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SAP BW Query

Performance Tuning with


Aggregates
Ron Silberstein
Platinum Consultant
Netweaver RIG US – Business Intelligence
SAP Labs, LLC
SAP NetWeaver™
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DB and OS Abstraction
Adapters to non-SAP

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 2


Contents

Aggregates Concepts

Building Aggregates

Performance Analysis Tools and Techniques

Aggregate Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 3


Contents

Aggregates Concepts

Building Aggregates

Performance Analysis Tools and Techniques

Aggregate Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 4


Aspects of SAP BW Query Performance

Sound Data Model


Dimensional Modelling
Logical Partitioning
Physical Partitioning

BW Reporting Performance
Aggregates
Pre-calculated Web Templates
OLAP Cache

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 5


Performance and Reuse

least
fastes
Offline Documents

reusa
Portal Cache t iViews

ble
Performance
Pre-Calculation Cluster tables

OLAP Cache Memory

Reuse
Aggregates DB tables/MOLAP

most
InfoCubes DB tables/Indexes
Less

reusa
fast

le b
© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 6
Aggregates: Definition & Purpose

Definition: Aggregates are materialized


subsets of InfoCube data, where the data
is pre-aggregated and stored in an
InfoCube structure.

Purpose: To accelerate the response time


of queries, by reducing the amount of
data that must be read in the database for
a navigation step.

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 7


Query Execution – Order of Data Availability Check

Front-end
Analyzer Display
and Manipulation
Query
Definition (BEx) Current Query View
BW Server 1
OLAP Processor
Transparency
Local OLAP Cache
2

4 3
Global OLAP Cache

Aggregates
InfoProvider on Database
on Database (if applicable)

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 8


Aggregates – Properties

Aggregates can be created: Aggregates are not possible for:


For Basic InfoCubes
On dimension characteristics MultiProvider
On navigational attributes
RemoteCube
On hierarchy levels
Using time-dependent navigational
ODS- Object
attributes (as of BW 3.x)
Using hierarchy levels where the
structure is time-dependent (as of InfoSet
BW 3.x)

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 9


Aggregates – Data Flow Example

Example for flow with and without aggregates

Flow without aggregate


Database Selection OLAP Engine

Month Material Revenue


Month Material Revenue July Hammer 10
July Hammer 10 July Nail 20
July Nail 20 August Hammer 10
August Hammer 10 Month Revenue
August Nail 20
August Nail 20 July 30
InfoCube August 30
Number of records read
on the database
Records
transferred to BW
instance after
Month Revenue Month Revenue being summarized
July 30 July 30 on the database
August 30 August 30
Aggregate

Flow with aggregate

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 10


Different Aggregation Levels

Defining Aggregates

* Group according to characteristic or attribute value


H Group according to nodes of a hierarchy level
F Filter according to fixed value

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 11


Example: Grouped by Characteristic

InfoCube
InfoCube Sales
SalesData
Data Aggregate
Aggregate Sales
SalesData
Data

Country Customer Sales Country


Country **

USA Winsoft Inc. 10 Country Sales


Germany Internetworks 15
USA Funny Duds Inc. 5 USA 40
Austria Internetworks 10 Germany 35
Austria Thor Industries 10 Austria 20
Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20
USA Winsoft Inc. 25

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 12


Example: Using Filters

InfoCube
InfoCube Sales
SalesData
Data Aggregate
Aggregate Sales
SalesData
Data

Country Customer Sales Country


Country F,
F,Germany
Germany
Customer
Customer **
USA Winsoft Inc. 10
Germany Internetworks 15 Country Customer Sales
USA Funny Duds Inc. 5
Austria Internetworks 10 Germany Internetworks 15
Austria Thor Industries 10 Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20
Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20
USA Winsoft Inc. 25

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 13


Example: Aggregation Using Navigational Attributes

Navigational
NavigationalAttribute
Attributefor
for
Characteristic Customer
Characteristic Customer
Customer Industry

Winsoft Inc. Technology


Funny Duds Inc. Consumer Products
Internetworks Technology
Thor Industries Chemical

InfoCube
InfoCube Sales
SalesData
Data Aggregate
Aggregate Sales
SalesData
Data

Country Customer Sales Customer__Industry


Customer__Industry **

USA Winsoft Inc. 10


Germany Internetworks 15 Customer__Industry Sales
USA Funny Duds Inc. 5
Austria Internetworks 10 Technology 60
Austria Thor Industries 10 Consumer Products 25
Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20 Chemical 10
USA Winsoft Inc. 25

