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THE FIJI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


ACE 606 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

FIELD TRIP
REPORT (06.10.17)
NABORO LANDFILL
KINOYA WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
WAILA WATER TREATMENT PLANT

GROUP MEMBERS
Name ID
Vili Falekaono Lehauli 2013113128
Atunaisa Nabola 2011003120
John Barry 2008002823

Pollution is nothing but the resources we are not harvesting. We allow them
to disperse because weve been ignorant of their value
Greg Barber

The Greatest Threat to our planet is the belief that


someone else will save it
Robert Swan
ACE 606 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FIELD TRIP REPORT:

NABORO LANDFILL
ADDRESS: QUEENS ROAD, FIJI.
1.0 Introductory Summary
The Naboro Landfill is a project of the Fiji Government, funded by the European Union and the
Government of Republic of The Fiji Islands. The site is designed to accept municipal solid waste
(MSW) from the Suva (city), Nasinu (city), towns including Nausori, Lami and Navua and other
neighbouring rural areas. The landfill site is envisaged to operate for 50 years. The current contractor
M/s HG Leach from New Zealand have been managing the landfill since 2005 and the contract is
being renewed every 5 years.

The Naboro Landfill was opened in October 2005 and is operated and managed as a Public-Private
Partnership. A solid waste company was contracted by the Fiji Government to operate the landfill;
currently H.G. Leach & Co. Ltd, a New Zealand company, is operating Naboro Landfill. HG Leach
performs the day to day operations and management of accounts while the Fiji Government
(Department of Environment) supervises further development of Naboro Landfill as well as monitors
and inspects operations. Fiji has not established their own guidelines and standards for landfill
construction or operation but have included in the project contract for the standards to follow the
standards set by the country of the contracted operator. Therefore, HG Leach runs the landfill
operations in accordance with New Zealand Landfill Guidelines established by the Center for
Advanced Engineering (CAE) in 2002. Naboro Landfill only accepts Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and
green waste with some allowance for special wastes but no hazardous or construction and debris
wastes are admitted. However, it is speculated that some amount of prohibited materials do pass
through the gate unnoticed even with random load inspections and supervision at the tipping face.

Currently Naboro Landfill holds over 1 million tons of waste and receiving 8000 tons per month.
The facility receives about a hundred waste trucks per day. The weigh bridge is where every vehicle
(rubbish trucks or waste trucks) has to go over it, where they are weighed and then depart to the
landfill proper where they discharge their waste. Upon their return they are weighed again whereby
the difference in the weights is the waste they discharge into the landfill where they will be charged
$41.00 per ton or $62.00 per ton for special waste. The money goes to the Governments reserve
account which they used for upgrades and keeps the facility running.

Underneath Naboro Landfill is a tunnel section which is 42m long, with a floor thickness of 0.8m, its
walls are 0.5m thick and the roof is 0.5m thick, this is because it would have to withstand almost 10
stories of compacted solid waste. The tunnel cost one million dollars to build; the tunnel is there to
protect the stream thats coming down the valley. In the Engineering side of the Landfill a contracted
party HG Leach (Fiji) LTD has a contract to build space and are sold for garbage, for every cubic meter
of space 0.8 ton of wastes is buried there. Currently HG Leach (Fiji) LTD are putting in 1.4 tons of
waste into every cubic meter of space in turn saving a lot of money for the Fiji Government. Naboro
Landfill has no waste separation or a waste recycling system which is one of the biggest weaknesses
here in Fiji. The Landfill accepts waste from roughly 360,000 people, 8000 tons per month, every day
of the year including Christmas.
Administration Office
Weigh Bridge

Landfill

Aeration Ponds

Wet Land Pond


Sludge/Dewatering
Bags

Image 1.0(a): Google Satellite image of the Naboro Landfill Layout.


