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# Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Lecture - 08

Introduction to Bridge
Engineering
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali
Civil Engineering Department
UET Peshawar
drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 1

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Topics
Introduction

Bridge Components

Types of Bridges

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Example

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction
Bridge is a structure having an opening not less
than 6000 mm that forms part of a highway or over,
or under which the highway passes.

## Structures < 6000 mm generally called culverts.

Bridge Culvert

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 3

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction
Bridge is the key element in a Transportation
System:
It controls the capacity of the system.

## If the bridge fails, the system fails.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridge Components
A bridge consists of super structure and sub
structure.

Super structure: Structural parts of the bridge which provides the horizontal span.
Sub structure: Structural parts of the bridge which supports the horizontal span.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 5

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridge Components
Deck

Girder

## Pier Cap Diaphragms

Pier

Pile Cap

Piles
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Bridges can be classified according to:

Materials (concrete, steel or wood etc),

## Structural form (slabs, girder, truss, arch, suspension, or

cable-stayed).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 7

Types of Bridges

## It is however suitable to classify bridges according to

the location of the main structural elements relative to
the surface on which the user travels:
Main structure Below the deck line,

## Main structure Coinciding with the deck line.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Below Deck line

Arched, Truss-Arched Bridges, Masonry Arch, Concrete
Arch, the Steel-Truss Arch, and the Steel Deck Truss.

## Masonry Arch Masonry Arch Steel Deck Truss Bridge

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 9

Types of Bridges

## Steel Truss Arch

Concrete Arch

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Below Deck line

With arch shape, gravity loads are transmitted to the
supports primarily by axial compressive forces.

be resisted.

Arch

## Axial force Axial force

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 11

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Below Deck line

Salient features of Arch Type Bridge
The arch form is intended to reduce bending moments in the
superstructure.

The most suitable site for this form of structure is a valley, with
the arch foundation located on dry rock slopes.

The conventional curved arch rib may have high fabrication and
erection costs, although these may be controlled by skilled
labor.

## The classic arch form tends to favor concrete as a construction

material.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Below Deck line

Salient features of Arch Type Bridge
The arch rib is usually shaped to take dead load without
bending moments. This load is then called the form load.

## If the form load is large, the live load becomes essentially a

small disturbance applied to a compressed member.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 13

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges
Main Structure Above Deck line
Suspension, Cable Stayed, and Through-Truss bridges are
included in this category.

## Suspension: Deck is supported by two main cables through

secondary cables (hangers).
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Cable-stayed: Deck is supported by tower directly through cables.

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Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Above Deck line

Through Bridges

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Above Deck line

Salient features of Suspension Bridges
The flexible cables of a suspension bridge is shaped and
supported to transfer the major loads to the towers and
anchorages by direct tension.

## The deck is hung from the cable by hangers constructed of high

strength wire ropes in tension.

## This use of high strength steel in tension leads to an

economical structure.

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Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Above Deck line

Salient features of Suspension Bridges
The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses
or by a system of girders at deck level.

## This stiffening system serves to:

a) Control aerodynamic movements,

## b) Limit local angle changes in the deck.

Stiffening
trusses

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Above Deck line

Salient features of Cable Stayed bridges
As compared with suspension bridges, the cables are straight
rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is greater.

## Aerodynamics instability has not found to be a problem in such

structures.

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Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Above Deck line

Salient features of Through Bridges
A bridge truss has two main structural advantages:
1. The primary member forces are axial loads;

2. The open web system permits the use of a greater overall depth
(due to lesser dead load) than for an equivalent solid web girder.

## Economical for medium spans, aesthetically pleasing.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Coinciding with Deck line

Girder bridges of all types are included in this category.
Examples are:
Slab (solid and voided),

T-beam,

I-beam,

Wide-flange beam,

## Concrete box girder,

Steel box,
Concrete Box Girder Bridge
Steel plate girder.

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Types of Bridges

## Box Girder Bridge

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

## Main Structure Coinciding with Deck line

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 23

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Loads to be considered in bridge design can be divided into

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Self weight of girders and deck, wearing surface, curbs and
parapets and railings, utilities and luminaries and pressures
from earth retainments.

