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Constitutional Law One

Professor: Judge Edilwasif T. Baddiri

Required Textbook

1. Bernas S.J., Fr. Joaquin (2011) The 1987 Philippine Constitution: A Comprehensive
Reviewer, Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.
2. Bernas S.J., Fr. Joaquin (2003) The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: A
Commentary, Manila: Rex Book Store, Inc.
3. Nachura, Antonio (2015) Outline Reviewer in Political Law, Quezon City: VJ Graphil Arts, Inc.

A. COURSE DESCRIPTION
This course is a 3-unit subject covering the basic principles dealing with the structure of
the Philippine Government.

B. COURSE OBJECTIVE
By the end of the course, students should be able to master the constitutional provisions
on:

a.) National Territory,


b.) Declaration of State Principles and Policies,
c.) Functions of the Legislative, Executive and Judicial Departments, and d.) Principles of
Checks and Balances.

C. COURSE OUTLINE AND TIMEFRAME

The 1987 Philippine Constitution

Definition
Classification
Essential Parts of the Philippine Constitution

Important Constitutional Principles

Separation of Powers Principle


Principles of Checks and Balances
Principle of Comity
Hierarchy of Laws
Power of Judicial Review
Doctrine of Operative Fact
Political Questions Doctrine
Inherent Powers of Government
Immunity from Suit
Doctrine of Qualified Agency
Non-Delegation of Power
Power of Control and Supervision

Doctrine of Constitutional Supremacy


Manila Price Hotel vs. GSIS, 267 SCRA 608

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Separation of Church and State

Political Law

1. People v. Perfecto, 43 PHIL 887


2. Macariola v. Asuncion, AM No. 133-J, May 31 1982

Scope of Political Law

Constitutional Law
Administrative Law
Public Corporations/Local Government Code
Law on Public Officers
Election Laws

Interpretation/Construction of the Philippine Constitution

Francisco v. House of Representatives, GR 160261, Nov. 10, 2003


Civil Liberties Union v. ES, 194 SCRA 317

1. Verba Legis
2. Ratio Legiset Anima
3. Utmagisvaleat quam pereat

Effectivity and Rules of Construction

1. De Leon vs. Esguerra, G.R. No. L-78059, August 31, 1987

Brief History

Malolos Constitution
1900 McKinleys Instructions
Spooner Amendment
1902 Philippine Bill
1916 Jones Law (Philippine Autonomy Act)
Tydings-McDuffie Act (Philippine Independence Act)
1935 Constitution
Japanese Occupation Order No. 1 (Philippine Executive Commission)
1973 Constitution
Freedom Constitution
1987 Philippine Constitution

Preamble

1. Re: Letter of Tony Q. Valenciano, re: Holding of Religious Rituals at the Halls of Justice
Building in Quezon City, AM No. 10-4-19-SC, March 7, 2017 (Include Dissenting Opinion of
Justice Leonen)

Article I: The National Territory


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1. R.A. 5446 (Sabah)
2. PD 1596, June 11, 1978 (Kalayaan Island Group)
3. R.A. 9255 or the New Baselines Law of 2009.
4. 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
5. Reagan v. Commissioner, 30 SCRA 968
6. People v. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476
7. Magallona v. Ermita, 655 SCRA 476
8. Most Rev Pedro Arigo v. Scott Swift, GR 206510, Sept 16, 2014
9. The South China Sea Arbitration: Philippines v. China, July 12, 2016
10. The South China Sea Dispute: Philippine Sovereign Rights and Jurisdiction in the
West Philippine Sea (Justice Carpios Ebook)

Concept of Auto Limitation


11. People vs. Gozo, G.R. No. L-36409, October 26, 1973
12. Magallona, et. al. vs. Ermita, G.R. No. 187167, August 16, 2011

Archipelagic Doctrine
13. Magallona, et. al. vs. Ermita, G.R. No. 187167, August 16, 2011

Concept of the State


14. Laurel vs. Misa, G.R. No. L-409, January 30, 1947

State Immunity from Suit


15. Lansang vs. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102667, February 23, 2000
16. Amigable vs. Cuenca, G.R. No. L-26400, February 29, 1972
17. City of Caloocan vs. Judge Allarde, G.R. No. 107271, September 10, 2003
18. Air Transportation Office vs. Ramos, G.R. No. 159402, February 23, 2011

Article II: Declaration of Principles and State Policies


Legal Value of Article II

19. Tondo Medical v. CA, 527 SCRA 746 (2007)


20. Bases Conversion and Development Authority vs. Commission on Audit, 580 SCRA
295

Fundamental Principles and State Policies

21. Taada vs. Angara, G.R. No. 118295, May 1997


22. Legaspi vs. CSC, G.R. No. L-72119, May 29, 1987
23. Oposa vs. Factoran, G.R. No. 101083, July 30, 1993
24. Imbong vs. Ochoa, G.R. No. 204819, G.R. No. 204819, April 8, 2014 (right to life as
a natural law)
25. Espina vs. Zamora, G.R. No. 143855, September 21, 1010

Section 1. Philippines as a Democratic and Republican State

Functions of Government
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26. Bacani v. NACOCO, 100 PHIL 468 (1956)
27. ACCFA v. CUGCO, 30 SCRA 649 (1969)
28. PVTA v. CIR, 65 SCRA 416 (1975)
29. PHHC v Court of Industrial Relations, 150 SCRA 296
30. Spouses Fontanilla v. Hon. Maliaman, GR Nos. 55963, February 27, 1991
31. VFP v. Reyes, 483 SCRA 526 (2006)
32. Ramiscal v. Sandiganbayan, 499 SCRA 375 (2006)
33. Alzaga v. Sandiganbayan, 505 SCRA 848 (2006)
34. Javier v. Sandiganbayan, 599 SCRA 324 (2009)
35. MIAA v. CA, 495 SCRA 591 (2006)
36. Philippine Society v. COA, 534 SCRA 112 (2007)
37. Serana v. Sandiganbayan, 542 SCRA 224 (2008)
38. Shipside Inc v. CA, GR 143377, Feb 20, 2001
39. PVTA v. CIR, GR L-32052, July 25, 1975
40. Rosas v. Montor GR 204105, October 14, 2015
41. People v. Perfecto, 43 Phil 887
42. Vilas v. City of Manila, 229 US 345
43. Laurel v. Misa, 77 Phil 856

De Jure and De Facto Government


44. Co Kim Cham v. Valdez Tan Keh, 75 PHIL 113 (1945)
45. In re Letter of Associate Justice Puno, 210 SCRA 588
46. Republic v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 104768, July 21, 2003

Sovereignty

47. People v. Gozo, 53 SCRA 476 (1973)


48. Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18

Section 2. Generally Accepted Principles of International Law

Treaties and Agreements


49. Agustin v. Edu, 88 SCRA 195
50. JBL Reyes v. Bagatsing, GR No. 65366, October 25, 1983
51. Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 (1997)
52. Bayan v. Zamora, GR 138570, October 10, 2000
53. Bayan v. Romulo, GR 159618, Feb 1, 2011

Equal Standing of International Law and Municipal Law


54. Lim v. Executive Secretary, GR 151445, April 11, 2002
55. Shangri-La v. Developers, GR 159938, March 31, 2006
56. Philip Morris, Inc. v. Fortune Tobacco Corporation, GR 158589, June 27, 2006

Recognition of Foreign Judgments


57. Mijares v. Ranada, GR 139325, April 12, 2005

Soft Law
58. Pharmaceutical v. DOH, GR 173034, October 9, 2007
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59. Article 2, UN Charter

Doctrine of Incorporation
Doctrine of Transformation

60. SOJ v. Lantion, GR 139465 *In the Philippines, statutes and treaties may be
invalidated if they conflict with the Constitution.
61. Philip Morris v. CA, GR 91332, July 16, 1993 *While international law is made part
of the law of the land, it does not imply primacy of international law over national law.
62. Vinuya v. ES, GR 162230
63. Saguisag v. ES, GR 212426
64. Bayan v. DND Sec. Gazmin, GR 212444

Section 3. Civilian Supremacy and AFP Role


65. IBP v. Zamora, 338 SCRA 81 (2000)
66. Kulayan v. Tan, 675 SCRA 482 (2012)
67. Alih v. Castro, GR 69401, June 23, 1987

Section 4. Duty of Government to the People


68. People v. Tranquilino Lagman, GR L-45892
69. People v. Primitivo De Sosa, GR L-45893, July 13, 1938
70. PD No. 1706, The National Service Law, Aug 8, 1980

Section 5. Maintenance of Peace and Order


71. Kilosbayan v. Morato, 246 SCRA 540 (1995) and MR 250 SCRA 130
72. Kulayan v. Tan, 675 SCRA 482 (2012)

Section 6. Separation of Church and State


73. United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Inc v. Bradford United Church of Christ,
Inc 674 SCRA 92 (2012)

Section 7. Independent Foreign Policy


74. Lim v. Executive Secretary, GR 151445, April 11, 2002
75. Saguisag v. ES, GR 212426
76. Bayan v. DND Sec. Gazmin, GR 212444

Section 8. Freedom from Nuclear Weapons


77. Bayan v. Zamora, GR 138570, October 10, 2000

Section 9. Social Order

Section 10. Social Justice


78. Calalang v. Williams, 70 Phil 726

Section 11. Personal Dignity and Human Rights

Section 12. Family Life; Mother; Unborn

79. Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113 (1973)


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80. Meyer v. Nebraska, 262 US 390 (1922)
81. Pierce v. Society of Sisters, 262 US 510 (1925)
82. Wisconsin v. Yoder 40 LW 4476 (1972)
83. Ginsberg v. New York, 390 US 629 (1968)
84. Orceo v. COMELEC, GR 190779 March 26, 2010
85. Imbong v. Ochoa, GR 204819, April 8, 2014: The RH Law does not violate the right
of an unborn child as guaranteed in S12, A2. The question of when life begins is a
scientific and medical issue that should not be decided without proper hearing and
evidence. The framers of the Constitution intended conception as fertilization and
protection is given upon fertilization. Not all contraceptives are ban. Only those that
kill or destroy the fertilized ovum are prohibited. The intent of the framers was to
prevent the Legislature from passing a measure that would allow abortion. The IRR
redefinition of abortifacient in S4a of the RH Law is violative of S12, A2. S7 of the RH
Law which excludes parental consent in cases where a minor undergoing a procedure
is already a parent or has had a miscarriage is anti-family and is violative of S12, A2.
86. Orceo v. COMELEC, GR 190779, March 26, 2010

Section 13. Vital Role of Youth


87. Basco v. PAGCOR, 197 SCRA 252
88. Boy Scouts of the Philippines v. COA, GR 177131, June 7, 2011

Section 14. Role of Women and Equality of Men and Women

Section 15. Right to Health


89. Imbong v. Ochoa: The RH Law does not violate S15. It does not do away with RA
4729 (Regulation of Contraceptive Drugs and Devices) and RA 5921 (Regulation of
Pharmacy) laws that prohibit the sale and distribution of contraceptives without
prescription,

Section 16. Right to a Balanced and Healthful Ecology


90. Oposa v. Factoran, 224 SCRA 792 (1993)
91. LLDA v. CA, 231 SCRA 292 (1994) and 251 SCRA 42 (1995)
92. MMDA v. Residents of Manila Bay, GR No. 171947, December 18, 2008
93. Boracay Foundation, Inc. v. The Province of Aklan, 674 SCRA 555 (2012)
94. C&M Timber v. Alcala, GR 111088, June 13, 1997
95. MMDA v. Residents of Manila Bay, GR No. 171947, December 18, 2008
96. Boracay Foundation Inc v. Province of Aklan, 674 SCRA 555
97. Paje v. Casino, GR 207267, Feb 3, 2015
98. Internation Service v. Greenpeace Southeast Asia, GR 209271 and GR 209430

Section 17. Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
99. Guingona v. Carague
100. Philconsa v. Enriquez: S5, Art14 which provides for the highest budgetary priority
to education is merely directory.

Section 18. Labor Protection


101. PNB v. Dan Padao, GR 180849, November 2011
102. JMM Promotion v. CA, GR 120095, Aug 5, 1996
103. PASE v. Drilon
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Section 19. Self-Reliant and Independent National Economy
104. Garcia v. BOI, 191 SCRA 288 (1990)
105. Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 (1997)
106. Association of Philippine Coconut Dessicators v. PCA, GR 110526, Feb 10, 1998
107. Pharmaceuticals v. Duque, Oct 9, 2007: Free enterprise does not call for the
removal of protective regulations.

Section 20. Role of Private Sector


108. Marine Radio Communications Association of the Philippines v. Reyes, 191 SCRA
205
109. Boracay Foundation, Inc. v. The Province of Aklan, 674 SCRA 555 (2012)

Section 21. Promotion of Comprehensive Rural and Agrarian Policy


110. Wilson P. Gamboa v. Finance Secretary Margarito Teves, et al GR 176579 June
28, 2011 (See Dissent of Abad- Section 21 is not self-executing, thus need for CARL)

Section 22. Promotion of Rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities

Section 23. Community-Based Private Organizations

Section 24. Vital Role of Communications


111. PLDT v. NTC, 190 SCRA 717

Section 25. Local Economy


112. Rodolfo G. Navarro, et al. v. Executive Secretary Eduardo Ermita, et al., GR
180050, 12 April 2011. (Section 25 as part of IRR of LGU provision on local
autonomy)
113. Belgica v. ES, 2013 *With PDAF, a Congressman can simply bypass the local
development council and initiate project on his own. Thus, insofar as individual
legislators are authorized to intervene in purely local matters and thereby subvert
genuine local autonomy, the 2013 PDAF Article and similar forms are deemed
unconstitutional.

Section 26. Equal Access to Political Opportunities and Political Dynasties


114. Pamatong v. COMELEC, 427 SCRA 96 (2004)

Section 27. Honesty and Integrity in Public Service

Section 28. Full Public Disclosure


Executive Privilege
115. Neri v. Senate, GR 180643, March 25, 2008

116. Wilson P. Garcia v. Finance Secretary Teves


117. Briccio Pollo v. Chairperson Karina David, GR 181881
118. Philippine Savings Bank and Pascual Garcia III v. Senate Impeachment Court, GR
200238, Feb 9, 2012
119. In Re: Production of Court Records, 14 February 2012

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Article VI: The Legislative Department
Section 1. Legislative Power; Non-Delegation

Who may exercise legislative power?


