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Comparative Anatomy

of the Domestic Cat and Selected


Organs of the Sheep, Cow, & Pig
With Reference to the Human
Karen McMahon
Biological Science
The University of Tulsa
HAPS Institute - Using Cadavers to
Teach A&P November 30, 2008
Integumentary
System
Cat Skin Stratum Corneum

Epidermis

Hair
Root
Dermis
Human Skin, Heavily
Pigmented
Stratum
Corneum

Epidermis

Stratum
Dermis
Basale
Skeletal System
The premaxilla is a separate
bone in the cat skull.

Nasal

Premaxilla

Maxilla
The premaxilla is not present in
the human skull.

Nasal

Maxilla
Cats have a carnivorous
dentition pattern.

Teeth in each
half of the
u. jaw/l. jaw:
Incisors 3/3
Canines 1/1
Premolars 3/2
Molars 1/1.
The total # of
teeth is 30.
Incisors Canine Premolar Molar
Humans have an omnivorous
dentition pattern.

Teeth in
each half of the
upper jaw/lower jaw:
Incisors 2/2 Premolar
Canines 1/1
Premolars 2/2
Molars 3/3.
The total # of teeth is 32. Canine
Incisors
Molar
There are 7 lumbar vertebrae in
the cat; 5 in the human.
The sacrum is composed of 3 fused
bones in the cat; 5 in the human.
The cat has 21-25 separate caudal vertebrae.
The coccyx in the human consists of 3 -5
fused caudal vertebrae.

Caudal
Vertebrae

Human Coccyx
There are 13 pairs of ribs in the cat -
pairs 1-9 true, 10-13 false, & pair 13 is
also floating.
The human has 12 pairs of ribs - pairs 1-7
true, 8-12 false, & pairs 11-12 are also
floating.

True (1-7)

False (8-12)

Floating
The cats sternum consists of a
manubrium, a body of 6 sternebrae, &
a xiphisternum with a xiphoid process.
The human sternum consists of a
manubrium, body, & xiphoid process.

Manubrium

Body

Xiphoid Process
There are 7 carpals in the cat; 8 in the
human. The scaphoid and lunate are fused
as the scapholunate in the cat.

Lunate

Scaphoid
The human clavicle articulates with the sternum &
scapula; the cats clavicle is reduced and does not
articulate with other bones.

Clavicle
Fetal Skeleton

Pig Human
Nervous System
Human Dura Mater of the Meninges

*Photographs courtesy of Kevin Patton, Ph.D.


Feline Dura Mater of the Meninges
Human Brain
Mid-sagittal View

*Photograph courtesy of Kevin Patton, Ph.D.

Human Sheep
The human brain has two mammillary
bodies; the sheep brain has one.

Mammillary
Body

*Photograph courtesy of Kevin Patton, Ph.D.

Human Sheep
Human Brain

Tumor

*Photographs courtesy of Kevin Patton, Ph.D.


Arbor vita in the cerebellum.

Human Sheep
The cat has 38 39 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical,
13, thoracic, 7 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 7/8 caudal.

Cauda Equina
The human has 31 pairs of spinal nerves - 8
cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and
1 caudal.

Cauda Equina
Model of the human eye with
the dark choroid layer.

Sclera

Optic Disc
Choroid Layer
Vitreous Body

Iris & Pupil


Lens
The cow eye has an iridescent
tapetum lucidum in the choroid.

Choroid Layer

Tapetum
Lucidum
Eyeshine
Sclera
Muscular
System
Pectoantebrachialis & xiphihumeralis
are chest muscles in the cat.
Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major Pectoantebrachialis

Clavodeltoid

Xiphumeralis

Posterior Anterior
These muscles are missing in
the human.

Pectoralis Major
Clavodeltoid, acromiodeltoid, &
spinodeltoid in the cat.
Clavodeltoid

Acromiodeltoid

Spinodeltoid
There is one deltoid in the
human.

Deltoid
Clavotrapezius, acromiotrapezius, &
spinotrapezius are back muscles in the
cat.
Clavotrapezius

Spinotrapezius

Acromiotrapezius
There is one trapezius muscle
in the human.

R & L Trapezius
The levator scapulae ventralis is found
in the cat but is missing in the human.
Acromiotrapezius
Levator
Scapulae
Ventralis

Lateral View
Caudofemoralis is found in the
cat but not in the human.
Gluteus Medius Caudofemoralis

Gluteus Maximus Biceps Femoris

Vastus Lateralis
There is no caudofemoralis
muscle in the human.
Vastus Lateralis Tensor Fascia Latae

Long
Head
Short Head

Biceps Femoris
Gluteus Maximus
Lateral View
Thigh muscles in the human.
Vastus
Sartorius Medialis

Rectus Femoris
Vastus
Lateralis
The epitrochlearis muscle is found in
the medial arm of the cat.

Epitrochlearis
There is no epitrochlearis in the
human arm.
Biceps
Deltoid Brachii Brachialis

Coracobrachialis
Long Medial
Head Triceps Head
Brachii
Abdominal muscles in the cat.
Transversus Abdominus

Internal Oblique

External Oblique
Abdominal muscles in the
human.
Transversus
Abdominus
Internal
Oblique

External
Oblique
Ventral Body
Cavity
The ventral body cavity in the
cat.