1.1 Plant and Machinery Used
Currently Naboro Landfill is running $3 million dollars worth of heavy machinery.
4 20 tons of excavators
1 - specialize (26 ton compactor)
1 - D6 Compactor
1`- Normal Compactor

1.2 Staffs/Workmanship
Naboro Landfill operates with 18 staffs and 6 casuals with security working 24hrs to stop scavengers
from taking anything out from the Landfill.
Every few years the staff gets injections for tetanus, hepatitis, typhoid etc.

1.3 Security
Controlled substances (e.g. narcotics and psychotropic) require tight security and control. In some
countries, scavenging of material from landfills is a frequent problem, and, disposed drugs may be
recovered and sold by the scavengers. Measures are therefore necessary to prevent diversion during
sorting, and pilfering of drugs from landfills.

Image 1.1(a): Google image result of Specialized Compactor used the compaction of solid waste.
Image 1.1(b): Photograph of a CAT 320D Hydraulic Excavator typically being used for the compaction
of solid waste at the Naboro Landfill.
Image 1.1(c): Photograph showing the current phase of compaction at the Naboro Landfill.

Image 1.1(d): Photograph showing a typical excavator that is being used for solid waste compaction.
At the background, we can view dump trucks off-loading solid waste onto the site
Image 1.1(e): Photgraph showing dump trucks off-loading solid waste onto the site.

Image 1.1(f): Photograph showing the constructed tunnel section protecting a natural stream runnng
through the landfill.
1.4 Solid Waste Management (SWM)
The Central Board of Health (CBH), under the Ministry of Health, is responsible for collection,
treatment, and disposal of biomedical waste from three regional hospitals in Fiji, including the
Colonial War Memorial (CWM) Hospital in Suva. A CBH vehicle collects wastes from all the
government hospitals around Suva to be incinerated at the CWM hospital. The incinerator at this
hospital has a single chamber with a loading capacity of 260 kilograms (kg) a day. The ash from the
incinerator is disposed in designated cells at the Naboro Landfill. Since the CWM incinerator is old
and inefficient, a new incinerator with a capacity of 150 kg a day is being installed at Tamavua
Hospital as a backup. If for example antibiotics are buried directly in the Landfill along with the other
wastes, the antibiotics would wipe out most of the bacteria in the landfill however the bacteria which
are left would now be resistant to the antibiotics.
Under the Local Government Act, city and town councils are responsible for the management of solid
waste. The Act requires councils to do all such things as it lawfully may and as it considers expedient
to promote the health, welfare, and convenience of the inhabitants. Councils are permitted under
the Act to make by-laws for these purposes. Councils also play a vital role in protecting the
environment through enforcement of the Litter Decree 2010, Public Health Act, and Open Fires by-
laws; recycling activities; collection of garbage; and provision of other services, such as street
sweeping.

1.5 Institutional Aspects


Under the Environmental Management Act 2005, and 2007 Environmental Management
(Environmental Impact Assessment, and Waste Disposal and Recycling) Regulations, DoE, under the
Ministry of Local Government, Urban Development, Housing and Environment, has the and
community participation; and dog control. The Sanitation Section deals mainly with inspection of
premises; and enforcement of relevant laws, including the Litter Decree 2010 and Public Health Act.
The Operations Section comprises 36 full-time staff and 70 other workers (working on an hourly basis
and paid weekly) for SWM. There are also nine full-time staff at Samabula Depot, who are
responsible for vehicle maintenance and record keeping.
1.6 Financial Aspects
City and town councils must cover the costs of providing SWM services within their municipal areas.
In Suva, rates which consist of a general rate and special rate are levied according to different
categories of ratepayers: residential, commercial, industrial, civic, educational, and special. In 2012,
the general rate was F$0.025 per F$1 ($0.54) of assessed unimproved value of the property in Suva
and the special rate was F$0.015 per F$1 ($0.54) unimproved value. Under the Suva (Garbage
Disposal) By-Law 2009, the council also levies annual fee of $28.15 (around $15) per bin to cover
garbage collection and disposal costs.