I. Congress
II. Regional/Local legislative power
III. Peoples initiative on statutes
a) Initiative and referendum
IV. The President under a martial law rule or in a revolutionary government

General Rule: Non-Delegation of Legislative Power

Exception:
- Delegation to local governments and administrative bodies
- Grant of Quasi-Legislative Power; In general: LGU and Administrative Bodies
120. Rubi v.Provincial Board of Mindoro 39 Phil. 660
121. Antipolo Realty Corp. v. NHA 153 SCRA 399
122. PITC v. Angales, GR 108461
123. Atitiw v. Zamora 471 SCRA 329
124. SEC v. Interport 567 SCRA 354
- In instances allowed by the Constitution, e,g., Article VI, Section 23(2) and 28(2)

Issue on Delegation of Legislative Power

Valid delegation
Requisite of a valid delegation
125. Agustin v. Edu 88 SCRA 1
126. Free Telephone Workers v. Min. of Labor 108 SCRA 757
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127. Guingona v. Carague 196 SCRA 221

Complete in Itself/ Completeness Test


128. Arena v. Gatmaitan 101 Phil 328
129. Marcos v. CA 278 SCRA 696
130. Social Justice Society v. Dangerous Drug Board 570 SCRA 410
131. Pacific Steam v. LLDA 608 SCRA 442

Fixes a Standard/Sufficient Standard Test


132. People v. Rosenthal 68 Phil 628
133. Eastern Shipping Lines v. POEA 166 SCRA 533
134. Tablarin v. Gutierez 152 SCRA 730
135. Conference v. POEA 243 SCRA 666
136. Osmea v. Orbos 220 SCRA 703
137. Viola v. Alunan 277 SCRA 409
138. Abakada v. Ermita 469 SCRA 1
139. Beltran v. Secretary of Health 476 SCRA 168
140. Bayan v. Ermita 488 SCRA 226
141. Abakada v. Purisima, 562 SCRA 251 (2008)

Filling in the Details


142. Fernandez v. Sto. Tomas, 242 SCRA 192
143. Chiongbian v. Orbos, 245 SCRA 253
144. Rodrigo v. Sandiganbayan, 309 SCRA 661
145. Tondo Medical v. CA, 527 SCRA 746 (2007)
146. Pichay v. Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary, 677 SCRA 408 (2012)
147. Arroyo v. DOJ, 681 SCRA 181 (2012)

Undue Delegation of Legislative Power


148. People v. Vera, 65 PHIL 56
149. US v. Barrias, 11 SCRA 327 (1908)
150. US v. Panlilio, 28 PHIL 608 (1914)
151. People v. Maceren, 79 SCRA 450 (1977)
152. People v. Dacuycuy, 173 SCRA 90 (1989)
153. Cebu Oxygen v. Drilon, 176 SCRA 24 (1989)
154. Ynot v. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 (1987)
155. Pharmaceutical v. DOH (2007)
156. Abakada v. Purisima
157. Philippine Coconut v. Republic, GR 178193, January 24, 2012

Executive Misapplication
158. Tatad v. Secretary DOE, 281 SCRA 330 (1997) and MR 282 SCRA 337 (1997)

Mere Directive
159. Dagan v. PRC, 578 SCRA 585 (2009)

PDAF Case
Dap Case

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Section 2. Senate Composition

Section 3. Qualifications of Senator


160. Poe-Llamanzares v. COMELEC, March 8, 2016

Section 4. Senator: Term of Office; Voluntary Renunciation

Section 5. Composition of the House of Representatives; Apportionment; Party List

Par. 2; Party-List Representation


161. Ang Bagong Bayani v. COMELEC GR 147589
162. Veterans Federation Party v. COMELEC GR 136781
163. AKLAT v. COMELEC 427 SCRA 712
164. Partido ng Manggagawa v. COMELEC 484 SCRA 671
165. Citizens v. COMELEC 521 SCRA 524
166. Bantay v. COMELEC 523 SCRA 1
167. Phil. Guardians v. COMELEC GR 190529
168. BANAT v. COMELEC 586 SCRA 210
169. Albayon v. COMELEC GR 189466
170. Layug v. COMELEC 666 SCRA 321
171. Magdalo c. COMELEC 673 SCRA 651
172. Atong Paglaum et. al., GR 203766, April 12, 2013
173. PGBI v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 190529, April 29, 2010
174. Ang Ladlad LGBT Party v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 190582, April 8,2010
175. ANAD v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 206987, September 10, 2013
176. Coalition of Associations of Senior Citizens v. COMELEC, G.R. 206844-45, July
23, 2013
177. Bello v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 191998, December 7,2010
178. ABC v. COMELEC, GR. No. 193256, March 22, 2011
179. Abang Lingkod Party-List v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 206952, October 22, 2013
180. Cocofed-Philippine Coconut Producers Federation, Inc. v. COMELEC, G.R. No.
207026, August 6, 2013
181. Milagros Amores v. HRET, G.R. No. 189600, June 29, 2010

Pars. 1,3, and 4; Rules on Apportionment


Reapportionment through Special Law
182. Tobias v. Abalos 239 SCRA 106
183. Mariano v. COMELEC 242 SCRA 211
184. Sema v. COMELEC 558 SCRA 700

Rules on Apportionment
(1) In accordance with the number of their respective inhabitants and on the basis of a
uniform and progressive ratio

185. Montejo v. COMELEC 242 SCRA 415


186. Herrera v. COMELEC GR 131499, November 17, 1999

(2) Contiguous, compact and adjacent territory


(3) Population size

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187. Samson v. Aguirre 315 SCRA 53
188. Herrera v. COMELEC GR 131499, November 17, 1999
189. Aldaba v. COMELEC GR 188078, January 25, 2010
190. Aquino v. COMELEC GR 189793, April 17, 2010
191. Navarro v. Ermita GR 180050, April 12, 2011

(4) Following the return of every census, Congress shall make a reapportionment

192. Bagabuyo v. COMELEC GR 176970

Section 6. Qualifications of Representatives

Citizenship
193. Bengzon v. Cruz, GR 142840, May 7, 2001

Domicile and Residence


194. Aquino v. COMELEC, 243 SCRA 400 (1995)
195. Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300 (1995)
196. Domino v. COMELEC, GR 134015 (July 19, 1999)
197. Perez v. COMELEC, GR 133944, October 28, 1999
198. Fernandez v. HRET, 608 SCRA 733 (2009)

Additional Qualifications
199. Maquera v. Borra, 15 SCRA 7
200. Social Justice Society v. Dangerous Drugs Board, GR No. 157870, November 3,
2008

Section 7. Term of Representatives


201. Dimaporo v. Mitra, 202 SCRA 779
202. Farinas v. Executive Secretary, GR 147387 (Dec. 10, 2003)
203. Quinto v. COMELEC, GR No. 189698, December 1, 2009

Section 8.Regular Elections


204. Codilla v. De Venecia GR No. 150605, December 10, 2002

Section 9. Special Elections


205. Tolentino v. COMELEC, GR 148334, January 21, 2004

Section 10. Salaries


206. Philconsa v. Mathay, 18 SCRA 300 (1966)

Section 11. Privilege from Arrest; Parliamentary Freedom of Speech

Privilege from Arrest


207. People v. Jalosjos, 324 SCRA 689
208. Trillanes v. Pimentel, 556 SCRA 471

Parliamentary Freedom of Speech


209. Jimenez v. Cabangbang, 17 SCRA 876 (1966)
210. Antonino v. Valencia, 57 SCRA 70
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211. Pobre v. Defensor Santiago, AC No. 7399, August 25, 2009

Section 12. Disclosure of Financial and Business Interests

Section 13. Prohibitions on Members of Congress


212. Liban v. Gordon, GR No. 175352, July 15, 2009

Section 14. Prohibitions Related to the Practice of Profession


213. Puyat v. De Guzman, 113 SCRA 31

Section 15. Regular Session; Special Session

Section 16. Officers of Congress; Quorom; Discipline; Journal/Records


Officers of Congress
214. Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona GR 134577 November 18, 1998

Meaning of a quorum to do business and compulsion to attend


215. Avelino v. Cuenco - 83 Phil. 17 [1949]
216. People v. Jalosjos - 324 SCRA 689
217. Datu Michael Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR 196271, 18 October 2011

Internal Rules and Discipline


218. Arroyo v. De Venecia - 277 SCRA 268 [1997]
219. Osmea v. Pendatun- 109 Phil. 863 [1960]
220. Santiago v. Sandiganbayan 356 SCRA 636

Duty to Keep Journals and Records


221. US v. Pons 34 Phil. 729 [1916]
222. Casco Phil. Commercial Co. v. Gimenez - 7 SCRA 347 [1963]
223. Morales v. Subido 27 SCRA 131 [1969]
224. Astorga v. Villegas 56 SCRA 714 [1974]
225. Phil. Judges Assn. v. Prado -227 SCRA 703
226. Abakada v. Ermita 469 SCRA 1

Section 17. Electoral Tribunal

Jurisdiction of Electoral Tribunal


Nature and Power
227. Angara v. Electoral Commission 63 Phil. 134 [1936]

Pre-proclamation controversies v. Election Contests; Scope of inquiry ; When Proper


Election Contest
228. Vera v. Avelino 77 Phil. 192 [1946]
229. Roces v. HRET 469 SCRA 681 [2005]
230. Seneres v. COMELEC 585 SCRA 557 [2009]
231. Limkaichong v. COMELEC 594 SCRA 434 [2009]
232. Aquino v. COMELEC -243 SCRA 400 [1995]
233. Perez v. COMELEC GR 133944, October 28, 1999
234. Aggabao v. COMELEC 449 SCRA 400 [2005]
235. Barbers v. COMELEC 460 SCRA 569 [2005]
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236. Rasul v. COMELEC GR 134142, August 24, 1999
237. Guerero v. COMELEC GR 137004, July 26, 2000
238. Villarosa v. HRET GR 143351, September 14, 2000
239. Abayon v. HRET GR 189466, February 11, 2010
240. Garcia v. HRET GR 134792, August 12, 1999
241. Lazatin v. HET, GR No. 84297, December 8, 1988

Pre-proclamation controversy
242. Chavez v. COMELEC 211 SCRA 315 [1991]

Composition
243. Abbas v. SET 166 SCRA 651 [1988]
244. Pimentel v. HRET GR 141489, November 29, 2002

Independence
245. Bondoc v. Pineda 201 SCRA 792 [1991]

Action/Decision
246. Robles v. HRET 181 SCRA 780 [1990]
247. Arroyo v. HRET 246 SCRA 384 [1995]
248. Lerias v. HRET 202 SCRA 808 [1991]
249. Sandoval v. HRET GR 149380, July 3, 2002
250. Lokin v. COMELEC GR 179431-32
251. Sema v. HRET GR 190734, March 26, 2010
252. Duenas v. HRET 593 SCRA 316 [2010]

Section 18. Commission on Appointments


253. Daza v. Singson, 180 SCRA 496 (1989)
254. Coseteng v. Mitra, 187 SCRA 377 (1990)
255. Guingona v. Gonzales, 214 SCRA 789 (1992); MR, 219 SCRA 326 (1993)
256. Drilon, et al v. Speaker, GR No. 180055, July 31, 2009

Section 19. Constitutions of the Electoral Tribunal and the Commission on Appointments

Section 20. Records and Books of Accounts

Section 21. Inquiries in Aid of Legislation

Power of Inquiry
257. Senate v. Ermita- 488 SCRA 1 [2006]
258. Gudani v. Senga- 498 SCRA 671 [2006]
259. Remoro vs. Estrada, G.R. NO. 174105, April 2, 2009
260. Neri vs. Senate Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations,
G.R. No. 180643, March 25, 2008
261. Garcillano vs. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 170338, December 23, 2--8

Nature and Essence


262. Neg. O. II Elec. Coop. v. Sangguniang Panlungsod- 155 SCRA 421 [1991]

Requisites
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263. Bengzon v. Senate Blue Ribbon Committee- 203 SCRA 767

1. In aid of legislation
264. Standard v. Senate- 541 SCRA 456 [2007]
265. De la Paz v. Senate- 579 SCRA 521 [2009]
266. Romero v. Estrada- 583 SCRA 396 [2009]

2. In Accordance with Duly Published Rules of Procedure


267. Garcillano v. House- GR 170338, December 23, 2008

3. Respect for the Rights of Persons Appearing In or Affected by Such Inquires


268. Neri v. Senate- 564 SCRA 152 [2008]

Power to Punish a Person Under Investigation


269. Arnault v. Nazareno- 87 PHIL. 25 [1950]
270. Sabio v. Gordon- 504 SCRA 704 [2006]

Sec. 22 Appearance of Heads of Departments in Congress


271. Senate v. Ermita- 488 SCRA 1 [2006]

Sec. 23. Declaration of a State of War; Emergency Powers

Delegation of Emergency Powers/Military Powers


272. SANLAKAS v. Executive Secretary, 421 SCRA 656 [2004]
273. Ampatuan v. Hon. DILG Sec. Puno, GR 190259, June 7, 2011

Sec. 24. Bills Originating in the House of Representatives


274. Guingona v. Carague- 196 SCRA 221 [1991]
275. Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance- 235 SCRA 630 [1994]
276. Alvarez v. Guingona- 292 SCRA 695 [1998]
277. Southern Cross Cement v. Phil. Cement, GR 158540, July 8, 2004

Appropriation of Public Revenue for Public Purpose


278. Pascual v. Secretary of Public Works- 110 PHIL. 331 [1960-1961]

Sec. 25. Rules on Appropriation

279.DPWH v. Quirino, GR No. 183444, October 12, 2011


(par. 5) Goh v. COMELEC GR No. 212584, November 25, 2014

Limits on Power to Appropriate


280. Brillantes v. Comelec, GR 163193, June 15, 2004

Prohibition of Increase
Prohibition on riders in appropriation bills
281. Garcia v. Mata- 65 SCRA [1975]
282. Atitiw v. Zamora, GR 143374, Sept. 30, 2005
283. Farinas v. Executive Secretary, GR 147387, Dec. 10, 2003

Transfer of Funds
14
284. Demetria v. Alba- 148 SCRA 208 [1987]
285. Liga v. COMELEC- 232 SCRA 219 [1994]
286. Nazareth v. Villar, G.R. No. 188635, 29 January 2013, 689 SCRA 385
287. Pichay v. Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary, G.R. No. 196425, 24 July
2012, 677 SCRA 408
288. Philconsa v. Enriquez- 235 SCRA 506
289. Sanchez v. COA- 552 SCRA 471

Sec. 26.Subject and Title of Bills; Three Readings

General Prohibition of Riders


290. Cordero v. Cabatuando- 6 SCRA 418 [1962]
291. Philconsa v. Gimenez- 15 SCRA 479 [1965]
292. Alalayan v. NPC- 24 SCRA 172 [1968]
293. Insular Lumber Company v. CTA- 104 SCRA 710 [1981]
294. Tio v. Vediogram Regulatory Board- 151 SCRA 208 [1987]
295. Phil. Judges Assn. v. Prado- 227 SCRA 703 [1993]
296. Tolentino v. Secretary of Finance- 235 SCRA 630 [1994]
270. Tobias v. Abalos- 239 SCRA 106 [1994]
271. Tatad v. Sec. of DOE- 281 SCRA 330 [1997]
272. De Guzman v. Comelec, GR 146319, October 26, 2001
273. Abakada v. Ermita- 469 SCRA 1 and MR [Sept. 1, 2005 & Oct. 18, 2005]
274. BANAT v. COMELEC- 595 SCR 477 [2009]
275. Datu Michael Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR 196271, 18 October 2011
276. Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, G.R. No. 196271, October 18, 2011

