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Jordan University of Science and

Technology
Civil Engineering Department
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic
Laboratory

Name: Shaima' Al-Bakheit

Number: 20040023025

Experiment name: " Impact of a jet "

Submission date: 4th march 2007

Experiment objectives
Find a force of an impact jet of water strikes three kinds of plates:
1. Flat plate.
2. 120 plate.
3. Hemisphere.
(See fig.1)
Theory
Taking the summation of linear momentum in the z-direction: (study
state): see fig.2
Between point 1, 2:
-Fwt + Wwater + Wplate = v.vdA

= w + v1 (-v1A1) + (v2) cos (v2A2), but v1A1 = v2 A2


-Fg = -m v1 - m v2 cos
= m (v1 + v2 cos )
By Bernoulli's equation: v1 = v2
Fg = m v1 (1+ cos )
Mg = m v1 (1+ cos ), where: m = Q
V1 = A nozzle

Using different yield the following:


Fg = 2 m v1 ( = 0 for hemisphere)
= 1.5 m v1 ( = 120)
= m v1 (flat = 180)

Procedure
1. The apparatus is first leveled (adjusting the water bubble), and
adjust the level of pointer to suit the datum on the weight pan.
2. A nominal mass is placed on the weight pan, then allowed the
water to flow (increase the flow rate step by step) by operating the
control valve on the bench, and switch on the pump.
3. Adjust the flow rate until the weight pan is adjacent to the level
gauge.
4. Take the reading as volume and time to find the flow.
5. Write the "how much the mass on the weight pan".
6. Repeat with additional masses on the weight pan.

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7. Repeat the above procedure by using 120 target and
hemispherical target.
(Note: when testing for level, the weight pan should be oscillated to
minimize the effect of friction.)
8. Close the control valve and switch off the pump.

Data
Nozzle diameter, d = 8mm.
Nozzle area, A = 5.027*10-5
Density of water, = 1000kg/m3

Table 1:
water
vol.
reading collected Time weight
no. m3 Sec. "g" plate
1 0.005 44.34 30
2 0.005 33.00 40
3 0.005 28.33 50
4 0.005 27.90 60
flat plate
5 0.005 26.71 70
6 0.005 24.72 80
7 0.005 23.31 100
8 0.005 20.93 120
1 0.005 55.03 40
2 0.005 40.13 60
3 0.005 35.98 80
4 0.005 30.72 100
120 plate
5 0.005 29.35 120
6 0.005 23.86 140
7 0.005 21.25 160
8 0.005 20.15 180
1 0.005 45.66 50
2 0.005 37.8 70
3 0.005 32.28 100
4 0.005 29.52 120 hemispherical
5 0.005 29.4 150 plate
6 0.005 24.07 180
7 0.005 22.54 200
8 0.005 22.27 220

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Calculation and results:
Table 2:
mass
flow velocity of force
force due
reading flow rate rate water due to
to plate
no. Q leaving the gravity
m = momentum
nozzle m.g
Q
1 0.000113 0.113 2.243 0.253 0.294
2 0.000152 0.152 3.014 0.457 0.392
3 0.000176 0.176 3.511 0.620 0.491
4 0.000179 0.179 3.565 0.639 0.589
flat plate
5 0.000187 0.187 3.724 0.697 0.687
6 0.000202 0.202 4.024 0.814 0.785
7 0.000215 0.215 4.267 0.915 0.981
8 0.000239 0.239 4.752 1.135 1.177
1 9.09E-05 0.091 1.807 0.246 0.392
2 0.000125 0.125 2.479 0.463 0.589
3 0.000139 0.139 2.764 0.576 0.785
4 0.000163 0.163 3.238 0.790 0.981
120 plate
5 0.00017 0.170 3.389 0.866 1.177
6 0.00021 0.210 4.169 1.310 1.373
7 0.000235 0.235 4.681 1.652 1.570
8 0.000248 0.248 4.936 1.837 1.766
1 0.00011 0.110 2.178 0.477 0.491
2 0.000132 0.132 2.631 0.696 0.687
3 0.000155 0.155 3.081 0.955 0.981
4 0.000169 0.169 3.369 1.141 1.177 hemispherical
5 0.00017 0.170 3.383 1.151 1.472 plate
6 0.000208 0.208 4.132 1.717 1.766
7 0.000222 0.222 4.413 1.958 1.962
8 0.000225 0.225 4.466 2.005 2.158

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Figures and graphs

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Discussion
This experiment in civil engineering application is important in turbines
which work in the impact principle in which the jet is directed to the vanes
of the turbine wheel so it rotate due to the force generated on the vanes
caused by the momentum change that occur when the jet strikes the vanes,
so civil engineers should be familiar with kind of experiments.
The results show that the force is affected by the plate shape as follows:
Fhemisphere < Fflat plate < F120

When carrying out this experiment carefully (minimizing the errors) and
changing the flow rate slowly, this yield the line representing the relation
between gravity force and momentum force will pass through the origin
but in this experiment it doesn't due to the errors and eliminating the
weight of water and the weight of the plate at smaller vales will yield into
this error.

The gravity force is found independently of the plate shape as it is equal


to m*g only.

The momentum is the product of velocity and mass therefore we consider


it as an extensive property of the fluid.

The graphs show the relation between the gravity force and the
momentum force is proportional relation.

The errors in this experiment may occur due to inexact leveling of the
apparatus.
Other errors may occur due to inaccuracy when taking the time reading,
imprecise noting of the apparatus grading of the water volume collected,
approximation in calculation is another source of errors.