In general terms, Suva Citys municipal cleansing costs account for on average 18% of the total
municipal budget of F$21 million. This is inclusive of grass cutting in public spaces. After
establishment expenses, the major cost is the transportation of solid waste to the Naboro Landfill.
However, with the construction of the planned transfer station in Nasinu, transportation cost savings
of around 24%30% may be achieved. In 20092010, the SCC incurred substantial costs to upgrade
its fleet of compactor trucks by investing in six new vehicles at an average cost of F$210,000 (around
$113,400) per truck.

Commercial and industrial customers typically pay for waste disposal through gate fees charged at
the Naboro Landfill. However, solid waste disposal costs are not fully recovered through gate fees at
the Naboro Landfill, or from the council charges. As a result, annual government subsidies of F$1.2
million (around $650,000) are needed to support Landfill operations. In the 2014 budget, the
government has allocated F$3.4 million ($1.8 million) to support future expansion of the Naboro
Landfill to cater to solid waste disposal requirements of the Central Division over time.

1.7 Liners
A landfill liner, or composite liner, is intended to be a low permeable barrier, which is laid down
under engineered landfill sites. Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) combine geosynthetics with sodium
bentonite clay to form a highly impermeable barrier that often replaces thick layers of expensive
compacted clay. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is for landfill base liners where its chemical
resistance is used to good effect. HDPE can also be used in a multitude of secondary containments,
pond linings, and water containment projects. HDPE is best used as an exposed lining material, and
has the UV resistance required for many years of outstanding service.
Image 1.7(a): Typical Cross-Section of a Landfill

Image 1.7(b): Google image result showing the installation of Solmax 1.5mm Double Sided Texture
HDPE, Cetco ST GCL and a 1000gsm Texshield Geotextile by the Viking Installation crew at the Naboro
Landfill.
Image 1.7(c): Photograph showing Geosynthetic Liners installed over in layers.

Image 1.7(d): Photograph showing Landfill compaction over liners.


1.8 Leachate Process
Leachate is a type of wastewater produced from liquid percolating through a body of solid waste. It is
a product of two sources of moisture, the first being from moisture intrinsic to the discarded solid
wastes, such as organic food scraps and the second being from moisture introduced after the final
disposal of wastes, i.e. precipitation.

The waste is put into a membrane, all the fluid and rain that comes through is collected in a pond
where they are treated by aerobic treatment. Naboro Landfill uses $10,000.00 a month on Electricity
to actuate the leachate so that the organic principles are broken down. Aerobic Treatment System or
ATS is a small scale sewage treatment system similar to a septic tank system, but which uses an
aerobic process for digestion rather than just the anaerobic process used in septic systems.
The ATS process generally consists of the following phases:

Pre-treatment Stage to remove large solids and other undesirable substances.


Aeration stage, where aerobic bacteria digest biological wastes.
Settling Stage allows undigested solids to settle. This forms a sludge that must be
periodically removed from the system.
Disinfecting Stage, where chlorine or similar disinfectant is mixed with the water, to produce
an antiseptic output.

1.9 Pre-Treatment (Primary Treatment)


Primary treatment consists of the following treatment steps: phosphoric acid addition, pre-aeration,
pH adjustment, flash mixing, flocculation, and primary sludge settling. Sludge settling is chemically
assisted by the use of coagulants enhanced with the addition of polymer to maximize removal rates.
The primary objective of these treatment steps is suspended solids removal and to achieve a
reduction in the concentration of dissolved solids, metals, and colour.
PH control achieved through the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the effluent stream
following the pre-aeration tank allows for optimization of the dissolved solids removal process.
1.10 Biological (Secondary Treatment)
The secondary treatment process is designed to oxidize carbonaceous material and remove ammonia
through the transformation of ammonia (NH3N) to nitrate (NO3) under aerobic (toxic) conditions and
denitrification of the effluent in the anoxic stage through the transformation of nitrate to nitrogen
gas, in the anoxic stage.