DC: Dead load of structural components and non structural
attachments.

## DW: Dead load of wearing surface.

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## Important Points for Bridge Design

Material Properties for Pavement
bitumen = 2250 kg/m3 = 22.1 kN/m3 (140 lb/ f3)

## concrete = 2400 kg/m3 = 23.6 kN/m3 (150 lb/ f3)

The maximum load factor for DC = 1.25

## The maximum load factor for DW = 1.5

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Gravity (Live) loads due to vehicular, railway and pedestrian
traffic.

## The automobile is one of the most common vehicular live

load on most bridges; it is the truck that causes the critical

## Lateral loads due to water, wind, earthquake and ship

collisions etc.

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## Important Points for Bridge Design

Following effects caused by Live load are also very
important and must be considered in the design of a bridge.
Impact (dynamic effects),

Braking forces,

## The effects of other trucks simultaneously present.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

The AASHTO design loads model consists of three distinctly
Design Truck,

Design Tandem,

Design Lane.

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## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Truck
Previously HS20 was used as Design truck. The H denotes
highway and S denotes Semi tractor and 20 is the weight of
tractor in tons (USC units).

## The new vehicle combination as described in AASHTO (1994)

LRFD Bridge specifications are designated as HL-93 for

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

145 kN 145 kN
35 kN (32 kips) (32 kips)
(8 kips) (14.5 tons) (14.5 tons)
(3.5 tons)

## 4.3 m 4.3 m to 9.0 m

(14 ft) (14 ft to 30 ft)

## HL-93 Truck Load

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 31

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Tandem

110 kN 110 kN
(24 kips) (24 kips)
(11 tons) (11 tons)

1.2 m
(4 ft)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

The AASHTO design lane loading is like a caravan of trucks.
It is 9.3 kN/m and is assumed to occupy a region of 3.0 m (10 ft).
It is applied as 3.1 kN/m2 or 0.064 k/ft2 (64 lb/ft2) of pressure to a width of 3.0 m or 10 ft
over the entire length of bridge for FEM.

9.3 kN/m
(0.64 kip/ ft)

## 3.0 m (10 ft)

Bridge

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 33

## Important Points for Bridge Design

In summary three design loads should be considered: the
design truck, design tandem, and the design lane.

## These loads are superimposed by two ways to yield the live

load effects, which are combined with the other load effects.

## The two ways of superposition are:

Truck + lane,

Tandem + lane,

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Lanes
The number of lanes a bridge may accommodate must be
established and is important design criterion. Two such
terms are used in the lane design of the bridge:
Traffic lane,

Design lane.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 35

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Lanes
Traffic Lane
It is the number of lanes of traffic that the traffic engineer plans to route
across the bridge. Lane width is associated with a traffic lane and is
typically 3600 mm = 3.6 m = 12 ft.

Design Lane
It is the lane designation used by the bridge engineer for live load
placement. The design lane width and location may or may not be the
same as that of the traffic lane.

## Clear Roadway Width

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Lanes
Design Lane Width
While calculating truck/tandem (live load) moments, it is assumed that
axle load acts as a point load. However in reality the vehicle will occupy
some definite width, hence live load moment must be divided by design
lane width.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 37

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Lanes
Design Lane Width
For single lane loaded:

## W1 = Modified edge to edge width = Minimum of (Overall width of

bridge, W1) or 30 ft

W S

W1
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Design Lanes
Design Lane Width

## NL = No. of design lanes= INT (W/12)

S
W

W1
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## Important Points for Bridge Design

Multiple Presence Factor
Multiple presence factors modify the vehicular live loads for the probability
that vehicular live loads occur together in a fully loaded state.

These factors should be applied before analysis or design only when doing
three-dimensional modeling, working with substructures.

A factor of 1.2 is also used in the line analysis of edge strip of a slab bridge.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Important Points for Bridge Design

A factor accounting for ductility, redundancy and the
operational importance of the bridge.

## It is taken as 1.05 for simply supported bridges and is

applied on already factored values of bending moments.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 41

## Minimum Slab Depth for Slab Bridge

Minimum depth for R.C.C Slabs:
Simple span = 1.2(S + 3000)/30

## Where S = span of bridge.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Step 01: Sizes

Minimum depth for R.C.C Slabs:
Simple span (ft) = 1.2(S + 10)/30
S
Where S = span of bridge.

