HTTP headers.

Note: Before the browser sends the information, it encodes it using a scheme called URL
encoding. In this scheme, name/value pairs are joined with equal signs and different pairs are
separated by the ampersand. e.g. name1=value1&name2=value&name3=value3. Spaces are
removed and replaced with the + character and any other non-alphanumeric characters are
replaced with a hexadecimal values. After the information is encoded, it is sent to the browser.

2.8 OTHER PHP CODES AND THEIR DESIGN

Yea \ i will give you #4-0= OOO

CODE VIEW DESIGN VIEW


2.9 DATABASE AND ITS PROPETIES

Structured Query Language (SQL) is used to manipulate database object. Database is a tabular
representation of data with specific attribute.

2.9.1 DATABASE STRUCTURE

DATABASE

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4

Row 1 Row 2 Row 3

Column1 Column 2 Column 3

All the rows in a given table are related in a way that describes the database function. A row
of data in a table is a called a record.

Data in a table can be linked with another record in a table which is done by a primary key.

A primary key uniquely identify record in the entire database. The primary key cannot be
duplicated in a table. Unique id behaves in the same way it is use to prevent duplicate in a
table.

Note: For me to work (insert) and update record into a database will be done through an
interface called PHPMYADMIN.

2.9.2 HOW DO YOU INSERT RECORDS

They are inserted from HTML forms or from a scripting language

2.9.3 PHPMYADMIN
PhpMyAdmin is a web based interface to a MYSQL server. This interface is written in PHP
language. Which is frequently used for web based interactive programs. PhpMyAdmin
translates what i enter into the web browser, sends queries to the MySQL database, and
translates the returned information back to web format.

2.9.4 DATABASE CREATION

A database was created for my project, so that the form created can be submitted
2.9.5 SQL STATEMENTS

1. INSERT: It is use to add record to database tables

2. UPDATE: It is use to change existing records data in tables

3. SELECT: It query or view record data in tables.

2.10 MY FULL WEBSITE WITH HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT, PHP AND SENT TO
DATABASE

Due to how lengthy the code is the design view will be displayed only.
LOGIN PAGE

(fell
'f *
Imiti
DliKiitllll
CHAPTER THREE

ACTUAL WORK DONE

3.0 TECHNICAL SKILLS ACQUIRED

Below are list of skills i acquired during my Industrial Training at ADMAS IT PLACE

i.Deep knowledge in understanding web design and database maintenance.

ii.Ability to create websites with the help of HTML.

iii.Ability to create websites with the help of HTML and CSS.

iv.Ability to create standardize websites with the help of HTML, CSS, JAVASCRIPT,

and PHP.

v.Debugging errors and been creative in arrangement of codes.

vi.Installing Database (Wamp) and linking PHP to the Database.

vii.Installing several developmental tools like Adobe CS6 which contain Dreamweaver, and
Fireworks, knowing how to use them effectively.

viii.Learning how to work with designed Templates and creating Templates.

ix.Ability to Insert, Update, Select, Delete records in the Database and Importing, Exporting
database file from one local server to another.

3.1 SOCIAL AND FUNCTIONAL SKILLS ACQUIRED

x.Enhanced communication skills.

xi.Ability to identify and solve problems relating to web design .

xii.Decision making, critical thinking, organizing and planning.

xiii.Ability to work with team.

xiv.Enhanced teaching and effective learning skills

xv.Good customers services orientation skill


CHAPTER FOUR

EXPERIENCE GAINED AND CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED

4.1 EXPERIENCE GAINED

i.Teaching and assisting students (Clients) through their lessons.

ii.Assist students with their codes when not running.

iii.Running of errands to boost activities in the workplace.

iv.Check and work on colleagues systems when challenge with an error code.

v. Help in installing various development applications to colleagues and client.

4.2 CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED

i. Difficulty in seeking for IT attachment.

ii. Lack of transportation fee.

iii. Lack of good facilities for web design.

iv. I was not paid either by SIWES or the place of my attachment.

v. There are no standard equipments for learning and practical.

vi. The company lacks proper SIWES orientation on how to train student.
CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION

My six (6) months Industrial Training at RITASELL SERVICES LIMITED was a huge
success and a great time of acquisition of knowledge and skills. Through my training i was
able to appreciate my chosen course of study even more, because i had the opportunity to
blend the theoretical knowledge acquired from school with the practical hands-on application
of knowledge gained here to perform very important tasks that contributed in a way to my
productivity in the company. My training here has given me a broader view to the importance
and relevance of Computer Science (Web Design Development) in the immediate society and
the world as a whole, as i now look forward to impacting it positively after graduation. I have
also been able to improve my communication and presentation skills and thereby developed
good relationship with my fellow colleagues at work. I have also been able to appreciate the
connection between my course of study and other disciplines in producing a successful result.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS:
i. School should provide a place of attachment for student.

ii. Allowances should be paid to students during their programme just like NYSC and not
after. This would help them a great deal to handle some financial problems during their
training course.

iii. Supervisor should always visit student monthly in their various places of attachment.
REFERENCE

PAPER

> Student industrial work experienced scheme 2015/2016 handbook

> Web design manual by industrial supervisor Mr. Kelvin P.

> Web design and Advance Manual by Industrial based supervisor Mr. Adeyemi Segun

LINK

> http://www.w3schools.com

> http://www.tutorialpoint.com

> http://www. tizag.com/CSS

> http://www. CSS/HTML/116583/article.co m