Sec. 27. Procedure in Passage of Bills; Item Veto

Passage of Bills
277. Arroyo v. De Venecia, 277 SCRA 268 [1997]
278. Abakada v. Ermita- 469 SCRA 1

Presidential Veto
279. CIR vs. CTA- 185 SCRA 329 [1990]
280. Gonzales v. Macaraig- 191 SCRA 452 [1990]
281. Bengzon v. Drilon- 208 SCRA 133 [1992]
282. Philconsa v. Enriquez- 235 SCRA 506 [1994]
283. Bolinao Electronics v. Valencia, 11 SCRA 486 (1964)
284. Tanada v. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446 (1986)

Sec. 28. Taxation

Scope and Purpose


285. Planters v. Fertiphil- 548 SCRA 485

Limitations on the Power: Uniform and Equitable


286. CIR v. CA- 261 SCRA 236 [1996]
287. Commissioner of Internal Revenue v. Lingayen Gulf Electric Power Co., Inc, 164
SCRA 27
15
288. Tolentino v. Sec. of Finance- 235 SCRA 506
289. Tan v. Del Rosario- 237 SCRA 324 [1994]

Progressive System
Delegated Tax Legislation
290. Southern Cross Cement v. Phil. Cement, GR 158540, July 8, 2004
291. Abakada v. Ermita- 469 SCRA 1 [2005]
292. Spouses Constantino v. Cuisia, GR 106064, Oct. 13. 2005

Exemptions
293. Abra Valley College v. Aquino- 162 SCRA 106 [1988]
294. Bayan v. Zamora, GR 138570, October 10,2000
295. Republic v. City of Kidapawan- 477 SCRA 324 [2005]
296. John Hay Peoples Alternative Coalition v. Lim, GR 119775, Oct. 24, 2003
297. Lung Center v. QC, GR 144104, June 29, 2004

298. Garcia v. Executive Secretary, GR 101273, July 3, 1992


299. Lladoc v. CIR, 14 SCRA 292
270. Central Mindanao University v. DAR, GR 100091, October 22, 1992
271. Commissioner v. CA, GR 124043, October 14, 1998
272. Systems Plus Computer College v. Caloocan City, GR No. 146382, August 7, 2003

Sec. 29. Fiscal Powers of Congress; Limitations; Special Funds

Fiscal Powers of Congress


273. Pascual v. Secretary of Public Works- 110 PHIL. 331 [1960-1961]
274. MIAA v. Mabunay- GR 126151, January 20, 2000
275. Guingona v. Carague- 169 SCRA 221 [1991]
276. COMELEC v. Hon. Quijano- GR 151992, September 18, 2002

Special Funds
277. Gaston v. Republic Planters Bank- 158 SCRA 626 [1988]
278. Osmena v. Orbos- 220 SCRA 703 [1993]
279. Philippine Coconut v. Republic- 663 SCRA 514 [2012]

Impoundment
280. Araullo v. Aquino III, GR No. 209287 (2014)

Sec. 30. Appellate Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court


281. First Lepanto Ceramics v. CA- 237 SCRA 519 [1994]
282. Diaz v. CA- 238 SCRA 785 [1994]
283. Fabian v. Desierto, GR 129742, September 16, 1998
284. Villavert v. Desierto, 326 SCRA 355 [2000]
285. Tirol v. COA, GR 133954, August 3, 2000
286. Cabrera v. Lapid- 510 SCRA 55 [2006]

Sec. 31. Titles of Royalty and Nobility

Sec. 32. Initiative and Referendum


16
287. Garcia v. COMELEC, 237 SCRA 279 (1994)
288. SBMA v. COMELEC- 262 SCRA 492 [1996]
289. Defensor- Santiago v. COMELEC- 270 SCRA 106 [1997]
290. Lambino v. COMELEC, GR 174153, GR 174299, October 25, 2006

17
Article VII: Executive Department
Section 1. Executive Power; Privileges; Immunities

Scope of Power
Marcos v. Manglapus- 177 SCRA 668 [1989]

Example of exercise
Valid Exercise
Philconsa v. Enriquez- 235 SCRA 506 [1994]
Webb v. de Leon- 247 SCRA 652
Djumantan v. Domingo- 240 SCRA 746 [1995]
Chavez v. PCGG- GR 130716, December 9, 1998
Pontejos v. Ombudsman- 483 SCRA 83 [2006]
Banda v. Ermita- 618 SCRA 499 [2010]

Invalid Exercise
Laurel v. Garcia- 187 SCRA 797 [1990]
Review Center v. Ermita- 583 SCRA 42 [2009]
Biraogo v. Truth Commission- 637 SCRA 78 [2010]

Executive Privilege
US v. Nixon- 418 US 683 [1974]
Almonte v .Vasquez- 244 SCRA 286 [1995]
Senate v. Ermita- GR 169659, April 20, 2006 [E.O. 464]
Neri v. Senate- GR 180643, March 25, 2008
Akbayan v. Aquino- GR 170516, July 16, 2008

Immunity from Suit


Soliven v. Makasiar 167 SCRA 393 [1988]
Harlow v. Fitzgerald 457 US 800 [1982]
Clinton v. Jones 520 US 681 [1997]
Gloria v. CA- GR 119903, August 15, 2000
Estrada v. Desierto- GR 146740-15 and GR 146738, March 2, 2001 and MR- April 3, 2001
David v. Arroyo- 289 SCRA 162 [2006]

The Cabinet
Constantino v. Cuisia- 472 SCRA 505 [2005]

Section 2. Qualifications of the President


Tecson v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 161434, March 3, 2004
Poe-Llamanzares v.COMELEC, G.R. No. 221697, March 8, 2016

Section 3. Vice President

Section 4. Election, Term Limits and Canvass


Anson-Roa v. Arroyo, GR 162384, March 24, 2004

Congress as National Board of Canvassers


18
Brillantes v. COMELEC- 432 SCRA [2005]
Pimentel v. Joint Committee- GR 163783, June 22, 2004
Lopez v. Senate- GR 163556, June 8, 2004
BANAT v. COMELEC, GR 177508, August 7, 2009

Breaking President or Vice-President Tie


Presidential or Vice- Presidential Controversies
Defensor- Santiago v. Ramos- 253 SCRA 559 [1996]
Tecson v. Lim- 424 SCRA 277 [2005]
Poe v. GMA, Pet Case No. 002, March 29, 2005
Macalintal v. PET- 635 SCRA 783 [2010]

Term Limit on the President


Pormento v. Estrada, GR 191988, August 31, 2010

Macalintal v. COMELEC, GR No. 157013, July 10, 2003


Pimentel v. Joint Canvassing Committee, June 22, 2004
Fernando Poe, Jr. v. Arroyo, PET Case No. 002, March 29, 2005
Legarda v. De Castro, PET Case No. 003, March 31, 2005

Section 5. Oath

Section 6. Official Residence; Salary

Section 7. Vacancy at the Beginning of the Term of the Presidency

Section 8. Vacancy During the Term of the Presidency


Estrada v. Desierto, 353 SCRA 452, 2001; MR, 356 SCRA 108, 2001
Lozano, et al v. Macapagal-Arroyo, February 6, 2001

Section 9. Vacancy in the Vice Presidency

Section 10. Vacancies in Both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency

Section 11. Incapacity of the President


Estrada v. Desierto, 353 SCRA 452, 2001; MR, 356, SCRA 108, 2001

Section 12. Serious Illness of the President

Section 13. Prohibitions

Rafael v. Embroidery & Apparel Control Board- 21 SCRA 336 [1967]


CLU v. Exec. Secretary- 194 SCRA 317 [1991]
Flores v. Drilon, 223 SCRA 568, 1993
Bitonio v. COA, G.R. no. 147392, March 12, 2004
Public Interest Group v. Elma, GR No. 138965, June 30, 2006
De la Cruz v. COA, GR 138489, November 27, 2001
Funa v. Ermita- 612 SCRA 308 [2010]
Enrique U. Betoy v. The Board of Directors, National Power Corporation, GR 15655657, 04
October 2011
19
Other Prohibitions
Doromal v. Sandiganbayan- 177 SCRA 354 [1989]

Espiritu v. Del Rosario, GR. No. 204964, 738 SCRA 464, 2014

Section 14. Appointments of Acting President

Section 15. Prohibited Appointments


In Re Appointments of Valenzuela and Vallarta, AM No. 98-5-01-SC, Nov. 9, 1998
De la Rama v. CA, G.R. No. 131136, Feb. 28, 2001
De Castro v. Judicial and Bar Council, GR No. 191002, April 20, 2010 and May 1, 2010
Velicaria-Garafil v. Office of the President, G.R. No. 20337, June 16, 2015

Section 16. Power to Appoint; Commission on Appointments


Nature of the Appointing Power
Government v. Springer- 50 PHIL 259 [1927]
Bermudez v. Exec, Secretary- GR 131429 [August 4, 1999]
Datu Michael Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, reconsideration, GR 196271, February
2012

Kinds of Presidential Appointments


Pimentel v. Ermita- 471 SCRA 587 [2005]

Scope of the Power of the Commission on Appointments


Sarmiento III v. Mison- 156 SCRA 549 [1987]
Bautista v. Salonga- 172 SCRA 1260 [1989]
Quintos- Deles v. CA- 177 SCRA 259 [1989]
Pobre v. Mendieta- 224 738 [1993]
Flores v. Drilon- GR 104732, June 22, 1993
Rufino v. Endriga- 496 SCRA 13 [2006]

Congress Requiring Confirmation by the Commission on Appointments on Other


Appointments
Calderon v. Carale- 208 SCRA 254 [1992]
U-sing v. NLRC- 221 SCRA 680 [1993]
Tarrosa v. Singson- 232 SCRA 553 [1994]
Manolo v. Sistoza- 312 SCRA 239 [1999]
Soriano v. Lista, GR 153881, March 24, 2004

Recess or Ad- Intern Appointments and Temporary Appointments


Pimentel v. Ermita, GR 164978, October 13, 2005
Quintos-Deles v. Commission on Appointments, 177 SCRA 259, 1989
Matibag v. Benipayo, GR No. 149036, April 2, 2002
Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR No. 196271, October 18, 2011

Section 17. Power of Control


Lacson-Magallanes v. Pano 21 SCRA 395, 1967
Maceda v. Macaraig, Jr 197 SCRA 771
Roque v. Director of Lands, L-25373, July 1, 1976
20
Ang-Angco v. Castillo 9 SCRA 619, 1963
NAMARCO v. Arca 29 SCRA 648, 1969
Drilon v. Lim 235 SCRA 135, 1994
Joson v. Torres 290 SCRA 279, 1998
PASEI v. Torres-225 SCRA 417 [1993]
De Leon v. Carpio- 178 SCRA 457 [1989]
Hutchison v. SBMA- GR 131367, August 31, 2000
Dadole v. COA, GR No. 125350, Dec. 3, 2002
Domingo v. Zamora, GR 142283, Feb. 6, 2003
DENR v. DENR Employees, GR No. 149724, Aug. 19, 2003
Villaluz v. Zaldivar, 15 SCRA 710
Chavez v. Romulo- 431 SCRA 534 [2004]
KMU v. Dir.-Gen. of NEDA- 487 SCRA 623 [2006]
Tondo Medical Center Employees v. CA, GR No. 167324, July 17, 2007
Malaria Employees v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 160093, July 31, 2007
Orosa v. Roa, GR No. 14047, July 14, 2006
Phillips Seafood v. BOI, GR No. 175787, February 4, 2009
Biraogo v. Truth Commission, GR No. 192935, December 7, 2010
Angeles v. Gaite- 605 SCRA 409 [2009]
Boy Scouts of the Philippines v. Commission on Audit, GR 177131, 07 June 2011

Power of Supervision
Drilon v. Lim- 235 SCRA 135 [1994]

Faithful Execution Clause


PRA v. Bunag, GR 143784, Feb. 5, 2003
Romualdez v. Sandiganbayan, GR 152259, July 29, 2004
Banda v. Executive Secretary Ermita, G.R. No. 166620, April 20, 2010
Prospero Pichay v. Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary for Legal Affairs, G.R. No.
196425, July 24, 2012
Hontiveros-Baraquel v. Toll Regulatory Board, GR No. 181293, 2015
Datu Zaldy Uy Ampatuan v, Hon. Puno, G.R. No. 190259, June 7, 20122
Province v. COA, G.R. 182573, September 28, 2010.

Section 18. Presidents Powers as Commander in Chief


Lansang vs. Garcia, 42 SCRA 448
Aberca v. Ver, 160 SCRA 590
IBP v. Zamora, GR 141284, August 15, 2000
Lacson v. Perez, GR 147780-81, 147799 and 1477810, May 10, 2001
Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 159085, February 3, 2004
David v. Macapagal-Arroyo, GR 171396, May 2006
David v. Ermita, GR No. 171409, May 3, 2006
Gudani v. Senga, GR No. 170165, April 15, 2006
Ampatuan v. Puno, 651 SCRA 228
Fortun v. Arroyo, GR 190293, March 20,2012

Section 19. Executive Clemency

Purpose of Executive Clemency


Cristobal v. Labrador 71 PHIL 34 [1940-1941]
21
Constitutional Limits on Executive Clemency
Llamas v. Orbos 202 SCRA 844 [1991]
People v. Salle- 250 SCRA 581 [1995]
People v. Bacang 260 SCRA 44 [1996]
Drilon v. CA 202 SCRA 378 [1991]
Torres v. Gonzales 152 SCRA 272 [1987]
People v. Casido 269 SCRA 360 [1997]

Pardon: Nature and Legal Effects


Monsanto v. Factoran 170 SCRA 190 [1989]
Garcia v. COA 226 SCRA 356 [1993]
Sabello v. Department of Education, GR No. 87687, December 26, 1989
People v. Salle, Jr GR No. 103567, December 4, 1995
Garcia v. COA, 226 SCRA 356, 1993
Echegaray v. Sec. of Justice, GR No. 132601, Jan 19, 1999

Section 20. Foreign Loans


Spouses Constantino v. Cuisia, GR 106064, October 13, 2005

Section 21. Foreign Relations: Senate Concurrence in International Agreements


USAFFE Veterans Association v. Treasurer, 105 PHIL 1030, 1959
Gonzales v. Hechanova- 9 SCRA 230 [1963]
World Health Organization v. Aquino, 48 SCRA 242
Bayan v. Executive Secretary Zamora, 343 SCRA 449, 2000
Pimentel v. Executive Secretary, 2005
Lim v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 151445, April 11, 2002
Secretary of Justice v. Judge Lantion, GR No. 139465, Oct. 17, 2000
Abaya v. Ebdane- 315 SCRA 720 (2007)
Pharmaceutical v. DOH- GR 173034, October 9, 2007
Vinuya v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 162230, April 28, 2010
Bayan Muna v. Romulo, 641 SCRA 244