1.11 Disinfecting Stage


The Disinfecting stage is optional and is used where a sterile effluent is required, such as cases
where effluent is distributed above ground. The disinfectant typically used is tablets of Calcium
Hypochlorite which are specially made for waste treatment systems. The tablets are intended to
breakdown quickly in sunlight.
Since the ATS contains a living ecosystem of microbes to digest the waste products in the water,
excessive amounts of items such as bleach or antibiotics can damage the ATS environment and
reduce treatment effectiveness. Non-digestible items should also be avoided as they will build up in
the system and require more frequent sludge removal.

Leachate pond or a temporary pond is designed to catch the contaminants that can get into water
that goes through the trash in a Landfill. Culverts are then diverted and reconnected to the leachate
system which runs through the culverts to the leachate ponds.

1.11 Wet Land (Last Stage of Leachate Processing)


Wet land is the last state of the leachate processing, after going through primary, secondary and final
(disinfection) treatment the water is then discharge into this section know as Wet Land.
Leachate Pipes

Image 1.9(a): Photograph showing the Primary Treatment Phase for the Leaching.

Aeration Pump

Image 1.9(b): Photograph showing the Secondary Treatment Phase through Aeration.
Image 1.9(c): Photograph showing the Final Treatment Phase through a settling pond.

Dewatering Bag

Image 1.9(d): Photograph showing the Dewatering Bag.


Image 1.9(e): Photograph showing the designated wetland area, where treated water is being
realeased into.
ACE 606 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FIELD TRIP REPORT

KINOYA
WASTEWATER
TREATMENT PLANT
ADDRESS: KINOYA ROAD, FIJI
2.0 Introductory Summary
One of 11 major wastewater treatment plants located in Fiji, the Aerated Trickling Filter Plant located in
Kinoya, was constructed in 1972 and caters for the greater Suva area and Central Division in Fiji. Consisting
of a thorough network of systems that ensure wastewater by-products are treated and disposed of in a
humane and environmentally friendly manner; the Plants main method of treatment include the
following:

3 Primary Clarifiers 1 Enclosed Flare


3 Trickling Filters 1 SBR Plant (Sequencing Batch Reactor)
2 Secondary Clarifiers 3 Sludge Lagoons
2 Sludge Digesters 20 Drying Beds
Other Wastewater Treatment Plants Include;

1. Nadali Wastewater Treatment Plant;


1 Activated Aeration Ditch 7. Navakai Wastewater Treatment Plant;
1 Sludge Lagoon Activated Sludge:
1 Facultative Pond 4 IDEA Lagoons
1 Maturation Pond 1 Final Polishing Pond
1 Sludge Dewatering
2. ACS Wastewater Treatment Plant; Plant
1 Imhoff Tank
2 Trickling Filters 8. Natabua Wastewater Treatment Plant;
1 Secondary Clarifier 2 Anaerobic Ponds
2 Drying Beds 2 Facultative Ponds
2 Maturation Ponds
3. Wailada Wastewater Treatment Plant;
Package Plant Aeration, 9. Votua Wastewater Treatment Plant;
Clarifier 2 Anaerobic Ponds
2 Facultative Ponds
4. Naboro Wastewater Treatment Plant; 1 Maturation Pond
1 Pasveer Ditch
1 Clarifier 10. Namara Wastewater Treatment Plant;
2 Drying Beds 2 Anaerobic Ponds
2 Facultative Ponds
5. Pacific Harbor Wastewater Treatment 1 Maturation Pond
Plant;
1 Primary Clarifier
2 Trickling Filters
1 Secondary Clarifier
4 Drying Beds