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 14


Example: Aggregation Using Time-Dependent Master Data

Master
MasterData
DataTable:
Table: Country
Country

Country Valid from Valid from Sales Person

Austria 1/1/2000 12/31/2000 Huber


Austria 1/1/2001 12/31/2001 Meyer
Germany 1/1/2000 12/31/2000 Meyer
Germany 4/1/2000 12/31/2001 Huber
USA 1/1/2000 12/31/2001 Smith

InfoCube
InfoCube Sales
SalesData
Data Aggregate
Aggregate Sales
SalesData
Data

Country Customer Sales Sales


SalesPerson
Person **
Keydate
Keydate 9/1/2001
9/1/2001
USA Buggy Soft Inc. 10
Germany Ocean Networks 15 Sales Person Revenue
USA Funny Duds Inc. 5
Austria Ocean Networks 10 Huber 35
Austria Thor Industries 10 Meyer 20
Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20 Smith 40
USA Buggy Soft Inc. 25

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 15


Example: Aggregation Using Hierarchies

Hierarchy
Hierarchyfor
forCountry
Country

All
Time-independent
Europe America hierarchies are stored
outside the dimension, in
this example, in a table
Germany Austria USA called /BI0/ICOUNTRY

InfoCube
InfoCube Sales
SalesData
Data Aggregate
Aggregate Sales
SalesData
Data
Country Customer Sales Country
Country H,
H,Level
Level22

USA Winsoft Inc. 10


Germany Internetworks 15 Country Sales
USA Funny Duds Inc. 5
Austria Internetworks 10 America 40
Austria Thor Industries 10 Europe 55
Germany Funny Duds Inc. 20
USA Winsoft Inc. 25

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 16


Query Behavior: Multiple aggregates per navigation

Queries may be automatically split up over several aggregates,


as many queries are comprised of multiple select statements

Query

DB Access DB Access DB Access

Aggregate 1 Aggregate 2

InfoCube

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 17


OLAP Processor: Query Splitter

The split of a query is rule-based:

Parts of the query on different aggregation level are split.

Parts with different selections on characteristic are combined.

Parts on different hierarchy levels or parts using different


hierarchies are split.

After the split, OLAP processor searches for an optimal aggregate


each part. Parts which use the same aggregate will be combined
again (in some cases it is not possible to combine them).

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 18


Contents

Aggregates Concepts

Building Aggregates

Performance Analysis Tools and Techniques

Aggregate Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 19


Building Aggregates: Characteristics/Attributes

Technical name of the


dimension

Long text for the


dimension

Technical name of the


characteristics/attributes

Long text for the


characteristics/attributes

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 20


Building Aggregates: Drag and Drop
Check whether the
definition is correct

To enter characteristics / attributes for


aggregates, use drag-and-drop
To change the aggregation level, right-click
on the characteristic

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 21


Automatic Proposals

Several ways to get aggregate suggestions from the BW system

Aggregate Edit Goto Propose Extras System Help


Propose (statistics, usually query) Ctrl+Shift+F2
Propose from query Ctrl+Shift+F3
Propose from last navigation Ctrl+Shift+F6
Propose from BW statistics (tables) Ctrl+Shift+F4
Propose from BW statistics (InfoCube) Ctrl+Shift+F5
Optimize Ctrl+Shift+F7

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 22


Proposal by BW Statistics (1)

Suggestion based on the


Propose (statistics, usually query) Ctrl+Shift+F2 last entry of the database
Propose from query Ctrl+Shift+F3 tables RSDDSTAT/
Propose from last navigation Ctrl+Shift+F6 RSDDSTATAGGRDEF for
Propose from BW statistics (tables) Ctrl+Shift+F4 the current user
Propose from BW statistics (InfoCube) Ctrl+Shift+F5
Optimize Ctrl+Shift+F7
Suggestion based on the
database tables RSDDSTAT/
RSDDSTATAGGRDEF

Suggestion based on
the InfoCube BW
Statistics

Proposals can be
restricted to queries
with a minimum runtime

Choose the period to be


used for the proposals

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 23


Proposal by BW Statistics (2)

Save and activate Save the aggregate Aggregates suggested


the aggregate definition without from BW statistics get
activation the name STAT <N>

Aggregate
definition is
checked
automatically

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 24


Proposal by Query Definition (1)