Other Foreign Affairs Power


Vinuya v. Romulo- 619 SCRA 533 [2010]

22
Article VIII: Judicial Department
Section 1. Judicial Power

Definition and Scope


Marbury v. Madison Cranch 137 [1803]
Santiago v. Baustista 32 SCRA 188 [1970]
Radiowealth v. Agregado 86 Phil. 429 [1950]
In re Laureta 148 SCRA 382 [1987]
In re Borromeo 241 SCRA 405 [1995]
Echegaray v. Secretary of Justice GR 132601, January 19, 1999
Planters v. Fertiphil 548 SCRA 485 [2008]
RE: Letter to UP Law Faculty, A.M. No. 10-10-4-C, June 7, 2011
Pichay v. Office of the Deputy Executive Secretary - 677 SCRA 408 [2012]

Limits
Manila Electric Co. v. Pasay Transit Co. 57 Phil. 60 [1932-1933]
Noblejas v. Teehankee 23 SCRA 405 [1968]
Erdito Quarto v. Honorable Ombudsman Simeon Marcelo, et al., GR 169042, 05 October 2011

Principle of Judicial Restraint


Francisco Jr v. House of Representatives, G.R. No. 160261, 10 November 2003

Grave Abuse of Discretion


PCGG v. Desierto, GR 132120 , Feb. 10, 2003
Domingo v. Scheer 421 SCRA 468 [2004]
Presidential Ad Hoc v. Desierto 548 SCRA 295 [2008]
Reyes v. Belisario 596 SCRA 31 [2009]
Eloisa L. Tolentino v. Atty. Roy M. Loyola, et al., GR 153809, 27 July 2011

Advisory Opinions
Channie Tan v. Republic, 107 PHIL 632
Santiago, Jr v. Bautista, 32 SCRA 188
Felipe v. Leuterio, 91 PHIL 482
Director of Prisons v. Ang Cho Kio 33 SCRA 494 [1970]

Justiciable Controversy
Angara v. Electoral Commission, 63 Phil 134
US v. Nixon- 418 US 683 [1974]
Marcos v. Manglapus 177 SCRA 668 [1989]
Daza v, Singson 180 SCRA 496 [1989]
Garcia v. BOI 191 SCRA 288 [1990]
Djumantan v. Domingo 240 SCRA 746 [1995]
Mariano v. COMELEC 242 SCRA 211 [1995]
PPI v COMELEC -224 SCRA 272
SBMA v. COMELEC 262 SCRA 492 [1996]
Tanada v. Angara 272 SCRA 18 [1997]
23
Arroyo v. De Venecia -277 SCRA 268 [1997]
CIR v. Santos 277 SCRA 617 [1997]
Garcia-Rueda v. Pascasio 278 SCRA 769[1997]
Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona, GR 134577, November 18, 1997
Tatad v. DOE 281 SCRA 330 [1997]
Telecom v. COMELEC - 289 SCRA 337 [1998]
Miranda v. Aguirre GR 133064, September 16, 1999
Cutaran v. DENR 350 SCRA 697 [2001]
Estrada v. Desierto GR 146740-15, March 2, 2001 and MR April 3, 2001
Cawaling v. COMELEC GR 146319, October 23, 2001
Montesclaros v. COMELEC GR 152295, July 9, 2002
John Hay Peoples Alternative Coalition v. Lim, GR 119775, October 24, 2003
Velarde v. Social Justice Society, GR 159357, April 28, 2004
Panganiban v. Philippine Shell, GR 131471, Jan. 22, 2003

Doctrine of Primary Jurisdiction


SMART v. NTC, GR 151908, August 12, 2003

Buac v. COMELEC 421 SCRA 92


Information Technology v. COMELEC -460 SCRA 291
Senate v. Ermita, GR 169659, April 20, 2006
Garcia v. Executive Secretary 583 SCRA 119 [2009]

Distinguish from Declaration Relief


Macasiano v. NHA 224 SCRA 236 [1993]
Tano v. Socrates 278 SCRA 154 [1997]

Conclusive Character of Supreme Court Judgment


In re Subpoena Duces Tecum dated Jan. 11, 2011 614 SCRA 1

Plenary Judicial Power; Derivative; PET


Macalintal v. PET 635 SCRA 783 [2010]
Hacienda Luisita v. PARC, GR No. 171101, November 22, 2011
Sana v. CESB, GR No. 192926, November 15, 2011
Madrigal v. DOJ GR No. 168903, 726 SCRA 544, June 18, 2014
Torrecampo v. MWSS, 649 SCRA 482

Sec. 2. Power of Legislative Apportion Jurisdiction


Mantruste Systems v. CA -179 SCRA 136 [1989]
Malaga v. Penachos 213 SCRA 516 [1992]
Lupangco v. CA, 160 SCRA 848 (1988)

Sec. 3 Fiscal Autonomy


Radiowealth v. Agregado 86 Phil. 429 [1950]
Bengzon v. Drilon, 208 SCRA 133 (1992)
In re clarifying and strengthening the Philippine Judicial Academy 481 SCRA 1
RE: Petition for the recognition of the exemption of GSIS, A.M. No. 08-2-01-0, February 11,
2010
In re COA Opinion on Computation of Appraised Value of Properties -678 SCRA 1 [2012]

24
Sec. 4. Composition; En Banc and Division Cases

Filling-in Vacancy in Supreme Court; 90 days


De Castro v. JBC 615 SCRA 666 [2010]

Referral to En Banc; Par. 3; Case Only; Modification of Doctrine


Fortich v. Corona GR 131457, August 19, 1997
People v. Dy, GR 115326-37, Jan. 16, 2003
People v. Ebio, GR 147750, Sept 29, 2004
Firestone Ceramics v. CA, GR No. 127245, June 28, 2000
Republic v. Garcia 527 SCRA 495 [2007]
Apo Fruits Corporation and Hijo Plantation, Inc v. Land Bank of the Philippines, GR 164195, 05
April 2011.
In re; Letter of Atty. Estelito P. Mendoza Re: G.R. No. 178083 Flight Attendant and Stewards
Association of the Philippines (FASAP) v. Philippine Airlines, Inc (PAL), et al., A.M. No. 11-10-1-
SC, 13 March 2012

Sec. 5. Powers of Supreme Court

Judicial Review
Requisites
Macasiano v. NHA 224 SCRA 236 [1993]
Liban v. Gordon 639 SCRA 709 [2011]

Administrative Agencies; No Power


Serrano v. Gallant 582 SCRA 254 [2009]

First: Ripe for Adjudication


PACU v. Secretary of Education 97 Phil. 806 [1955]
Tan v. Macapagal 43 SCRA 678 [1972]
Solicitor General v. MMDA GR 102782, December 18, 1991
Militante v. CA, GR 107040, April 12, 2000
Pimentel v. HRET GR 14189, November 29, 2002
Constantino v. Cuisia 472 SCRA 505
Senate v. Ermita 488 SCRA 1 [2006]
David v. Arroyo 489 SCRA 162 [2006]
Suplico v. NEDA GR 178830, July 14, 2008
Province of North Cotabato v. GRP Panel
Lozano v. Nograles 589 SCRA 356 [2009]
Drilon v. De Venecia 594 SCRA 749 [2009]
De Castro v. JBC 615 SCRA 666 [2010]
LAMP v. Sec. of Budget and Management 670 SCRA 373 [2012]

Second: Standing
Legislators and Government Officials
Gonzales v. Macaraig, Jr.- 191 SCRA 452 [1990]
Philconsa v. Enriquez- 235 SCRA 506 [1994]
Del Mar v. PAGCOR, GR 138298, November 29, 2000
Sandoval v. PAGCOR- GR 138982, November 29, 2000
Jaworski v. PAGCOR- 419 SCRA 420
25
SANLAKAS v. Executive Secretary, GR 159085, Feb. 3, 2004
Farinas v. Executive Secretary, GR 147387, Dec. 10, 2003
Province of Batangas v. Romulo- 429 SCRA 736 [2004]
Disomangcop v. Datumanong-444 SCRA 203 [2004]
CHR- employees v. CHR- 444 SCRA 300 [2004]
Pimentel v. Executive Secretary- 462 SCRA 622
Pimentel v. Ermita- 495 SCRA 170 [2006]
Prov. Of North Cotabato v. GRP Peace Panel- 564 SCRA 402 [2008]
Concepcion v. COMELEC- 591 SCRA 420 [2009]
Drilon v. De Venecia- 594 SCRA 749 [2009]
Biraogo v. PTC- 637 SCRA 78 [2010]

Taxpayers
Pascual v. Secretary of Public Works- 110 PHIL 331 [1960-1961]
Gonzales v. Marcos- 65 SCRA 624 [1975]
Gonzales v. Narvasa, GR 140835, August 14, 2000
Information Technology Foundation v. Comelec, GR 159131, Jan. 13 2004.
Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary- 421 SCRA 656 [2004]
Velarde v. SJS- 428 SCRA 283 [2004]
Brillantes v. COMELEC- 432 SCRA 269 [2004]
Domingo v. Carague- 456 SCRA 450
Republic v. Nolasco- 457 SCRA 400
Constantino v. Cuisia- 472 SCRA 305
Abaya v. Ebdane- 515 SCRA 720 [2007]
Planters v. Fertiphil- 548 SCRA 485 [2008]
Roque v. COMELEC- 599 SCRA 62 [2009]
Mamba v. Lara, GR 165109, December 14, 2009
De la Llana v. Chairperson, COA- 665 SCRA 176 [2012]
Galicto v. Aquino-667 SCRA 150 [2012]
Initiatives for Dialogue v. PSALM- 682 SCRA 602 [2012]

Citizens and Associations; Transcendental Importance


Legaspi v. CSC- 150 SCRA 530 [1987]
Oposa v. Factoran- 224 SCRA 792 [1993]
PASEI v. Torres-225 SCRA 417 [1993]
Joya v. PCGG- 225 SCRA 540 [1995]
Kilosbayan v. Morato- 246 SCRA 436 [1995]
Tatad v. Garcia 243 SCRA 436 [1995]
Board of Optometry v. Colet- 260 SCRA 88 [1996]
Anti-Graft League of the Philippines- 260 SCRA 250 [1996]
Telecom v. COMELEC- 289 SCRA 337 [1998]
Chavez v. PCGG- GR 130716 [May 19,1999]
IBP v. Zamora- GR 141284 [August 15, 2000]
Bayan v. Zamora- GR 138570, October 10, 2000
Cruz v. Secretary of DENR- gr 135385, December 6, 2000
Lozano v. Macapagal-Arroyo GR 146579, February 6, 2001
Lim v. Exec. Secretary- GR 151445 April 11, 2002
Chavez v. PEA- GR 133250, July 9, 2002
Tolentino v. COMELEC- 420 SCRA 438 [2004]
Agan v. PIATCO- 420 SCRA 575 [2004]
26
Tichangco v. Enriquez- 433 SCRA 324 [2004]
Automotive Industry Workers Alliance v. Rumolo- 449 SCRA 1
Pimentel v. Office of the Executive Secretary- 462 SCRA 622
Senate v. Ermita- 488 SCRA 1 [2006]
Purok v. Yuipco- 489 SCRA 382 [2006]
David v. Arroyo- 489 SCRA 162 [2006]

Doctrine of Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies


Holy Spirit v. Defensor- 497 SCRA 581 [2006]

Henares v. LTFRB- 505 SCRA 104 [2006]


Francisco v. Fernando- 507 SCRA [2006]
Public interest Center v. Roxas- 513 SCRA 457 [2007]
Garcia v. J.G. Summit- 516 SCRA 483 [2007]
Kilosbayan v. Ermita- 526 SCRA 353 [2007]
Tondo Medical v. CA- 527 SCRA 746 [2007]
Anak Mindanao v. Executive Secretary- 531 SCRA 583 [2007]
Pharmaceutical v. Duque- 535 SCRA 265
Chavez v. Gonzales-545 SCRA 441 [2008]
Akbayan v. Aquino- 558 SCRA 468 [2008]
SJS v. Dangerous Drugs Board- 570 SCRA 410 [2008]
Garcillano v. House- GR 170338, Dec. 23,2008
White Light v. City of Manila- 576 SCRA 416 [2009]
Chamber of Real Estete v. Romulo- 614 SCRA 605 [2010]
Chamber of Real Estate v. ERC- 624 SCRA 556 [2010]
Southern Hemisphere v. ATC- 632 SCRA 146 [2010]
Orlando A. Reyes v. City of Manila, GR 196063, 14 December 2011.
Jelbert B. Galicto v. H.E. President Benigno Simeon C. Aquino, III, GR 193978, 28 February
2012.
Bayan v. Romulo- 641 SCRA 244 [2011]
Magallona v. Ermita- 655 SCRA 476 [2011]

Other Rules: Raise at Earliest Opportunity and Constitutionality is the Very Lis Mota
People v. Vera- 65 PHIL. 56 [1937-1938]
Mirasol v. CA- 351 SCRA 44 [2001]
Matibag v. Benipayo- 380 SCRA 49 [2002]
La Bugal v. Ramos- 421 SCRA 148 [2004]
Estarja v. Ranada- 492 SCRA 652 [2006]
Moldex v. HLURB- 525 SCRA 198 [2007]
Gobenciong v. CA- 550 SCRA 502 [2008]
Heirs v. Marasigan- 548 SCRA 409 [2008]
Abakada v. Purisima- 562 SCRA 251 [2008]
ABS- CBN v. Phil. Multi-Media- 576 SCRA 262 [2009]
CSC v. Andal- 608 SCRA 370 [2009]
BPI v. Shemberg- 628 SCRA 70 [2010]
Macalintal v. PET- 635 SCRA 783 [2010]
Sergio I. Carbonilla, et al. v. Board of Airlines Representatives, GR 193247,
Office of the President v. Board of Airlines Representatives GR 194276, 14 September 2011
Reiterating Moldex v. HLURB
27
Hacienda Luisita v. PARC, GR 171101, November 22, 2011
Sana v. CESB, GR 192926, November 15, 2011
Gamboa v. Teves- 652 SCRA 690 [2011]

Moot Cases
David v. Arroyo, 489 SCRA 162 (2006)
Suplico v. NEDA, GR 178830, July 14, 2008
Mattel Inc. v. Francisco, GR No. 166886, July 30, 2008
Araullo, et al v. Aquino, et al, GR No. 209287, July 1, 2014 (p. 22)

Political Questions; Requisites


Baker v. Carr- 369 US 169 [1962]
Torrecampo v. Metropolitan- 649 SCRA 482 [2011]