6. Olosara Wastewater Treatment Plant;


2 Anaerobic Ponds
1 Facultative Pond
2 Maturation Ponds
1 Soak Pit
Image 2.0(a): Google satellite image of The Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Plant.
Image 2.0(b): Photograph of an information board showing the Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Plant, General Layout.
2.1 Wastewater Management Unit
This is a new unit within Water Authority of Fiji assigned the role of managing the Operation and
Maintenance of all the wastewater systems in Fiji. Area of Responsibility;

Waste Water Collection System


Wastewater Treatment System
Wastewater Treatment Plant Disposal
Wastewater Sludge (Solid Waste) Treatment
Wastewater Septic Waste Treatment
Wastewater CDM (Gas Flaring) Project

The Units functions include;

Ensuring all wastewater from domestic, commercial and industrial are collected and disposed
through its system to the Wastewater Treatment Plants. Transportation of wastewater can be
either from sewer gravity main or rising (pumping) main.
All wastewater collection are treated to ensure that its effluent to be disposed to receiving waters
(rivers, sea, lakes, etc.) is of a quality that meets that standard set by the regulatory authorities or
World Health Organization.
Sludge is fully digested before it is de-watered and disposed, incinerated or re-used for landfill
purposes. The treatment of raw sludge which is a bi-product of primary treatment through
anaerobic or aerobic digestions processes is an essential part of wastewater treatment.
Extension of wastewater coverage to backlog areas around the country to ensure that the whole
nation is provided with a safe and reliable wastewater services consistently.

2.2 Wastewater Treatment Process: Sewer Line Treatment


The Plant has the capacity to cater for a population of 180,000 persons. Storm water is not collected in this
process as this can be delivered directly as surface runoff into oceans, rivers and lakes. The plant capacity
is approximately 30ML/day and has the ability to collect 250 800mg/L BOD sludge and treat it up to a
reduced 30mg/L. The processes adopted at the Wastewater Treatment Plant are as follows;
2.2.1 Preliminary Treatment: Bar Screening
The Bar Screening process employs a simple filtering process by the use of large metal screens that catch
large objects that may have entered the sewer system, such as bricks, bottles, pieces of wood etc.

Image 2.2.1(a) and (b): Photograph showing the Bar Screening process.
2.2.2 Preliminary Treatment: Grit Removal Chamber

The Grit Removal Chamber further applies a filtration process to remove small to medium sized, dense
objects, such as sand, broken glass, bone fragments, pebbles etc. In this stage, these must be removed
from the wastewater. This is critical;

To extend the lifespan of the mechanical components, especially pumps;


To prevent sand and grit from getting into the pipelines and machinery, which can cause
blockages.
To avoid depositing a sand package at the bottom of the digestion tank, the presence of which
would minimize the effective volume and hence the efficiency of the tank.

2.2.3 Primary Treatment: Sedimentation Tank


The primary sedimentation tank comes after the grit chamber. Here as many of the settable undissolved
particles as possible are separated. This sludge is called primary sludge. This reduces the load and size of
sludge treatment units. Almost 60% of all suspended solids are removed at this stage.

Image 2.2.3(a): Photograph showing a view of the 3 Primary Settling Tanks.


2.2.4 Secondary Treatment: Trickling Filter
The trickling filter bed consists of a cylindrical tank 2 4 meters high equipped with a perforated bottom.
The trickling filter is filled almost entirely with packing material made up of lava slag, gravel or other
suitable material. A rotary distributor arm spreads the influent wastewater over the upper layer of the
media and then the wastewater trickles down over and in between the packing material through the filter.
Through the under-drain and the drainage collection trench the treated water is discharged.

The stabilization of wastewater is accomplished biologically using a variety of microorganisms. The so-
called biological skin, also known as biofilm is developed on the surface of the packing material. The
settled wastewater flows in thin layers over the aerobic layer of the biofilm. From the passing liquid
absorption of the dissolved solids, present in the settled wastewater, takes place in the biofilm. All of the
biological contaminants are consumed and degraded, these lead to the treatment of the wastewater.