Propose (statistics, usually query) Ctrl+Shift+F2 Suggestion based on


the query definitions
Propose from query Ctrl+Shift+F3
Propose from last navigation Ctrl+Shift+F6
Propose from BW statistics (tables) Ctrl+Shift+F4
Propose from BW statistics (InfoCube) Ctrl+Shift+F5
Optimize Ctrl+Shift+F7

Proposals can be
restricted to specific
queries; mark all (used
queries) if you want to
get general suggestions

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 25


Proposal by Query Definition (2)

Aggregates suggested from


BW statistics get the names
MIN <N> and MAX <N>

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 26


Proposal by Combination

Propose (statistics, usually query) Ctrl+Shift+F2


Propose from query Ctrl+Shift+F3 Suggestion based on
Propose from last navigation Ctrl+Shift+F6 the BW statistics or
Propose from BW statistics (tables) Ctrl+Shift+F4 query definitions
Propose from BW statistics (InfoCube) Ctrl+Shift+F5
Optimize Ctrl+Shift+F7

Propose (statistics, usually query) Ctrl+Shift+F2


Propose from query Ctrl+Shift+F3
Propose from last navigation Ctrl+Shift+F6
This will decrease the Propose from BW statistics (tables) Ctrl+Shift+F4
number of suggested Propose from BW statistics (InfoCube) Ctrl+Shift+F5
aggregates Optimize Ctrl+Shift+F7
© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 27
Aggregates Indicators

Summarization Last Used Date


Ratio

Number of Usage
Records

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 28


Rollup Hierarchy

Roll up hierarchy for the aggregate...


Roll up hierarchy ... Valuation Records Records summarized Usage Last usage
InfoCube

Valuation is the system’s estimate of an aggregate’s value

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 29


Query Design: General Recommendation

Using Aggregates No Aggregates available

Create queries to start at


an aggregated level
Aggregate 1

InfoCube

First drilldown may have to


read a larger structure
Aggregate 2

InfoCube
Second drilldown may have
to read a large structure
but with increasing filter
restrictions

Amount of data
that has to be read InfoCube InfoCube
© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 30
Building Good Aggregates

Tips for Building (and Maintaining) Good Aggregates:


Relatively small compared to parent InfoCube
Try for summarization ratios of 10 or higher
Find good subsets of data (frequently accessed)
Build on some hierarchy levels, not all
Not too specific, not too general – should serve many different query
navigations
Consider “component” aggregates
Should be frequently used and used recently (except basis aggregates)

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 31


Building Bad Aggregates

Characteristics of Bad Aggregates:


Too many very similar aggregates
Aggregates not small enough (compared to parent cube)
Too many “for a specific query” aggregates, not enough general ones
Old aggregates, not used recently
Infrequently or unused aggregates

Exceptions:
A large aggregate containing navigational attributes may benefit
performance despite its size (but remember the tradeoff)
Basis Aggregate may be large and may not be used for reporting but
still be useful for maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 32


Contents

Aggregates Concepts

Building Aggregates

Performance Analysis Tools and Techniques

Aggregate Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 33


Analysis Tools: Workload Monitor (ST03)

Scenario
Find out the queries with the worst performance and try to optimize them.

Useful Features
Expert Mode
BW System Load Analysis of table RSDDSTAT

Check following parameter values:


Check queries with highest runtimes and check where most time has
been consumed
OLAP init
DB
OLAP
Frontend
Check for ratio of selected to transferred

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 34


Using Analysis Tools: ST03 - Drill Down to Query
Highest contributor in
Total Run Time per
InfoCube

High % DB
Time

Double Click

No of Highest
runs DB time

Drill down – check if there is any single query that could be the major Low
Front-end
contributor. Where is the major contribution coming from?
time
Example shows an active query, high DB time, with low OLAP & front-
end time.
© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 35
How to Tell if an Aggregate Will Help

Do the following steps


Call query or InfoCube overview in technical content or ST03
Sort by mean overall time to find queries/InfoCubes with highest
runtimes
Calculate the KPI ‘aggregation ratio’ = number of records read from DB /
number of records transferred
Check quota of database time to total runtime

As a rule of thumb, an aggregate will be helpful if the query statistics


show:
Summarization Ratio > 10, I.e. 10 times more records are read
than are displayed, AND

Percentage of DB time > 30%, I.e. the time spent on database is


a substantial part of the whole query runtime

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 36


Overview: Reporting Performance Analysis Tools

Table RSDDSTAT

BW Statistics
Queries of BW STATISTICS
Using table RSDDSTAT as InfoSource
BW Workload Analysis – ST03