Textually Demonstrable Commitment


Osmena v. Pendatun- 109 PHIL. 683 [1960]
Arroyo v. De Venecia- 277 SCRA 268 [1997]
Defensor-Santiago v. Guingona- GR 134577, November 18, 1998
ICMC v. Calleja- GR 85750, September 28, 1990
Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 [1997]
Garcia v. Corona, GR 132451, Dec. 17, 1999

Judicially Discoverable and Manageable Standards


Liang v. People- GR 125865, March 26, 2001

Effect of Unconstitutionality; Par. 2(a); Operative Fact Doctrine


Article 7, New Civil Code
De Agbayani v. PNB- 38 SCRA 429 [1971]
Philippine Coconut v. Republic, supra.
Hacienda Luisita, Inc. v. Presidential Agrarian Reform Council, GR 171101, Nov. 22, 2011
(Operative Fact Doctrine applies to unconstitutional executive act)
CIR v. San Roque Power Corporation, GR 187485, Oct 8, 2013 (Operative Fact Doctrine does
not apply to a mere administrative practice; there must be a law or executive issuance)

Automatic Review; Paragraph 2 (d)


Garcia, et al. v. People- 318 SCRA 434
Pearson v. IAC, GR 74454, Sept. 3, 1998
People v. Mateo- 433 SCRA 640
People v. Duavis, GR 190681, 07 December 2011

Question of Law; Paragraph 2(e)


Cebu Womans Club v. De la Victoria- GR 120060 [March 9, 2000]

Change of Venue; Paragraph 4


People v. Gutierrez- 36 SCRA 172 [1970]

Power to Promulgate Rules; Paragraph 5


Enforcement of Constitutional Rights, Pleading, Practice, and Procedure in All Courts
First Lepanto v. CA- 231 SCRA 30 [1994]
Lina v. Purisima- 82 SCRA 344 [1978]
28
Santero v. CFI- Cavite- 153 SCRA 728 [1965]
Damasco v. Laqui- 166 SCRA 214 [1988]
Carpio v. Sulu Resources- GR 148267, August 8, 2002
Baguio Market Vendors v. Hon. Cortes- GR 165922, February 26, 2010
In re Petition for Recognition- 612 SCRA 193 [2010]
In re Exemption of NPC- 615 SCRA 1 [2010]
In re: in the matter of clarification of Exemption from payment of all Court Sheriffs Fees of
Cooperatives, A.M. 12-2-03-0,13 March 2012-668 SCRA 1 [2012]
Sto. Tomas v. Paneda- 685 SCRA 245 [2012]

Admission to the Practice of Law, the Integrated Bar, Disciplinary Powers, and Legal
Assistance to the Underprivileged
In re Cunanan- 94 PHIL. 534 [953-1954]
Javellana v. DILG 212 SCRA 475 [1992]
Velez v. De Vera- A.C. No. 6697, July 25, 2006
In re letter of UP Law Faculty- 644 SCRA 543 [2011]

Limits of Power
Simplified and Inexpensive Procedure for Speedy Disposition
Uniform for All Courts of the Same Grade
Not diminish, increase, or modify substantive rights
Bustos v. Lucero- 81 PHIL. 648 [1948]
PNB v. Asuncion- 80 SCRA 321 [1977]
Fabian v. Desierto, GR 129742, September 16, 1998
People v. Lacson- 400 SCRA 267 [2003]
Planters v. Fertiphil- 426 SCRA 414 [2004]
Tan v. Bausch- 478 SCRA 115 [2005]
Republic v. Gingoyon- 478 SCRA 474 [2005]
Camp John Hay v. BIR- GR 172457, December 24, 2008

Procedure of Special Sourts and Quasi-Judicial Bodies Effective Unless Disapproved by


SC
LBP v. De Leon- GR 143275, September 10, 2002
Tan v. COMELEC- 507 SCRA 352 [2006]

Supervision Over the Judiciary


Ampong v. CSC- 563 SCRA 293 [2008]

Sec. 6. Supervision of Courts


Maceda v. Vasquez- 221 SCRA 464 [1993]
De Vera v. Pelayo, GR 137354, July 6, 2000;
Caoibes v. Ombudsman, G.R. No. 132177, July 19,2001;
Fuentes v. OMB, GR 124295, October 23, 2001
Dolalas v. Office of the Ombudsman-265 SCRA 819 [1996]
Garcia v. De la Pena, 299 SCRA 776 [1994]
Maningas v. Barcenas, AM P-99-1315, Nov. 3, 1999
Gorospe v. Sandoval, AM RTJ-00-1534, Feb. 15, 2000
Caoibes v. Ombudsman, GR 132177, July 19, 2001
Fuentes v. Ombudsman, GR 124295, Oct. 23, 2001
Adajar v. Develos- 475 SCRA 361 [2005]
29
Garcia v. Miro- 582 SCRA 127 [2009]
Escalona v. Padillo, AM P-10-2785, September 21, 2010

Sec. 7. Qualifications of Members of Judiciary


In re JBC v. Judge Quitain, JBC No. 013, August 22, 2007
Kilosbayan v. Ermita, GR No. 177721, July 3, 2007
Topacio v. Ong, GR No. 179895, December 15, 2008

Sec. 8. Judicial and Bar Council


Composition
Chavez v. JBC-676 SCRA 579 [2012]
De Castro v. JBC- 615 SCRA 666 [2010]

Sec. 9. Appointment of Justices and Judges

Sec. 10. Diminution of Salary


Nitafan v. CIR- 152 SCRA 284 [1987]

Sec. 11. Security of Tenure; Power to Discipline


Vargas v. Rilloraza- 80 PHIL. 297 [1948]
De La Llana v. Alba- 112 SCRA 294 [1982]
People v. Gacott- 246 SCRA 52 [1995]
Lumpas v. Tamin, AM no. RTJ-99-1519

Sec. 12. Non-Judicial Assignments


In Re Judge Manzano, 166 SCRA 246
Macalintal v. Presidential Electoral Tribunal, 635 SCRA 783 [2010]

Sec. 13. Conclusions of the Supreme Court-How Reached?


Consing v. Court of Appeals, GR 78272, August 29, 1989

Sec. 14. Contents of Decision; Petition for Review; Motion for Reconsideration
Decision expressing clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based
Sufficient
Air France v. Carrascoso- 18 SCRA 155 [1966]
People v. Bravo- 227 SCRA 285 [1993]
Hernandez v. CA- 208 SCRA 429 [1993]
Francisco v. Permskul- 173 SCRA 324 [1989]
People v. Landicho- 285 SCRA 1 [1996]
People v. Co- 245 SCRA 733 [1995]
People v. Macoy- 275 SCRA 1 [1997]
ABD v. NLRC- 286 SCRA 454 [1998]
People v. Gastador, GR 123727 [April 14, 1999]
People v. Ordonez, GR 136591, July 10, 2000
People v. Orbita, GR 1365891, July 11, 2002
Lorbes v. CA, 351 SCRA 716
People v. Mendoza, GR 143702, Sept. 13, 2001
Asia Traders v. CA- 423 SCRA 114 [2004]
Tichangco v. Enriquez- 433 SCRA 324 [2004]
Ceferina Lopez Tan v. Spouses Antazo, GR 187208, 23 February 2011.
30
Donnina C. Halley v. Printwell, Inc. GR 157549, 30 May 2011.
Hon. Waldo Q. Flores v. Atty. Antonio F. Montemayor, GR 17046, 8 June 2011
Reiting Solid Homes v. Laserna. Art VIII, Section 14 applies only to the judiciary)

Insufficient
People v. Escober- 157 SCRA 541 [1988]
Nicos v. CA 206 SCRA 127 [1992]
People v. Viernas 262 SCRA 641 [1996]
People v. Bugarin 273 SCRA 384 [1997]
People v. Nadera 342 SCRA 490 [2000]
Madrid v. CA, GR 130683, May 31 2000
Yao v. CA, GR 132428, October 24, 2000
People v. Dumaging, GR 135516, September 20, 2000
Ong Chiu Kwan, GR 13006, November 23, 2000
Spouse Yu Eng Cho v. Pan America World Airways, Inc., GR 123560, March 27, 2000
Kao v. C.A., G.R. No. 105014, December 18,2001
People v. Pastor, 379 SCRA 181 (2002)
People v. Lizada, GR 143468, Jan 24, 2003
Consing v. CA-425 SCRA 192 [2004]
Velarde v. SJS-428 SCRA 283 [2004]
Report on the Judicial Audit (MTC of Tambulig)- 472 SCRA 419 [2005]
Lacurom v. Tienzo- 535 SCRA 252 [2007]
Salazar v. Marigomen- 537 SCRA 25 [2007]
De la Pena v. CA- 579 SCRA 396 [2009]
Office of the President and Presidential Anti- Graft Commission v. Calixto R. Cataquiz, GR
183445, 14 September 2011.
Republic of the Philippines (University of the Philippines) v. Legaspi, GR 177611, 18 April 2012

Legal basis must be stated if a petition for review or motion for reconsideration of a
decision shall be refused due course or denied
Borromeo v. CA- 186 SCRA 1 [1990]
JRB Realty v. CA-271 SCRA 229 [1997]
Komatsu v. CA-289 SCRA 604 [1998]
Martinez v. CA, GR 123547, May 21, 2001
Protacio v. Laya-582 SCRA 417 [2009]
Nationwide Security and Allied Services, Inc. v. Ronald P. Valderama, GR 186614, 23 February
2011. Reiterating Philippine Health care Providers, Inc. v. CIR.
Re: Verified Complaint of Engr. Oscar L. Ongjoco, A.M. OCA IPI No. 11-184-CA-J, 31 January
2012.
Agoy v. Araneta Center, GR 196358, 21 March 2012. Reiterating Borromeo v. CA

Sec. 15. Period for Making Decisions


Dizon v. Judge Lopez- 278 SCRA 483 [1997]
Mosquera v. Legaspi, AM RTJ-99-1511, July 10,2000
OCA v. Salva, AM RTJ-98-1412, July 19, 2000
Dela Cruz v. Bersamira, AM RTJ-00-1567, July 24, 2000
Heirs of Sucaldito v. Cruz, AM RTJ-991456, July 27, 2000
Sulla v. Ramos, AM-MTJ-00-1319, September 27, 2000
Seares v. Salazar, AM MTJ-98-1160, November 22, 2000
Gil v. Jonolo, AM RTJ-00-1602, December 5, 2000
31
Aslarona v. Echavez, AM RTJ-03-1803, Oct. 2, 2003
Unitrust Devt Bank v. Caoibes, AM RTJ-03-1745, Aug, 20, 2003
Re: Request of Judge Javellana, AM 01-6-314-RTC, June 19, 2003
Salud v. Alumbres, AM RTJ-00-1594, June 20,2003
Samson v. Mejia, AM RTJ-02-1710,June 17,2003

Supplemnent:
Sibayan-Joaquin v. Judge Javellana, A.M. No. RTJ-00-1601, Nov. 13,2001

Sec. 16. Report to the President and to Congress

32
Article IX: Constitutional Commissions
A. Common Provisions

Section 1. Independent Commissions


Macalintal v. COMELEC, GR 157013, July 10, 2003
Ombudsman v. Civil Service Commission, GR No. 159940, February 16, 2005

Section 2. Prohibition on Members

Section 3. Salary

Section 4. Power to Appoint

Section 5. Fiscal Autonomy


CSC v. DBM, 482 SCRA 233

Section 6. Promulgation of Rules


Macalintal v. COMELEC, GR No. 157013, July 10, 2003
Sabili v. COMELEC, GR 193261, April 24, 2012

Section 7. Decisions of the Commissions

Review of final orders, resolutions and decisions:


1. Rendered in the exercise of quasi-judicial functions
2. Rendered in the exercise of administrative functions

Filipinas Engineering and Machine Shop v. Ferrer, 135 SCRA 25


Saligumba v. CA, 117 SCRA 669
PTTC v. COA, 146 SCRA 190 (1986)
Cua v. COMELEC, 156 SCRA 582 (1987)
Estrella v. COMELEC, GR No. 160465, May 27, 2004
Mison v. COA, 187 SCRA 445 (1990)
Paredes v. COMELEC, 127 SCRA 653 (1984)
Ambil v. COMELEC, 344 SCRA 358 [2000]
Mateo v. CA, GR No. 113219, August 14, 1995
Reyes v. Regional Trial Court, GR No. 108886, May 5, 1995
ABS-CBN v. COMELEC, 323 SCRA 611
Salva v. Makalintal, GR 132603, September 18, 2000
Garces v. CA, GR. No. 114 795, July 17, 1996
Dumayas v. COMELEC, GR Nos. 141952-53, April 29, 2001
Aguilar v. COMELEC, GR No. 185140, June 30, 2009
Cayetano v. COMELEC, GR 193846, April 12, 2011
Dela Llana v. The Chairperson, COA, GR 180989, February 7, 2012
Cagas v. COMELEC, 663 SCRA 644 (2012)

Section 8. Other Functions

B. Civil Service Commission


33
Section 1. Composition; Qualifications; Term
Gaminde v. COA 347 SCRA 655 (2000)
Mathay Jr. v. CA, GR No. 124374, December 15, 1999

Section 2.Scope of the system


Cuevas v. Bacal, GR 139382, December 6 2000

Under Civil Service Law


PARAGRAPH 1
MWSS v. Hernandez 143 SCRA 602 [1986]
NSC v. NLRC 168 SCRA 122
UP v. Regino 221 SCRA 598 [1993]
Mateo v. CA 247 SCRA 284 [1995]
DOH v. NLRC 251 SCRA 700 [1995]
Juco v. NLRC 277 SCRA 528 [1997]
Feliciano v. Gison 629 SCRA 103 [2010]

GOCCs Under the Corporation Code


BLISS v. Calejo 237 SCRA 271 [1994]
Postigo v. Philippine Tuberculosis society 479 SCRA 628
LRTA v. Venus 485 SCRA 301

PARAGRAPH 2
Classifications and Appointments
HIGC v. CSC 220 SCRA 148 [1993]
Mauna v. CSC 232 SCRA 388 [1994]
Rimonte v. CSC 244 SCRA 498 [1995]
Gloria v. De Guzman 249 SCRA 126 [1995]
Atty. Ellas Omar A Sana v. Career Executive Service Board, GR 192926, 15 November 2011

Competitive
Samson v. CA 145 SCRA 654[1986]

Non-Competitive
Astraquillo v. Mangalupas 190 SCRA 280 [1990]
Office of the President v. Buenaobra 501 SCRA 302

Policy-Determining

Primarily Confidential
Borres v. CA 153 SCRA 120 [1987]
Grino v. CSC 194 SCRA 458 [1991]
Santos v. Macaraig 208 SCRA 74 [1992]
Hilario v. CSC 243 SCRA 206 [1995]
Rosete v. CA 264 SCRA 147 [1996]
CSC v. Salas 274 SCRA 414 [1997]
Acahacoso v. Macaraig 195 SCRA 235 [1991]
Felix v. Buenaseda 240 SCRA 139 [1995] (par.2)
Pamantasan ng Maynila v. CSC 241 SCRA 503 [1995]
34
Province of the Camarines Sur v. CA 246 SCRA 231 [1995]
PEZA v. Mercado 614 SCRA 683 [2010]
CSC v. CA 635 SCRA 749 [2010]

Permanent
Luego v. CSC 143 SCRA 327 [1986]
Pangilinan v. Maglaya 225 SCRA 511 [1993] (par.2)

Reorganization
Santiago v. CSC 178 SCRA 733 [1989]
Montecillo v. Civil Service Commission, GR NO. 131954. June 28, 2001
Gatmaitan v. Gonzales 492 SCRA 591
Nieves v. Blanco 673 SCRA 638 [2012]

Appointment vs. designation


Binamira v. Garucho 188 SCRA 154 [1990] (par.2) (designation by Dept. Sec.)