Image 2.2.4(a) and (b): Photographs showing the Trickling Filter Process and the biofilm respectively.
2.2.5 Tertiary (or Advanced) Treatment: Thickening
Sludge Process
The stabilized effluent is then transferred into this tank for thickening. This is usually accomplished in a
tank called a gravity thickener. A Thickener can further reduce the total volume to less than half the
original volume.

There are 3 (three) accepted methods used for pre-digestion sludge thickening;

Gravity Thickening
Dissolved air floatation thickening
Centrifugation

The supernatant water is discharge into the sea, 1.5 km from the shoreline. While, bottom thick layer laid
to dry. In previous years, the dried by-product wouldve been sold as manure for agricultural use, but has
since stopped, because the unknown environmental impacts.

2.2.6 Tertiary Treatment: Sludge Digester


The plant also has a Digester Tank, where anaerobic metabolism takes place and Methane gas is produced.
The methane gas produced is then stored in a large ballooned Gas Holder and burnt 24 hours a day in an
allocated Gas Flare.

Image 2.2.6(a): Photograph showing the Digester Tank.


Image 2.2.6(b): Photograph showing the Gas Holder.

Image 2.2.6(c): Photograph showing the Gas Flare Chamber which burns 24 hours a day.
2.3 Wastewater Treatment Process: Septic Treatment
If Wastewater is transferred to the Plant from individual Septic Tanks by means of Bailing Trucks, the
Treatment needs to have an additional process whereby Bailing Trucks dispose of these wastes into a
Sludge Lagoon which is located further from the main treatment site.

2.3.1 Sludge Lagoon


Since the waste transferred through Bailing Trucks contain larger amounts of solid waste and are least
expected to be contaminated with debris, the waste is transported directly to Sludge Lagoons which, by
gravitational laws, allow the solid and liquid waste to separate.

The Liquid waste to piped up to the Sewer Treatment Process Preliminary process to follow the prescribed
channel of treatment, while the solid waste is collected and placed in drying beds.

Image 2.3.1(a): Photograph of a Septic Tank Bailing Out truck disposing collected household waste into the
Sludge Lagoon.
Image 2.3.1(b): Photograph showing 1 of the 3 Sludge Lagoons in the Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Plant

Image 2.3.1(c): Photograph showing the drainage of liquid waste from the Sludge Lagoon to be transferred
to the Main Sewer Treatment Process.
2.3.2 Drying Beds
Solid waste collected from the Sludge Lagoon is then placed in the Drying Beds to allow all remaining
moisture to evaporate, thus leaving a solid soil-like by-product, which is disposed of in landfills.

Image 2.3.2(a): Photograph showing the piping network for transfer into the drying beds.

Image 2.3.2(b): Photograph showing Drying Beds for the Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Plant.
ACE 606 ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
FIELD TRIP REPORT

WAILA WATER
TREATMENT PLANT
ADDRESS: WAILA, DAVUILEVU, NAUSORI
3.0 Introductory Summary
The Waila Water Treatment Plant is 1 of 18 major water treatment facilities around Fiji that capture, treat,
and supply clean water to a population of about 300,000 within the Suva-Nausori corridor. Together with
the 17 other Treatment Plants, the annual cost to ensure clean water is supplied to households around Fiji
is around 50 million dollars.

About 10 million dollars is spent by Water Authority of Fiji on electricity each year to operate the pumps,
Treatment plants and distribution systems. Chemicals used in the water treatment process cost about 8
million dollars each year. After spending this huge sum of money collecting, purifying and supplying this
precious commodity to homes around Fiji, the Water Authority of Fiji then charges only 12 cents for using
1000 litres of water.