Collecting information
from table RSDDSTAT

Function module RSDDCVER_RFC_BW_STATISTICS

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 37


Query Monitor (RSRT) – 1 –

Analyze specific queries

Debug Option

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 38


Query Monitor (RSRT) – 2 –

Analyze specific queries


Check for aggregate usage
Check for aggregation sought by the query

Structure to be
read (InfoCube Available
or Aggregate) Aggregates

Number of Suggested * Summarized


Database Aggregates space disaggregated
Accesses F fixed value
H hierarchy level aggregation

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 39


Trace Tool: RSRTRACE

Activates logging
for specific user id

RSRTRACE

Displays all
existing logs

Deactivates
logging for
user id

User already
activated for
logging

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 40


Trace Tools: RSRTRACE > RSRCATTTRACE

Copy Log Number from


RSRTRACE into
Transaction
RSRCATTTRACE

RSRCATTTRACE: specific log from


RSRTRACE is input, tool gives
aggregates suggestions for first
execution AND all further navigations
performed

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 41


Contents

Aggregates Concepts

Building Aggregates

Performance Analysis Tools and Techniques

Aggregate Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 42


Aggregate Deployment – the Tradeoff

Balanced Aggregates Strategy

Time for Aggregate Many Fast Queries


Maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 43


Time Frame

Period of time
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
maintenance Upload Reporting

14 hours online reporting;


current data in aggregates needed

3 hours
data load
Aggregate

7 hours available
for aggregate
maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 44


Time Frame: Problem

Period of time
00 02 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
maintenance Upload Reporting

12 hours online reporting;


current data in aggregates needed

Current data not available 3 hours


data load
Query performance harmed
Aggregate

11 hours needed for


aggregate maintenance

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 45


Maintaining Aggregates

Definition: Activating and Filling


To use an aggregate for an InfoCube when executing a query,
you must first activate it and then fill it with data.

Definition: Rollup
To apply the newly loaded transaction data to the aggregate

Definition: Change run (Master Data Activation)


To activate the changes of master data and hierarchies
During the change run, all aggregates containing navigational
attributes and/or hierarchies are realigned

Definition: Adjustment of time dependent aggregates


To recalculate aggregates with time dependent navigational attributes

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 46


Roll-Up Performance – 1 –

Roll-up
The roll-up process populates all aggregates of an InfoCube
with the newly loaded delta load
Basic Rule: InfoCube and all depending aggregates must be
in-sync, i.e. you must see the same data no matter if it has
been derived from the InfoCube or the aggregate
Newly loaded data is not available for reporting until it has
been rolled up into the aggregates
Aggregate Hierarchy
Aggregates can be built out of other aggregates to reduce the
amount of data to be read and, hence, to improve the roll-up
performance
Aggregate hierarchy is determined automatically
General Guideline: define few basis (large) aggregates and
many small aggregates that can be built from the hierarchy
level before

Display aggregate
hierarchy

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 47


Roll-Up Performance – 1 – Aggregate Hierarchy

Example: Optimized Aggregate Hierarchy


Example

{Material,
Material
Basic InfoCube Group,
Customer,
Day}

{Material
Few large Group,
basis Customer,
aggregates Day}

{Material
Many small
Group,
aggregates
Month}

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 48


Change Run Performance

Change Run
Aggregates can contain
Dimension Characteristics
Navigational Attributes
Hierarchy Levels
When master data changes, the changes of the
navigational attributes/hierarchies must be applied to the
depending aggregates; this process is called change run
Newly loaded master data is not active until the change
run has been applied the changes to all aggregates
Threshold for delta and new build-up in customizing
The Change Run can be parallelized across InfoCubes;
see SAP note 534630 for more details
Check aggregate hierarchy (see Roll-Up for more details)
Try to build basis aggregates that are not affected by the
change run, i.e. no navigational attributes nor hierarchy
levels

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 49


Helpful OSS Notes

Note 166433 – Options for Finding Aggregates

Note 202469 – Tracing Queries with Aggregates

Note 176606 – Aggregate Change Run

Note 388069 – Change Run Monitor

Note 484536 – Filling Aggregates of Large InfoCubes

Note 125681 – Exception Aggregation

Note 189150 – Non-Cum. Key Figures before Aggregation

Note 99010 – Using RSRTRACE

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 50


Questions?

Q&A

© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 51


Copyright 2002 SAP AG. All Rights Reserved

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© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 52


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© 2002 SAP Labs, LLC, Session ID, Speaker Name 53