Removal for Cause/Security of Tenure


Cause for Removal: PARAGRAPH 3

1. Loss confidence
Hernandez v. Villegas 14 SCRA 544 [1965]

2. Abolition of Office
Briones v. Osmena 104 PHIL. 588 [1958]
Eugene v. CSC 243 SCRA 196 [1995]

3. Reorganization
Romualdez-Yap v. CSC 225 SCRA 285 [1993]
Fernandez v. Sto Tomas 242 SCRA 192 [1995]
Chato v. Natividad 244 SCRA 787 [1995]
Divinagracia v. Sto. Tomas 244 SCRA 595 [1995] (par.3)
Vinzon-Chato v. Zenarosa, GR 120539, October 20, 2000
De Guzman v. Comelec, GR 129118, July 19, 2000
Cuevas v. Bacal, GR 139382, December 6, 2000

4. Qualification for Eligibility


Mayor v. Macaraig 194 SCRA 672 [1991

5. Abandonment; Acceptance of Incompatible/Other Employment


Canonizado v. Aguirre, 323 SCRA 312 [2001]
Salvador v. CA, GR 127501, May 5, 2000

Due Process in Removal


Enrique v. CA 229 SCRA 180 [1994]
CSC v. Magnaye 619 SCRA 347 [2010]
Rubenecia v. CSC 244 SCRA 640 [1995]
Philippine Charity Sweepstakes Office Board Of Directors v. Marie Jean C. Lapid, GR 191940,
12 April 2011

35
Security of Tenure
Chua v. CSC 206 SCRA 65 [1992]
NLTD v. CSC 221 SCRA 145
Cabagnot v. CSC 223 SCRA 59 (
Marohombsar v. CA, GR 126481, February 18, 2000
Ong v. OP 664 SCRA 413 [2012]

Electioneering or Partisan Political Activity


Santos v. Yatco 106 PHIL 21
People v. De Venecia 14 SCRA 864 [1965]

Right to Self-Organization and Right to Strike


SSS Employees v. CA 175 SCRA 686 [1989]
Balingasan v. CA 276 SCRA 557 [1997]
Jacinto v. CA 281 SCRA 557 [1997]
De la Cruz v. CA 305 SCRA 303
GSIS v. Kapisanan 510 SCRA 622

Temporary Employees
Gloria v. CA, GR 119903, August 15, 2000

Section 3. Purpose of a Civil Service System


Lazo v. CSC, 236 SCRA 469

Section 4. Oath or Affirmation

Section 5. Standardization of Compensation

Section 6. Prohibition of Appointment of Lame Ducks


People v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 164185, July 23, 2008

Section 7. Prohibitions; Appointments; Office; Employment


Flores v. Drilon 223 SCRA 568 (1993)
In re Eduardo Escala, 653 SCRA 141
La Carlota City v. Rojo , GR 181367, 24 April 2012

Sec. 8 Prohibitions; Compensation; Foreign Gift/Office/Title


Sedusasta v. Municipality of Surigao 72 PHIL. 482 [1941]
Peralta v. Mathay 38 SCRA 296 (1971)
Santos v. CA GR No. 139792, Nov. 22, 2000
Cabili v. CSC, GR No. 156503, June 22, 2006
Benguet State University v. Colting, GR No. 169637, June 8, 2007
Herrera, et al v. NPC, GR No. 166570, December 18, 2009
NEA v. CSC 611 SCRA 14 [2010]

Doctrine of Finality
Yap v. COA 619 SCRA 154 [2010]

Sergio I. Carbonilla, et al v. Board of Airlines, GR 193247


Office of the President v. Board of Airlines, GR 194276, 14 September 2011
36
PEZA V. COA 675 SCRA 513[2012]
Dimagiba v. Espartero 676 SCRA 420 [2012]

C. Commission on Elections

Section 1. Composition; Qualifications; Term


Cayetano v. Monsod, 201 SCRA 210 (1991)
Brillantes v. Yorac, 192 SCRA 358 (1990)
**It is expressly stipulated in S1(2) that no member can be appointed or designated in a
temporary or acting capacity.
Matibag v. Benipayo, 380 SCRA 49
Ad interim appointments are permanent.
Hayudini v. Comelec, GR No. 207900, 723 SCRA 223, April 22, 2014
Naval v. COMELEC, G.R. No. 207851, July 8, 2014
**A provincial board member cannot be elected and serve for more than three consecutive
terms.
Timbol v. Comelec, G.R. No. 206004, February 24, 2015
**To minimize the logistical confusion caused by nuisance candidates, their certificates of
candidacy may be denied due course or cancelled by respondent. To minimize the logistical
confusion caused by nuisance candidates, their certificates of candidacy may be denied due
course or cancelled by respondent. This denial or cancellation may be motu proprio or upon a
verified petition of an interested party, subject to an opportunity to be heard.
Jalover v. Osmena, G.R. No. 209286, September 23, 2014
**To successfully challenge a winning candidates qualifications, the petitioner must clearly
demonstrate that the ineligibility is so patently antagonistic to constitutional and legal principles
that overriding such ineligibility and thereby giving effect to the apparent will of the people would
ultimately create greater prejudice to the very democratic institutions and juristic traditions that
our Constitution and laws so zealously protect and promote.

Section 2. Powers and Functions

Administrative Power
Alfiado v. Comelec, GR 141787, September 18, 2000
Columbres v. Comelec, GR 142038,September 18, 2000
Sahali v. Comelec, GR 134169, February 2, 2000
Claudio v. Comelec, GR 140560, May 4, 2000
De Guzman v. Comelec, GR 129118, July 19, 2000
Social Weather Station, Inc v. COMELEC, GR NO. 147571, May 5, 2001
Information Technology Foundation v. Comelec, GR 159139, Jan 13, 2004
Buac v. Comelec, 421 SCRA 92
Capalla v. COMELEC 673 SCRA 1 [2012]

Election Contests
Flores v. COMELEC 184 SCRA 484 [1990]
Galido v. COMELEC 193 SCRA 78 [1991]
Mercado v. BES 243 SCRA 422 [1995]
Relampagos v. Cumba 243 SCRA 690 [1995]
People v. Delgado 189 SCRA 715 [1990]
Garces v. CA 259 SCRA 99 [1996]
Zarate v. Comelec and Lallave GR 129096, November 19, 1999
37
Regalado v. CA, GR 115962, February 15, 2000
Faelnar v. People,GR 140850-51, May 4, 2000
Tan v. Comelec, GR 148575, Dec. 10, 2003
Alauya v. Comelec, GR 158830, August 10, 2004

Powers Not Given

Deputizing Law Enforcement Agencies


People v. Basilla 179 SCRA 87[1989]

Registration of Parties and Organization


LDP v. Comelec, GR 161265, February 24, 2004
Atienza v. COMELEC 612 SCRA 761 [2010]
Lokin v. COMELEC 674 SCRA 538[2012]

Prosecution of Election Offenses


People v. Inting 187 SCRA 788 [1990]
Corpus v. Tanodbayan 149 SCRA 281[1987]
COMELEC v. Silva 286 SCRA 177[1998]
Comelec v. Hon. Espanol, GR 149164, Dec. 10, 2003
Arroyo v. DOJ 681 SCRA 181[2012]

Recommendatory Powers

Section 3. Decisions
Pangilinan v. COMELEC 228 SCRA 36[1993]
Sarmiento v. Comelec 212 SCRA 307[1992]
Carnicosa v. COMELEC 282 SCRA 512[1997]
Ramas v. COMELEC 286 SCRA 189[1998]
Garvida v. Sales 271 SCRA 767[1997]
Velayo v. Comelec, GR 135613, March 9, 2000
Sebastian v. Comelec, GR 139573, Mach 7, 2000
Soller v. Comelec, GR 139853, September 5, 2000
Barroso v. Ampig et al, GR138218, March 17, 2000
Maruhon v. Comelec, GR 139357, May 5,2000
Balindong v. Comelec, GR 153991, Oct. 16, 2003
Jaramilla v. Comelec, GR 155717, Oct. 23, 2003
Bautista v. Comelec, GR 154796-97, Oct. 23, 2003
De Llana v. Comelec, GR 152080, Nov. 28, 2003
Repol v. Comelec, GR 151418, Apr. 28, 2004
Pedragoza v. COMELEC 496 SCRA 513
Cayetano v. COMELEC 479 SCRA 514
Munoz v. COMELEC 495 SCRA 407
Tan v. COMELEC 507 SCRA 352
Enriquel v. COMELEC 613 SCRA 809
Mendoza v. COMELEC 616 SCRA 443
Maria Laarni L Cayetano v. Comelec, GR 193846, 12 April 2011 (also in Sec. 7, Art IX-A)

Section 4. Supervision/Regulation of Public Utilities, Media Grants, Privileges


Unido v. COMELEC, 104 SCRA 17
38
Sanidad v. COMELEC, 181 SCRA 529 (1990)
Osmena v. COMELEC 199 SCRA 750 [1991]
Philippine Press Institute v. COMELEC, GR No. 119654, May 22, 1995
Telecom v. COMELEC 289 SCRA 337 [1998]
ABS-CBN v. COMELEC, GR No. 133486, Jan. 28, 2000
SWS v. COMELEC, GR No. 147571, May 5, 2001

Section 5. Favorable Recommendation for Pardon, Amnesty, Parole or Suspension of Sentence

Section 6. Free and Open Party System


Liberal Party v. COMELEC, GR No. 191771, May 6, 2010

Section 7. No Block-Voting

Section 8. Prohibition on Political Parties

Section 9. Election Period

Section 10. No Harassment and Discrimination

Section 11. Funds

D. Commission of Audit

Section 1. Qualifications; Term


Mison v. COA, 187 SCRA 445

Section 2. General Function; Powers

Examine and Audit: Government revenues and Government expenditures


Blue Bar Coconut Phil. Tantuico 163 SCRA 716 [1988]
DBP v. COA 231 SCRA 202 [1994]
Eslao v. COA 236 SCRA 161 [1994]
J.F.F. Manacop v. CA 266 SCRA 235 [1997]
Polloso v. Gangan, GR 140563, July 14, 2000
Uy v. COA, GR 130685, March 21, 2000
Aguinaldo v. Sandiganbayan 265 SCRA 121 [1996]
DBP v. COA, 422 SCRA 459 [2004]
Home Development Mutual Fund v. COA, GR 142297, June 15, 2004
DBP v. COA 498 SCRA 537 [2006]
Nava v. Palattao 499 SCRA 745 [2006]
Gualberto De Llana v. COA, GR 180989, 7 Feb. 2012
Candelario L. Versoza Jr. v. Guillermo N Carague, GR 157838, 7 February 2012
Philippine Coconut v. Republic 663 SCRA 514 [2012]

Audit Jurisdiction
Caltex v. COA 208 SCRA 726 [1992]
Mamaril v. Domingo 227 SCRA 206[1993]
Philippine Airlines v. COA 245 SCRA 39 [1995]
39
CIR v. COA 218 SCRA 203 [1993]
CSC v. Pobre, GR 160568, Sept. 15, 2004
Luciano Velos, et al. v. Commission On Audit, GR 193677,6 Sept. 20011
Boy Scout of the Philippines v. COA, GR 177131, 7 June 2011
Dela Llana v. COA 665 SCRA 176 [2012]
Settle Government Account
Philippine Operations, Inc. v. Auditor General, 94 Phil 868 [1953-1954]
ICNA v. Republic, 21 SCRA 40 [1967]
Dingcong v. Guingona, 162 SCRA 782 [1988]
NHC v. COA 226 SCRA 55 [1993]
Euro-Med v. Province of Batangas, 495 SCRA 30 [2006]

Define Scope and Techniques of Auditing Procedures


Danville Maritime v. COA,175 SCRA 701 [1989]

Promulgate Accounting and Auditing Rules


Leycano v. COA, 482 SCRA 215

Decide Administrative Cases Involving Expenditures of Public Funds


NCMH v. COA, 265 SCRA 390 [1996]
Ramos v. Aquino, 39 SCRA 256 [1971]
Salva v. Carague, 511 SCRA 258
City of Basilan v. Hechanova, 58 SCRA 711 [1974]

Section 3. COA Jurisdiction


Luciano Veloso v. Commisssion on Audit, GR 193677, 6 September 2011

Section 4. Annual Report to the President and to Congress

Article X. Local Government

Section 1. Territorial and Political Subdivisions of the Philippines


Cordillera Broad Coalition v. COA, GR No. 79956, January 26, 1990

Section 2. Local Autonomy


Limbona v. Conte Mangelin, et al, GR No. 80391, February 28, 1989
San Juan v. CSC, 196 SCRA 69 (1991)
Drilon v. Lim 235 SCRA 135 [1994]
Magtajas v. Pryce Properties, GR No. 111097, July 20, 1994
Judge Leynes v. COA, GR No. 143596, Dec. 11, 2003
Batangas CATV v. CA and Batangas City, GR No. 138810, September 29, 2004
CREBA v. Secretary of DAR, GR 183409, June 18, 2010

Section 3. Local Government Code


Garcia v. COMELEC, 227 SCRA 100 (1993)
Malonzo v. COMELEC, 269 SCRA 380 (1997)
Malonzo v. Zamora 323 SCRA 875

Section 4. Supervision by the President


40
Ganzon v. CA, 200 SCRA 271
Joson v. Torres, 290 SCRA 279
Drilon v. Lim, 235 SCRA 135 (1994)
Bito-onon v. Fernandez 350 SCRA 732
National Liga v. Paredes 439 130 [2004]
SJS v. Atienza 545 SCRA 92 [2009]
Province of Negros v. COA, GR No. 182574, September 28, 2010

Section 5. Taxation Power of Local Government


LTO v. City of Butuan, 322 SCRA 805
Lina v. Pano, 364 SCRA 76 (2001)
Petron v. Mayor, GR No. 158881, April 16, 2008
Yamane v. BA Lepanto Condominium, GR No. 154993, October 25, 2005
Philippine Petroleum v. Municipality of Pililla, GR No. 90773, June 3, 1991
Acebedo Optical v. CA, GR 100152, March 21, 2000
PLDT v. City of Davao, GR 143867, March 25, 2003
John Hay Peoples Alternative Coalition v. Lim, GR No. 119775, October 24, 2003
Manila Electric v. Province of Laguna, GR No. 131359, May 5, 1999
Batangas Power v. Batangas City, GR No. 152675, April 28, 2004
Smart Communications v. City of Davao, GR No. 155491, September 16, 2008

