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Class Notes, October 19

Phrases, Clauses, and Coordinating Conjunctions

You dont need to copy this part in blue italics in your notes. Its just background/review information. Begin copying your notes at
the definition of phrase in regular black type.

We are currently learning the names for the ways individual WORDS can work in a sentence--these are our nine PARTS OF SPEECH.
So far, we have studied FIVE: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and articles.

We have also learned the names for the two PARTS OF A SENTENCE: the subject and the predicate. We have learned that there are
two types of each: simple and complete.

Today, we are going to start looking at the names for GROUPS OF WORDS THAT WORK TOGETHER. There are two types of groups of
words that work together.

PHRASE: a group of words that works together that DOES NOT HAVE BOTH a SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

CLAUSE: a group of words that works together that HAS BOTH A SUBJECT AND A PREDICATE

Examples of phrases:

in the classroom Mrs. Rosenbaum's pet goldfish ice-cold soda flying lessons
the graded papers a good guess really hungry swims to safety

Examples of clauses:

Micka eats. When I find my dog My mother said You cheated!


Micka eats taco soup. The mail is late but I already know that. If my grades are decent
today.

CONJUNCTIONS join words, phrases, and clauses together.

We will start by learning the COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS remember these with the acronym FANBOYS

For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
So
We already know that we can join two or more words together using the coordinating conjunctions AND, BUT, and OR.

black and white silent but deadly truth or dare

We can also use coordinating conjunctions to join two PHRASES together.

a good friend but a terrible over the river and through the woods in the city or in
boyfriend the woods

One way to make sentences more interesting is to join two smaller sentences together into a longer sentence, and one
way to do that is by using COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

Here are the definitions of coordinating conjunctions because some of them can be multiple parts of speech.

For = because

And

Nor = Yoda coordinating conjunction

But

Or

Yet = however

So = therefore

Ex. I ordered a pizza, for I was hungry. NOT For example or I bought chocolates for Robin.

Ex. We were tired, yet we still continued. NOT Are we there yet? or Is it dinnertime yet?

Ex. Joe was bored, so he read a book. NOT I was so hungry or So anyways, I showed up late.

The pattern for punctuation is CLAUSE COMMA COORDINATING CONJUNCTION CLAUSE. Remember CCCCC!

ex. Jamie is late. He is on his way.

We can join these two sentences (or CLAUSES) together using some of the COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.

Jamie is late, and he is on his way.

Jamie is late, but he is on his way.

Jamie is late, so he is on his way.

Jamie is late, for he is on his way. ("For" as a coordinating conjunction means "because.")

Jamie is late, yet he is on his way ("Yet" as a coordinating conjunction means "however.")

**Notice that NOR and OR don't really work with these two sentences. We will look at those later.
Ex. Martin plays piano. Daniel plays drums. (but)

|--CS--| |-----CP-----| |--CS---| |---CP------|


S P S P
Martin plays piano, but Daniel plays drums.
N V N CC N V N

ex. Jordan watches basketball. Josh prefers soccer. (and)

|--CS---| |---------CP------------| |--CS--| |------CP------|


S P S P
Jordan watches basketball, and Josh prefers soccer.
N V N CC N V N

NOTICE that each CLAUSE has its own SUBJECT and PREDICATE.

NOTICE that the coordinating conjunction is a bridge word. It is not a part of either a complete subject or a complete
predicate. Its function is to JOIN two clauses, so it is not a part of either of them.