## Step 02: Loads

Determine load DC, WDC = hconcrete
Determine load DW, WDW = hwearing surface

## Step 03: Analysis

Determine slab moments due to dead loads:
MDC = WDCS2/8

## MDW = WDW S2/8

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 43

## Step 03: Analysis (Continued)

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

## 1. Moment due HL-93 Truck load, MTruck

(Max. moment due to truck load can be obtained by placing the middle axle at mid span of
the bridge and rear axle load at distance of 14 ft from the middle axle load)

32 kips 32 kips
8 kips

14 ft 14 ft

S/2

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Step 03: Analysis (Continued)

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

## 2. Moment due Tandem Load, MTandem

(Max. moment due to tandem load can be obtained by placing the two loads at distance of
2 ft from the mid span)

24 kips 24 kips

2 ft 2 ft

S/2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 45

## Step 03: Analysis (Continued)

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

## 3. Moment due design lane load, MLane

0.64 kip/ft
MLane = 0.64 S2/8

Take greater moment value among MTandem and MTruck and multiply
it by impact factor of 1.33 and then add it with MLane

## Convert MLL+IM to moment/ft, Divide MLL+IM by E design lane width.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Step 03: Analysis (Continued)

For Interior Strip, Single Lane Loaded, E is given by:
E (inches) = 10.0 + 5.0 (L1W1) (1)

## For Interior Strip, Multilane loaded, E is given by:

E (inches) = 84 + 1.44 (L1W1) W1/NL (2)

Finally, Design Lane Width E, is the smallest value of (1) & (2)

## For Edge Strip, E is given by:

E = Barrier width at base + 1 ft + (1/2) strip width Full strip width or 6
ft (whichever is less)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 47

## Important Points for Bridge Design

Reinforcement Detail in Slab Bridge:

## As per shrinkage and

temperature reinforcement
requirements

## As, Main Transverse Bottom

reinforcement reinforcement
(to be designed) (least of 100/S % or 50 %) of As
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Design Problem: Design of simply supported slab
bridge for HL-93 live load.
Span length of 35 ft centre to centre of bearings.

overlay.

## Use fc = 4000 psi and fy = 60 ksi.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 49

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Design Pb: Simply supported slab bridge.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 1: Sizes.

## For a curb width of 15 inches, total width of the bridge (W1) =

44 + (2 15/12) = 46.5 ft

## hmin = 1.2(S + 10)/30 = 1.2 (35 + 10)/30 = 1.8 ft = 21.6 22

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 51

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 2: Loads.

## = (3/12) 0.14 = 0.035 ksf

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## = 0.035 352/8 = 5.3 ft-kip/ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 53

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## MTruck = 350 ft-kip

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

Tandem moment:

Lane moment:

## Mlane = 640 352/8 = 98000 ft-lb = 98 ft-kip

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 55

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## Live load moments:

Mtandem > Mtruck, therefore we will use Mtandem

## To convert MLL+IM to moment/ft, Divide MLL+IM by E design lane

width.
The AASHTO code recommends separate calculation of E and
resulting bending moment M for an interior and edge strips of a RC
slab bridge. Hence next slides discusses interior and edge strips
separately.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## For single lane loaded:

E (inches) = 10.0 + 5.0 (L1W1)

ft = 30 ft

## Therefore, E = 10.00 + 5.0 (35 30.00) = 172 in = 14.3 ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 57

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## For multilane loaded:

E (inches) = 84 + 1.44 (L1W1) W1/NL

L1 = 35 ft

## Therefore, E = 11.84 ft (Least of all)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## Interior Strip Moment (per foot)

MLL +IM (Interior strip) per foot = 593/11.84 = 50 ft-kip/ft

Now,

## Mu (interior strip) = 155.3 ft-kip/ft = 1863.6 in-kip/ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 59

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## Design lane width for edge strip: According to AASHTO LRFD

code A4.6.2.1.4,
E = Barrier width at base + 1 ft + (1/2) strip width Full strip width
or 6 ft (whichever is less)

## E = 1.25 ft + 1 ft + (1/2) 11.84 11.84 ft or 6ft

E = 8.17 ft > 6 ft

Therefore E = 6 ft

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 3: Analysis.