Section 6. Share in National Taxes


Pimentel v. Aguirre, 336 SCRA 201 (2000)
Province of Batangas v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 152774, May 27, 2004
Alternative Center v. Zamora, GR No. 144256, June 8, 2005
League of Cities v. COMELEC August 24, 2010

Section 7. Equitable Share in the National Wealth

Section 8. Term of Local Officials


Borja v. COMELEC, 295 SCRA 157
Lozanida v. COMELEC, GR No. 135150, July 28, 1999
Adormeo v. COMELEC, GR No. 147927, February 4, 2002
Socrates v. COMELEC, 391 SCRA 457 (2002)
Latasa v. COMELEC, GR No. 154829, Dec. 10, 2003
David v. COMELEC, 271 SCRA 90 (1997)
Rivera v. COMELEC 523 SCRA 41
Montebon v. COMELEC, 551 SCRA 50
Ong v. Alegre, GR No. 163295, January 23, 2006
Laceda v. Lumena GR 182867, November 25, 2008
Dizon v. COMELEC, GR No. 182088, January 30, 2009
Alboin v. COMELEC, GR No. 184836, December 23, 2009
Bolos v. COMELEC 581 SCRA 786 [2009]
Aldovino v. COMELEC 609 SCRA 234 [2009]
Datu Michel Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR 196271, February 2012
(reconsideration; holdover provision in RA 9054 Unconstitutional as Congress in passing
RA 10153 has made clear)
41
Section 9. Sectoral Representatives
Supangan Jr. v. Santos, GR No. 84662, August 24, 1990

Section 10. Creation, Abolition, Change of Boundaries


Tan v. COMELEC, 142 SCRA 727 (1986)
Tobias v. Abalos 239 SCRA 106 [1994] (metes and bounds)
Mun. of Jimenez v. Judge Baz 265 SCRA 182 [1996](de jure corporation)
Cawaling v. COMELEC GR146319, October 26, 2001
League of Cities of the Philippines v. COMELEC, GR 176951, Nov. 29, 2008
Sema v. COMELEC, 558 SCRA 700
Camid v. Office of the President, GR No. 161414, January 17, 2005
Navarro v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 180050, February 10, 2010

Section 11. Metropolitan Political Subdivisions


MMDA v. Bel-Air Village Association Assoc., GR No. 135962, March 27, 2000
MMDA v. Garin, GR No. 130230, April 15, 2005
Gancayco v. City Government of Quezon City, 658 SCRA 853

Section 12. Highly Urbanized Cities, Component Cities


Abella v. COMELEC, GR No. 100710, September 3, 1991

Section 13. Local Government Units Grouping Themselves

Section 14. Regional Development Councils and Other Similar Bodies


Pimentel v. Ochoa 676 SCRA 551 [2012]

Sec. 15 Purpose, and how many Autonomous Regions

Section 15. Autonomous Regions


Disomangcop v. Sec. of DPWH,GR 149848, Nov. 25, 2004
Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR No. 196271, October 18, 2011

Section 16. General Supervision of the President


Ampatuan v. Hon Ronaldo Puno, GR 190259. 17 June 2011 (Proclamation 1946 and AOs
and 273 A do not violate the principle of local autonomy under Section 16, Article X of
the Constitution, and Section 1 Article V of the Expanded ARMM Organic Act)
Kulayan v. Tan 675 SCRA 482 [2012]

Section 17. Powers Not Vested to the ARMM


Datu Michel Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, GR 196271, 18 October 2011. (The
framers decided to reinstate the provision in order to make it clear, once and for all, that
these are the limits of the powers to the autonomous government; those not enumerated
are actually to be exercised by the national government; the autonomy granted to the
ARMM cannot be invoked to defeat national policies and concerns Since the
synchronization of elections not just a regional concerns but a national one, the ARMM is
subject to it; the regional autonomy granted to the ARMM cannot be used to exempt the

42
region from having act in accordance with national policy mandated by no less than the
Constitution)

Sections 18 and19. Organic Act for Autonomous Regions


Abbas v. COMELEC, 179 SCRA 287 (1989)
Ordillos v. COMELEC, 192 SCRA 100 (1990)
Badua v. CBA, 194 SCRA 101 (1991)
Atitiw v. Zamora, 471 SCRA 329
Cordillera Broad Coalition v. COA, GR No. 82217, Jan. 29, 1990
Pandi v. CA, GR No. 116850, April 11, 2002
Sema v. COMELEC, GR No. 177597, July 16, 2008
Province of North Cotabato v. GRP Panel
Datu Michael Abas Kida v. Senate of the Philippines, February 2012 (means that only
amendments to, or revisions of, the organic Act Constitutionally-essential to creation of
autonomous regions i.e. , those aspects specially mentioned in the Constitution which
Congress must provide for the Organic Act require ratification through a plebiscite)

Section 20. Legislative Powers of the Autonomous Regions


Province of North Cotabato v. Government of the Philippines Peace Panel, 568 SCRA
492

Section 21. Preservation of Peace and Order

Article XI. Accountability of Public Officers

Section 1. Public Office


Hipolito v. Mergas 195 SCRA 6 [1991]
Bornasal, Jr. v. Montes 280 SCRA 181 [1997]
Almario v. Resus AM NO. P941076, [November 22, 1999]
Juan v. People, GR 132378, January 18, 2000
Re; AWOL of Antonio Makalintal, AM 99-11-06-SC, February 15, 2000
Estrella v. Sandiganbayan, GR 125160, June 20, 2000
Malbas v. Blanco, A.M P99-1350, December 12, 2001
Manaois v. Lemeo, AM MTJ-03-1492, Aug. 26, 2003
Re; Gideon Alibang, AM 2003-11-SC June 15, 2004
ABAKADA v. Purisima 562 SCRA 251[2008]
Salumbides v. OMB, GR 180917, April 23, 2010

Section 2. Officers Subject to Removal by Impeachment


Ombudsman v. CA 452 SCRA 714 [2005] (exclusive list)

Section 3. Procedure for Impeachment


In re Gonzales, 160 SCRA 771 (1988)
Marcoleta v. Brawner 582 SCRA 474 [2009])
Romulo v. Yniguez, 141 SCRA 260 (1986)
Francisco v. House of Representatives, 415 SCRA 44
Estrada v. Desierto, 353 SCRA 452 (2001); MR, 356 SCRA 108 (2001)
Gutierrez v. Committee on Justice, 643 SCRA 198

43
Section 4. Sandiganbayan
Nunez v. Sandiganbayan 111 SCRA 433 [1982] (creation of Sandiganbayan)
Lecaros v. Sandiganbayan 128 SCRA 324 [1984] (crimes in relation to public office)
Cunanan v. Arceo 242 SCRA 88 [1995] (averment of the nature of the crime committed)
Balmadrid v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 58327, March 22, 1991
Azarcon v. Sandiganbanyan, GR No. 116033, February 26, 1997
Binay v. Sandiganbayan GR NO. 120681-83 [October 1, 1999]
Mayor Layus v. Sandiganbayan GR 134272, December 8, 1999
Abbot v. Mapayo, GR 134102, July 6, 2000
Defensor-Santiago, 356 SCRA 636 (2001)

Section 5. Ombudsman
Baluyot v. Holganza, GR 136374, February 2000
Garcia v. Ombudsman, GR 127710, February 16, 2000
Lapid v. CA, GR 142261, June 29, 2000
Tirol v. COA, GR 133954, August 3, 2000
Mamburao v. Desierto, 429 SCRA 76
Carandang v. Desierto, 639 SCRA 293
Lacson v. ES, 649 SCRA 142
People v. Morales, 649 SCRA 182
Quarto v. Marcelo, 658 SCRA 580

Section 6. Appointments
Ombudsman v. CSC, GR No. 162215, July 20, 2007

Section 7. Tanodbayan as Special Prosecutor


Quimpo v. Tanodbayan 146 SCRA 137 [1986]
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 160 SCRA 843 (1988)
Acop v. Ombudsman, GR No. 120422, September 27, 1995
Deloso v. Domingo, 191 SCRA 545
Almonte v. Vasquez, GR No. 95367, May 22, 1995
Azarcon v. Guerrero, GR No. 121017, Feb 17, 1997
Azarcon v. Guerrero , GR No. 116033, Feb 26, 1997
Camanag v. Hon Guerrero 286 SCRA 473 [1997]
Buenasada v. Flavier, 226 SCRA 645
Macalino v. Sandiganbayan, 376 SCRA 452
BIR v. Ombudsman, GR No. 115103, April 11, 2002
Laurel v. Desierto, GR No. 145368, April 12, 2002
Office of the Ombudsman v. Valera 471 SCRA 715 [2005]
Perez v. Sandiganbayan 503 SCRA 252
Calingin v. Desierto 529 SCRA 720 [2007]
Lazatin v. Desierto 588 SCRA 285 [2009]

Section 8. Qualifications

Section 9. Appointments

44
Section 10. Rank

Section 11. Term

Section 12. Prompt Action on Complaints


Laurel v. Desierto, GR No. 145368, April 12, 2002
Almonte v. Vasquez, 244 SCRA 286 (1995)
Uy v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 105965, March 20, 2001
Raro v. Sandiganbayan, GR 108431, July 14, 2000
Bautista v. Sandiganbayan, GR 136082, May 12, 2000
Roxas v. Vasquez, GR NO. 114944, June 19, 2001
Kara-an v. Ombudsman, GR 119990, June 21, 2004
People v. Sandiganbayan 451 SCRA 413 [2005]
Laxina v. Ombudsman 471 SCRA 542 [2005]
Gemma P. Cabalit v. Commission On Audit-Region VII, Gr 180236, 17 January 2012
(power of the Ombudsman to determine and impose administrative liability is
mandatory)
Gonzales III v. OP 679 SCRA 614 [2012]

Section 13. Powers; Functions; Duties

In General
Cruz v. Sandiganbayan 194 SCRA 474 [1991]
Maceda v. Vasquez 221 SCRA 464 [1993]
Macalino v. Sandiganbayan 376 SCRA 452
Garcia v. Miro, GR No. 148944, Feb 5, 2003
Honasan II v. Panel of Investigating Prosecutors GR No. 159747, April 13, 2004
Samson v. OMB, GR 117741, Sept 29, 2004
Corpuz v. Sandiganbayan, GR 162214, Nov. 11, 2004
Khan, Jr. v. Ombudsman, GR No. 125296, July 20, 2006
Ombudsman v. Estandarte, GR No. 168670, April 13, 2007
Ombudsman v. Lucero, November 24, 2006
Ombudsman v. CA, GR No. 169079, July 17, 2007
Sangguniang Barangay v. Punong Barangay, GR No. 170626, March 3, 2008
Perez v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 166062, September 26, 2006
Buencamino v. CA, GR No. 175895, April 4, 2007
Medina v. COA, GR No. 176478, February 4, 2008
Villas Nor v. Sandiganbayan, GR No. 180700, March 4, 2008
Ombudsman v. Rodriguez, GR No. 172700, July 23, 2010
OMB v. Estendarte 521 SCRA 155 [2007]
Salvador v. Mapa 539 SCRA 34 [2000]
OMB v. Masing 542 SCRA 253 [2008]
Medina v. COA 543 SCRA 684[2008]
Borja v. People 553 SCRA 250 [2008]

Preventive Suspension and Imposition of Penalties

45
Buennaseda v. Favier 226 SCRA 645 [1993](when to suspension)
Hagad v. Gozo-Dadole 251 SCRA 243 [1995] (nature)
Vasquez v. Hobilla-Alinio 271 SCRA 67 [1997] (not in relation to duties)
OMB v. CA 491 SCRA 92
OMB v. Madriaga 503 SCRA 631
OMB v. CA 507 SCRA 593
Estorja v. Ranada 492 SCRA 652
OMB v. Lucero 508 SCRA 593
Balbastro v. Junio 527 SCRA 680 [2007]
OMB v. CA 527 SCRA 798 [2007]
COA v. CA 529 SCRA 245 [2007
OMB v. Santiago 533 SCRA 305 [2007]
Govenciong v. CA 550 SCRA 502 [2008]
Marahomsalic v. Cole 547 SCRA 98
OMB v. Lisondra 548 SCRA 83
Miro v. Abugan 549 SCRA 34
Cesa v. OMB 553 SCRA 357
OMB v. De Sahagun 562 SCRA 122
OMB v. samaniego 564 SCRA 502
Boncalon v. OMB GR 171812, December 24, 2008
OMB v. Beltran 588 SCRA 574 [2009]
OMB v. Apolonio, GR 165132, 07 March 2012 (power to directly impose
administrative penalties, including removal from office)

Jurisdiction over Criminal Cases


Natividad v. Felix 229 SCRA 680 [1994] (amount)
Lastimosa v. Vasquez 243 SCRA 497 [1995] (prosecutors assistance)
Presidential v. desierto 528 SCRA 20 [2007]

Fact-finding distinguished from Preliminary Investigation


Raro v. Sandiganbayan, GR 108431, July 14, 2000
Serapio v. Sandiganbayan, GR 148468, Jan 28, 2003

Section 14. Fiscal Autonomy

Section 15. Right to Recover Properties Unlawfully Acquired


Heirs of Gregorio Licaros v. SB, GR 157438, October 18, 2004
Presidential Ad Hoc Fact-finding Committee on Behest Loans v. OMB Desierto,
GR 135715, 13 April 2011. (reiterating Presidential Ad Hoc Fact-Finding
Committee on Behest Loans v. Desierto, GR 130140; provision applies only to civil
actions for recovery of ill-gotten wealth, and not to criminal cases)

Section 16. Loan, Guaranty or Other Form of Financial Accommodation

Section 17. Declaration of Assets and Liabilities

Section 18. Allegiance of Public Officers


Caasi v. CA, 191 SCRA 229 (1990)
46
Sampayan v. Daza 213 SCRA 807 [1992]

Week 15

Article XII. National Economy and Patrimony

Section 1. Threefold Goal of the National Economy

Section 2. Regalian Doctrine

Public Domain and Regalian Doctrine


Lee Hong Kok v. David, 48 SCRA 372
Carino v. Insurer Government, 41 PHIL 935
Laurel v. Garcia, 187 SCRA 797 (1990)
Almeda v. Court of Appeals, GR No. 85322, April 30, 1991
Director of Lands v. Kalahi Investments, Inc, GR No. 48066, January 31, 1989
Land Mgt. Bureau v. CA, GR 112567, February 7, 2000
Republic v. De Guzman, GR 105630, February 23, 2000
Pua v. CA, GR 134992, November 20, 2000
Cruz v. Sec. of DENR, GR 135385, December 6, 2000
Chavez v. PEA, GR 133250, July 9, 2002
La Bugal-Blaan v. Ramos, GR 127872, Dec. 1, 2004
Dipido v. Gozun 485 SCRA 586
Chavez v. NHA 530 SCRA 235 [2007]
Republic v. Enciso, GR No. 160145, November 11, 2005
Philippine Geothermal v. Napocor, GR No. 144302, May 27, 2004
JG Summit v. CA, GR No. 124293, January 31, 2005