Major Treatment Plants and Catchment Areas


Central Division
Waila Waimanu River
Tamavua Headworks 1, 2, 3
Naboro Naboro Catchment
Nayagi Nayagi Boreholes
Deuba Matavuralevu Catchment
Korovou Korovou River
RKS Waisavu River
QVS Naimasi River
Western Division
Nagado Vaturu Dam
Buabua Buabua Dam and Nalau
Saru Varagi
Tavua Nasivi River
Ba Waiwai, Varaciva and Nadrau
Rakiraki Nakasi, Narara and Qalau River
Northen Divison
Labasa Nasalasala, Nasealevu, Navau
Seqaqa Natuua River
Savusavu Savudrodro, Savuloaloa
Nabouwalu Nawaqavanua Creek
Image 3.0(a): Google satellite image of The Waila Water Treatment Plant layout.
3.1 Raw Water Capture System
Raw water is captured at the Teatment Plants source supply, which is the Waimanu River, located
near the Treatment Plant, along the Princess Road highway. This water is then pumped directly to the
Plant through a pipe network of underground pipes.

Image 3.1(a): Photograph showing the Water Supply Waila Intake Pumping Station located along
the highway.

Image 3.1(b): Photograph showing the Water Supply Waila Intake Pumping Station
3.2 Coagulation and Flocculation: Chemical Mixing Basin
The Coagulation and Flocculation process is then presented in the Mixing Basin plant, where chemical
additives and mechanical processes are incorporated to ensure colloidal particles stick together to
form flocs which can be much more easily removed by means of settling.

Image 3.2(a): Photograph showing the Chemical Mixing Basin process.

Image 3.2(b): Photograph showing the overview of the Chemical Mixing Basin process.
3.3 Settling Tank or Clarifiers
The Settling Tank or Clarifier uses a process that allows flocs to settle to the bottom of the tank and
removes them by the use of mechanical arms that constantly move around the clarifier to direct
sedimentary deposits at the base of the tank into a mud valve for disposal into drying beds.

Image 3.3(a): Photograph showing 1 of 4 Clarifier Tanks

Image 3.3(b): Photograph showing a close up view of the Clarifier Tank.


3.4 Filtration Process
The filtration process is achieved through the introduction of 7 filtration tanks that remove
suspended solids (sand, clay, iron, and aluminium flocs) through a specific media bed of imported
graded sand and gravel.

When there is a substantial amount of dirt build-up in the filtration beds, an automated system
automatically cleans the filtration beds through a process called backwashing; where water is
reversed through the process and manually removed.

Image 3.4(a): Photograph showing 3 of the 7 Filtration Tanks.

Image 3.4(b): Photograph showing a Filtration Tank being manually cleaned.


3.5 Disinfection: Chlorination
The only disinfection means adopted by the Waila Water Treatment Plant is disinfection by use of
Chlorinated Gas; whereby the chlorine gas is constantly aerated into tanks containing the water to be
treated to ensure bacteria is destroyed. After disinfection, PH acidity levels are checked to ensure
acidity-alkaline balance and then pumped into a clear well tank for storage and then to reservoirs for
distribution to households and industries.

Image 3.5(a): Photograph showing the disinfection process using chlorinated gas.

Image 3.5(b): Photograph showing the chlorinated gas being used for disinfection.
3.6 Storage & Distribution
After the treatment process is complete, the treated water is then transferred to a Clear Well storage
tank for distribution to reservoirs, which in turn distribute the water to households and industries.

Image 3.6(a): Photograph of the Storage tank for the treated water.

Image 3.6(b): Photograph of the top of the Storage tank for the treated water.
4.0 Conclusion and Acknowledgement

To conclude this report, the Team Members would like to acknowledge the following lecturers and
people whom have assisted the team in gathering information and making this trip a worthwhile
learning experience;

Mr. Ravikant Singh


Mr. Samuela Loaloa

Staff and Operations Teams for;

The Naboro Landfill Project


Waila Water Treatment Plant
Kinoya Wastewater Treatment Plant

Image 4.0(a): Environmental Engineering, Advanced Diploma in Civil Engineering, Class of 2017