Thorax
Diaphragm

Abdominopelvic
The ventral body cavity in the
human.

Thorax
Diaphragm

Abdominopelvic
Digestive System
The greater omentum in the
human and cat.

Human Cat
The stomach in the human and
cat.

Stomach

Stomach

Human Cat
Pylorus
Stomach Feeding Tube
The stomach interior in the
human and cat.

Human Cat
Rugae

Roundworms found in
the cat stomach
The human liver has 4 lobes.
R. & L. Lobes

R. Lobe

Gallbladder

Quadrate &
Caudate lobes
are not pictured.
L. Lobe
The feline liver has 6 lobes.
Gallbladder L. Medial Lobe
L. Lateral Lobe
Quadrate Lobe

R. Medial Lobe

Gallbladder
L. Lateral Lobe
Caudate Lobe

R.
Lateral
Lobe
The small intestine in the cat is
approximately 120 cm long.
Mesentery of the small intestine
in the human and cat.

Small Intestine

Mesentery
The cat cecum has no
appendix.

Large Intestine

Cecum

Small Intestine
An appendix is found at the
human cecum.
Large Intestine

Small Intestine

Cecum

Appendix

Photograph courtesy of Mary Weis, D.V.M.


The large intestine of the cat consists of the cecum,
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon,
and rectum. There is no sigmoid colon.

Cecum Ascending Colon

Transverse Colon

Descending Colon

Rectum
The large intestine of the human consists of the cecum,
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon,
sigmoid colon, and rectum.

Transverse Colon
Descending Colon
Ascending Colon

Sigmoid Colon
Cecum
Small Intestine Rectum

Appendix

Photograph courtesy of Becky Brown.


Circulatory
System
The pig heart has 2 branches
off the aortic arch.
Left Subclavian
Artery
Aortic Arch
Brachiocephalic
Artery Pulmonary Trunk
There are 3 branches from the
aortic arch in the human heart.
L. Common Carotid
Brachiocephalic
L. Subclavian Artery
Artery
Aortic Arch
Pulmonary Trunk
Pacemaker Wires
There is no common iliac artery in the
cat.

Posterior Vena Cava

Abdominal Aorta

External Iliac Vein External Iliac Artery

Internal Iliac Artery


There is a common iliac artery in the
human.

Common Iliac Artery


External Iliac Vein

Internal Iliac Artery


External Iliac Artery
Respiratory System
Human epiglottis, larynx,
thyroid gland, and trachea.
Epiglottis

Trachea

Larynx
Primary
Thyroid Bronchus
Gland

*
*Photograph courtesy of Kevin Patton, Ph.D.
Cat epiglottis, larynx, thyroid gland,
and trachea.
Epiglottis
Larynx

Thyroid
Gland

Trachea
False Vocal Cords
Human lungs have 5 lobes.

Left
Right Lung -
Lung 2 Lobes,
3 Lobes Superior
Superior, & Inferior
Middle,
& Inferior
Cats lungs have 7 lobes.

Right Lobes Left Lobes


Anterior, Medial, Anterior, Medial,
Posterior, & Posterior
Accessory
Male
Reproductive
System
The male reproductive system of the cat
lacks paired seminal vesicles & the
penis is ensheathed.

Spermatic Cord

Testis in Tunica Albuginea

Penis
The male reproductive system in the human
has a pair of seminal vesicles.

Testis

Seminal
Vesicle
Female
Reproductive
System
The female cat has a urogenital sinus. Young
are borne in the uterine horns.

Body of
the
Uterus

Ovary

Vagina Uterine
Horn

Urogenital
Sinus
Feline Embryos
There are separate vaginal and urethral
openings in the human female. Young
develop in the body of the uterus.

Ovary

Fallopian Tube

Body of Uterus

Cervix
Human Embryo
12 Weeks Old
Human Fetus
Human Fetus
Urinary System
The adrenal gland in the cat is
medial to the kidney.

Adrenal Gland

Kidney

Renal Vein
The adrenal gland is anterior to
the kidney in the human.
Adrenal
Gland

Kidney
Kidney disease

Photograph courtesy of Anna E. Ross, Ph.D.

Polycystic kidney Kidney Adenocarcinoma


References
Augur, Anne M. and Arthur F. Dalley. 2009. Grants Atlas of Anatomy,
12th Edition. Wolter Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins,
Philadelphia.

Bohensky, Fred. 2002. PhotoManual & Dissection Guide. Cat with Sheep
Heart Brain Eye. Square One Education Guides.

Sebastiani, Aurora M. and Dale W. Fishbeck. 2005. Mammalian


Anatomy The Cat. Morton Publishing Company. Englewood, Colorado.

Walker, Warren F. and Dominique G. Homberger. 1993. A Study of the


Cat with Reference to Human Beings. Saunders College Publishing. Fort
Worth, Texas.

Wingerd, Bruce D. 2006. Cat Anatomy and Dissection Guide. Bluedoor.


Eden Prairie, Minnesota.
The Cat People from Dr. Who