Alienation
Sta. Rosa Mining v. Liedo 156 SCRA 1 [1987] (mining claims)
San Miguel Corporation v. CA 185 SCRA 722 [1990] (possession in the concept of an
owner)
Republic v. Bantigue Point development Corporation, GR 162322, 14 March 2012
(burden on applicant to prove land sought to be registered is alienable or disposable on a
positive act the government)

Utilization
Miners v. Factoran 240 SCRA 100[1995] (jura regalia)
Tano v. Socrates 278 SCRA 154 [1997] (Subsistence fisherman)
Villaflor v. CA - 280 SCRA 297 [1997] (private ownership)
Republic v. CA and PREC GR 103882, [November 25, 1998] 299 SCRA 199
Republic v. Rosemoor Mining and Devt Corp. , GR 149927, Mar 30, 2004
Alvarez v. PICOP 606 SCRA 444 [2009]
IID v. PSALM 682 SCRA 602 [2012]

Section 3. Lands of the Public Domain


Director of Lands v. Aquino, 192 SCRA 296 (1990)
Republic v. CA, 160 SCRA 228 (1988)
47
Apex Mining v. Southeast Mindanao Gold, Inc, GR No. 152613, June 23, 2006
Dir. of Lands v. IAC, 146 SCRA 509 (1986)
Ten Forty Realty v. Lorenzana, GR No. 151212, Sept. 10, 2003
Chavez v. PEA, GR No. 133250, July 9, 2002
Republic v. Southside, 502 SCRA 587
Republic v. T.A.N., 555 SCRA 477

Section 4. Specific Limits of Forest Lands and National Parks


La Bugal-Blaan Tribal Assn. v. DENR, GR127872, Jan 27, 2004, MR GR 127882, Dec. 1, 2004

Section 5. Ancestral Lands and Domain


Cruz v. Sec. of DENR, 347 SCRA 128 (2000)

Section 6. Common Good


Telecom v. COMELEC, 289 SCRA 337 (1998)

Section 7. Private Lands


Republic v. CA, 235 SCRA 567
Zaragosa v. CA, GR No. 106401, September 29, 2000
Ramirez v. Vda. De Ramirez, 111 SCRA 704 (1982)
Halili v. CA, 287 SCRA 465 (1998)
Lee v. Republic, 366 SCRA (2001)
Frenzel v. Catito, GR No. 143958, July 11, 2003
Lentfer v. Wolff 441 SCRA 584 [2004]
Muller v. Muller 500 SCRA 65
Mulller v. Muller, GR No. 149615, August 29, 2006
Matthews v. Taylor Spouses, GR No. 164584, June 22, 2009
Hulst v. PR Builders, GR No. 156364, September 25, 2008
Ting Ho v. Teng 558 SCRA 421 [2008]
Hulst v. PR Builders 566 SCRA 333[2008]
Osmena v. Osmena 611 SCRA 164 [2010]
Beurmer v. Amores 686 SCRA 770 [2012]

Section 8. Exception for Former Filipino Citizens


Republic v. CA, 235 SCRA 567 (1994)

Section 9. Independent Economic and Planning Agency

Section 10. Filipinization


Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, 267 SCRA 408 (1997)
Army and Navy Club v. CA, 271 SCRA 36 (1997)
Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 (1997)
Republic v. CA 299 SCRA 199
J.G. Summit Holdings v. CA, GR 124293, November 20, 2000

Section 11. Public Utilities


Bagatsing v. Committee, 246 SCRA 344 (1995)
Albano v. Reyes, 175 SCRA 36 (1997)
Tatad v. Garcia, 243 SCRA 436 (1995)
Telecom v. COMELEC, 289 SCRA 337 (1998)
48
JG Summit Holdings v. CA, 345 SCRA 143 (2000)
Republic v. Express Telecom 373 SCRA 316
Del Mar v. Pagcor [2001]
PTC v. NTC, GR 138295, Aug. 28, 2003
Associated Communications v. NTC, GR No. 144109, February 17, 2003
Eastern Telecom v. Telecom Technologies, GR No. 135992, July 23, 2004
Royal Cargo Corp. v. CAB 421 SCRA 21
Metropolitan v. Adala 526 SCRA 465 [2007]
PAGCOR v. BIR, 645 SCRA 338
Francisco v. TRB 633 SCRA 470 [2010]
Wilson P. Gamboa v. Finance Secretary Malgarito B Tebes, GR 176579, 28 June 2011.
**Definition of capital refers only to share of stock entitled to vote in the election of directors, and
thus in the present case only to common share, and not the total outstanding capital stock
comprising
Express Investment v. Bayantel 687 SCRA 50 [2012]

Section 12. Filipino First Policy


Tanada v. Angara, 272 SCRA 18 (1997)

Section 13. Trade Policy


Espina v. Zamora, 631 SCRA 17

Section 14. Development and Practice of Professions

Section 15. Agency to Promote Cooperatives

Section 16. Corporations


NDC v. PVB, 192 SCRA 257 (1990)
Boy Scouts of the Philippines v. COA, GR 177131, 07 June 2011.
**Section 16, Article XII should not be construed so as to prohibit Congress from creating public
corporation. In fact, Congress has enacted numerous laws creating public corporations or
government agencies or instrumentalities vested with corporate powers. Moreover, Section 16,
Article XII, which relates to National Economy and Patrimony, could not have tied the hands of
Congress in creating public corporation to serve any of the constitutional policies or objective.

Section 17. Temporary Take-Over


Agan v. PIATCO, 420 SCRA 575
David v. Macapagal-Arroyo, GR No. 171396, May 2006

Section 18. Nationalization


Republic v. PLDT, 26 SCRA 620 (1968)
PLDT v. NTC, 190 SCRA 717 (1990)
PLDT v. Eastern Telecom, 213 SCRA 16 (1992)

Section 19. Monopolies and Combinations


Energy Regulatory Board v. CA, GR No. 113079, April 20, 2001
Garcia v. Executive Secretary, GR No. 132451, December 17, 1999
Tatad v. Secretary of Energy, 281 SCRA 330
Eastern Assurance v. LTFRB, GR No. 149717, Oct. 7, 2003
Avon v. Luna, GR No. 153674, December 20, 2006
49
Section 21. Foreign Loans

Section 22. Acts Inimical to the National Interest

Artcile XVI. General Provisions

Section 1. Flag of the Philippines

Section 2. Name, National Anthem or a National Seal

Section 3. Immunity From Suit


Liang v. People GR 125865, January 28, 2000
Calub v. CA, GR 115634, April 27, 2000
Lansang v. CA, GR 102667 February 23, 2000
Mancenido v. CA, GR 118605, April 12, 2000
Shell v. Jalos 630 SCRA 399(2010)
China National Machinery & Equipment Corp. (Group) v. Hon. Cesar D. Santamaria,
Gr 185572, 07 February 2012, 665 SCRA 189 (2012) (Revisits and reiterates several
Cases : GTZ v. CA, Holy See v. Rosario, DFA v. NLRC)

Foundation of the Rule: A suit against the State


Santos v. Santos - 92 PHIL. 281 (1952 1953)
Republic v. Feliciano 148 SCRA 424 ) 1887
Republic of Indonesia v. Vinzons (2005)

Unincorporated Agencies
Mentran v. Paredes 79 PHIL. 819 (1947 1948 )
NAC v. Teodoro 91 PHIL. 203 (1952)
Mobil Philippines v. Customs Arrestre 18 SCRA 1120 (1966)
Del Mar v. PVA 51 SCRA 340 (1973)
CAA v. CA 167 SCRA 28 (1988)
Farolan v. CTA 217 SCRA 340 (1993)
PNR v. IAC 217 SCRA 401 (1993)
Republic v. Nolasco 457 SCRA 460 (2005)
Republic v. Unimex 518 SCRA 20 (2007)
Professional Video v. TESDA 591 SCRA 83 (2009)

Government Officers
Ministero v. CFI 40 SCRA 464 (1971
Syquia v. Almeda-Lopez 84SCRA 312 [1978]
Festejo v. Fernando 94 SCRA 54 [1979]
Aberca v. Ver 160 SCRA 590 [1988]
Shauf v. CA 191 SCRA 713 [1990]
Vidad v. RTC 271 [1993]
Regional Director v. CA 229 SCRA 557 [1994]
Africa v. PCGG/Villanueva v. Sandiganbayan [January 1992]
DOH v. Phil. Pharmawealth 518 SCRA 240 [2007]

Foreign Government
50
Baer v. Tizon 57 SCRA 1 [1974]
US v. Ruiz 136 SCRA 487 [1985]
Sanders v. Veridiano 162 SCRA 88 [1988]
U.S v. Reyes 219 SCRA 192 [1993]
The Holy See v. Rosario 238 SCRA 524 [1994]
JUSMAG v. NLRC 239 SCRA 224 [1994]
Larkins v. NLRC 241 SCRA 598 [1995]
Minucher v. CA GR 142396, Feb, 11, 2003

Consent by Law
Carabao v. Agricultural product Com. 35 SCRA 224 [1970]
Arcega v. CA 66 SCRA 230 [1975]
Rayo v. CFI 110 SCRA 456 [1981]
Municipality of San Fernando v. Firme 195 SCRA 692 [1991]
Republic v. NLRC 263 SCRA 290 [1996]

Exceptional Circumstance to avoid injustice


DOH v. Canchela 475 SCRA 218 [2005]

Agency Propriety
United States v. Guinto 182 SCRA 644 [ 1990]
Fontanilla v. Maliaman 194 SCRA 486 [1991]
PRC v. CA 256 SCRA 667 [1996]

Waiver
Republic v. Purisima 78 SCRA 470 [1977]
Santiago v. Republic 87 SCRA 294 [1978]
Traders Royal Bank v. IAC 192 SCRA 305 [1990]
Republic v. Sandoval 220 SCRA 124 [1993]
Delos Santos v. IAC 223 SCRA 11 [1993]
DA v. NLRC 227 SCRA 693 [1993]
EPG v. Sec. of DPWH 354 SCRA 566 [2001]

Resulting Liability
Philrock v. Board of Liquidators 180 SCRA 171 [1989]
Liang v. People GR 125865 [January 28, 2000] ADB immunity)
Republic v. Hidalgo 477 SCRA 12 [2005] (writ execution)
Philippine Agila v. Lichauco 489 SCRA 22 [2006]
Curato v. PPA 590 SCRA 215 [2009]
U.P. v. Dizon 679 SCRA 54 [2012]

Section 4. AFP

Section 5. AFP Requirement and Goals

Section 6. Police Force


Quilonia v. The General Court Martial GR No. 9660, March 4, 1992
Carpio v. Executive Secretary 206 SCRA 290 (1992)
Department of Budget v. Manilas Finest, GR No. 169466, May 9, 2007
Mendoza v. PNP, GR No. 139658, June 21, 2005
51
Section 7. War Veterans

Section 8. Pensions and Benefits for Retirees

Section 9. Protection of Consumers from Trade Malpractices

Section 10. Development of Filipino Capability and Communication Structures

Section 11. Ownership and Management: Mass Media and Advertising

Section 12. Consultative Body for Indigenous Cultural Communities

Article XVII. Amendments or Revisions

Section 1. Amendment or Revision


Imbong v. COMELEC, 35 SCRA 28 (1970)
Lambino v. COMELEC, 505 SCRA 160

Section 2. Initiative
Defensor-Santiago v. COMELEC, 270 SCRA 106 (1997); MR (1997)
Lambino v. COMELEC, 505 SCRA 160 (2006)

Section 3. Constitutional Convention

Section 4. Ratification
Gonzales v. COMELEC, 21 SCRA 774 (1967)
Tolentino v. COMELEC, 41 SCRA 702 (1971)

Article XVIII Transitory Provisions

Sec. 1 First Election Under the New Constitution


Sec. 2 Term of First House Members and Local Officials
Sec. 3 Status of Laws and other Legislation Passes Prior to the Constitution
Sec. 4 Status of Treaties and International Agreements
Sec. 5 Presidential Term and Synchronization
Sec. 6 President Legislative
Sec. 7 Sectorial Representation
Sec. 8 Metropolitan Authority
MMDA v. Bel-Air Village Association, GR 135962, March 27, 2000

Sec. 9 Sub-Provinces
Sec. 10-11 Security of Tenure Judges
Sec. 12-14 Cases Filed Prior to Effectivity of New Constitution
Sec. 15 Term of Carry-over Commission
Sec. 16 Career Civil Service Officers
Dario v. Mison 176 SCRA 84 [1989] (reorganization)
Mendoza v. Quisumbing 186 SCRA 108 [1990]
Ontiveros v. CA. G.R. No. 145401 May 7, 2001

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Sec. 17-18 Readjustment of salary
Sec. 19-21 Reversion of lands and real rights illegally acquired
Sec. 22 Idle/Abandoned lands
Sec. 23 Advertising Entities
Sec. 24 Private Armies

Sec. 25 Foreign Military Bases, Troops or Facilities


Bayan v. Zamora, GR 138570, October 10, 2000

Sec. 26 Sequestration Orders


Joya v. PCGG 225 SCRA 568 [1993]
Republic v. Sandiganbayan 221 SCRA 189 [1993] (powers of PCGG)
Cojuangco v. Roxas 195 SCRA 797 [1991] (vote of sequestered shares )
Araneta v. Sandiganbayan 242 SCRA 482 [1995] (investigate/prosecutory powers)
Rumualdez v. Sandiganbayan 244 SCRA 152 [1995] (authority over ill-gotten wealth) Republic
v. Sandiganbayan 240 SCRA 376 [1995] judicial action)

Section 27. Effectivity


De Leon v. Esguerra, 152 SCRA 602 (1987)
Section 26. Ill-Gotten Wealth; Sequestration/Freeze Orders
Cojuangco v. Roxas, 195 SCRA 797 (1991)

Section 27. Effectivity


De Leon v. Esquerra, 152 SCRA 602 (1987)

Classroom Policies

Students are expected to have read the assigned materials for the class sessions and will
be called for recitation.

Attendance is checked. University rules governing absences are observed.

Cell phones and other electronic devices must be kept in silent mode. Students must
refrain from using these devices during classroom sessions.

Plagiarism and cheating are grave offenses of intellectual dishonesty and are punishable
by university rules.

Consultation and discussion is available upon request of the student. Email me:
ebaddiri@gmail.com

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