## Edge Strip Moment (per foot):

Because the edge strip width is limited to 6, one-lane loaded
(wheel line = lane load) with a multiple presence factor, m of
1.2 will be critical. Hence edge strip moment per foot width is
equal to (Reference: chapter 4, Barker and Puckett) :

## Mu (edge strip) = 172.48 ft-kip/ft = 2069.79 in-kip/ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 61

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (a) Design for Interior strip:

Interior strip moment (Mu) = 155.3 ft-kip/ft = 1863.6 in-kip/ft

## Effective depth of bridge slab (d) = h cover Dia of bar used

Using #8 bar, effective depth is bottom cover for slab is taken equal
to 1.

d = 22 1 1 = 20.5 inch

## Asmin = 0.0018 12 22 = 0.47 in2

As = Mu/{fy (d a/2)}

## After trials, As = 1.80 in2,(#8 @ 5 inches c/c)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (b) Distribution reinforcement for interior strip (bottom transverse

reinforcement) {A5.14.4.1}:
The amount of bottom transverse reinforcement may be taken as a
percentage of the main reinforcement required for positive moment as
follows but not less than Shrinkage reinforcement:

## Astmim (shrinkage)= 0.0018Ag = 0.0018 12 22 = 0.47 in2 (#5 @ 8

inches c/c)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 63

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (b) Distribution reinforcement for interior strip (bottom transverse

reinforcement) {A5.14.4.1}:
Maximum spacing for temperature steel reinforcement in one way
slab according to ACI 7.12.2.2 is minimum of:
3hf =3 22 = 66

18

## Therefore #5 @ 8 inches c/c is OK.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (c) Design for Edge strip:

Edge strip moment (Mu) = 172.48 ft-kip/ft = 2069.79 in-kip/ft

## Effective depth of bridge slab (d) = h cover Dia of bar used

Using #8 bar, effective depth is bottom cover for slab is taken equal to
1.

d = 22 1 1 = 20.5 inch

## As = Mu/{fy (d a/2)}; After trials As = 2.014 in2, (#8 @ 4.7 inches)

Finally use #8 @ 4 inches c/c both for interior as well as edge strips
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 65

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (d) Distribution reinforcement for edge strip:

Atransverse = 0.169 2.014 = 0.34 in2

inches c/c)

## Maximum spacing for temperature steel reinforcement in one way

slab according to ACI 7.12.2.2 is minimum of:
5hf = 3 22 = 66

18

## Use #5 @ 8 inches c/c as bottom transvers reinforcement

everywhere.
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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 4: Design.

## (e) Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement in top face of slab

(long and transverse both): For grade 60 steel,
Ast = 0.0018Ag = 0.0018 12 22 = 0.47 in2 (#5 @ 8 inches c/c)

## Finally use #5 @ 8 inches c/c.

Final Recommendation:
Main steel (bottom) = #8 @ 4 c/c for interior as well as exterior.

## Top steel (long and transverse) = #5 @ 8 c/c.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 67

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example
Solution:
Step No 5: Drafting

(Shrinkage reinforcement)
(Shrinkage reinforcement)

## (Bottom transverse reinforcement)

(Main reinforcement)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Some Famous Bridges

Longest Bridge
DanyangKunshan Grand Bridge in China (164800 m)

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## Some Famous Bridges

Longest Span
Akashi Kaiky Bridge, Japan (1991 m)

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

## Some Famous Bridges

Highest Bridge
Si Du River Bridge (472 m high)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 71

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Lansdowne Bridge, Sukkur

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Jamshoro Bridge, Jamshoro

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 73

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Attock Bridge, Attock

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Malir Bridge, Karachi
Longest Bridge in Pakistan (5000 m)

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Chiniot Railway Bridge
Constructed in 1877.

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan
Bridge on M2 Motorway
One of the highest in Asia.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 77

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

References
Design of Highway Bridges by Richard M. Barker.

ACI 318

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

THE END

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