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Introduction notes for bridge engineering including fundamentals.

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Lecture - 08

Introduction to Bridge

Engineering

By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali

Civil Engineering Department

UET Peshawar

drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 1

Topics

Introduction

Bridge Components

Types of Bridges

Example

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 2

1

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Introduction

Bridge is a structure having an opening not less

than 6000 mm that forms part of a highway or over,

or under which the highway passes.

Bridge Culvert

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 3

Introduction

Bridge is the key element in a Transportation

System:

It controls the capacity of the system.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 4

2

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridge Components

A bridge consists of super structure and sub

structure.

Super structure: Structural parts of the bridge which provides the horizontal span.

Sub structure: Structural parts of the bridge which supports the horizontal span.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 5

Bridge Components

Deck

Girder

Pier

Pile Cap

Piles

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 6

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Materials (concrete, steel or wood etc),

cable-stayed).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 7

Types of Bridges

the location of the main structural elements relative to

the surface on which the user travels:

Main structure Below the deck line,

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 8

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Arched, Truss-Arched Bridges, Masonry Arch, Concrete

Arch, the Steel-Truss Arch, and the Steel Deck Truss.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 9

Types of Bridges

Concrete Arch

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 10

5

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

With arch shape, gravity loads are transmitted to the

supports primarily by axial compressive forces.

be resisted.

Arch

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 11

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Arch Type Bridge

The arch form is intended to reduce bending moments in the

superstructure.

The most suitable site for this form of structure is a valley, with

the arch foundation located on dry rock slopes.

The conventional curved arch rib may have high fabrication and

erection costs, although these may be controlled by skilled

labor.

material.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 12

6

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Arch Type Bridge

The arch rib is usually shaped to take dead load without

bending moments. This load is then called the form load.

small disturbance applied to a compressed member.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 13

Types of Bridges

Main Structure Above Deck line

Suspension, Cable Stayed, and Through-Truss bridges are

included in this category.

secondary cables (hangers).

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 14

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 15

Types of Bridges

Through Bridges

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 16

8

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Suspension Bridges

The flexible cables of a suspension bridge is shaped and

supported to transfer the major loads to the towers and

anchorages by direct tension.

strength wire ropes in tension.

economical structure.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 17

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Suspension Bridges

The main cable is stiffened either by a pair of stiffening trusses

or by a system of girders at deck level.

a) Control aerodynamic movements,

Stiffening

trusses

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 18

9

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Cable Stayed bridges

As compared with suspension bridges, the cables are straight

rather than curved. As a result, the stiffness is greater.

structures.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 19

Types of Bridges

Salient features of Through Bridges

A bridge truss has two main structural advantages:

1. The primary member forces are axial loads;

2. The open web system permits the use of a greater overall depth

(due to lesser dead load) than for an equivalent solid web girder.

dead weight.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 20

10

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Girder bridges of all types are included in this category.

Examples are:

Slab (solid and voided),

T-beam,

I-beam,

Wide-flange beam,

Steel box,

Concrete Box Girder Bridge

Steel plate girder.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 21

Types of Bridges

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 22

11

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Types of Bridges

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 23

Loads

Loads to be considered in bridge design can be divided into

two broad categories:

Permanent loads,

Transient loads.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 24

12

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Permanent Loads

Self weight of girders and deck, wearing surface, curbs and

parapets and railings, utilities and luminaries and pressures

from earth retainments.

DC: Dead load of structural components and non structural

attachments.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 25

Permanent Loads

Material Properties for Pavement

bitumen = 2250 kg/m3 = 22.1 kN/m3 (140 lb/ f3)

The maximum load factor for DC = 1.25

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 26

13

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Transient Loads

Gravity (Live) loads due to vehicular, railway and pedestrian

traffic.

load on most bridges; it is the truck that causes the critical

load effects.

collisions etc.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 27

Transient Loads

Following effects caused by Live load are also very

important and must be considered in the design of a bridge.

Impact (dynamic effects),

Braking forces,

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 28

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Vehicular Design Loads

The AASHTO design loads model consists of three distinctly

different loads:

Design Truck,

Design Tandem,

Design Lane.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 29

Vehicular Design Loads

Design Truck

Previously HS20 was used as Design truck. The H denotes

highway and S denotes Semi tractor and 20 is the weight of

tractor in tons (USC units).

LRFD Bridge specifications are designated as HL-93 for

Highway Loading accepted in 1993.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 30

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Vehicular Design Loads

145 kN 145 kN

35 kN (32 kips) (32 kips)

(8 kips) (14.5 tons) (14.5 tons)

(3.5 tons)

(14 ft) (14 ft to 30 ft)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 31

Vehicular Design Loads

Design Tandem

110 kN 110 kN

(24 kips) (24 kips)

(11 tons) (11 tons)

1.2 m

(4 ft)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 32

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Vehicular Design Loads

Design Lane Load

The AASHTO design lane loading is like a caravan of trucks.

It is 9.3 kN/m and is assumed to occupy a region of 3.0 m (10 ft).

It is applied as 3.1 kN/m2 or 0.064 k/ft2 (64 lb/ft2) of pressure to a width of 3.0 m or 10 ft

over the entire length of bridge for FEM.

9.3 kN/m

(0.64 kip/ ft)

Bridge

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 33

Vehicular Design Loads

In summary three design loads should be considered: the

design truck, design tandem, and the design lane.

load effects, which are combined with the other load effects.

Truck + lane,

Tandem + lane,

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 34

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Lanes

The number of lanes a bridge may accommodate must be

established and is important design criterion. Two such

terms are used in the lane design of the bridge:

Traffic lane,

Design lane.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 35

Design Lanes

Traffic Lane

It is the number of lanes of traffic that the traffic engineer plans to route

across the bridge. Lane width is associated with a traffic lane and is

typically 3600 mm = 3.6 m = 12 ft.

Design Lane

It is the lane designation used by the bridge engineer for live load

placement. The design lane width and location may or may not be the

same as that of the traffic lane.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 36

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Lanes

Design Lane Width

While calculating truck/tandem (live load) moments, it is assumed that

axle load acts as a point load. However in reality the vehicle will occupy

some definite width, hence live load moment must be divided by design

lane width.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 37

Design Lanes

Design Lane Width

For single lane loaded:

bridge, W1) or 30 ft

W S

W1

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 38

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Design Lanes

Design Lane Width

For multilane loaded:

S

W

W1

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 39

Multiple Presence Factor

Multiple presence factors modify the vehicular live loads for the probability

that vehicular live loads occur together in a fully loaded state.

These factors should be applied before analysis or design only when doing

three-dimensional modeling, working with substructures.

A factor of 1.2 is also used in the line analysis of edge strip of a slab bridge.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 40

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Load Modifier

A factor accounting for ductility, redundancy and the

operational importance of the bridge.

applied on already factored values of bending moments.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 41

Minimum depth for R.C.C Slabs:

Simple span = 1.2(S + 3000)/30

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 42

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Minimum depth for R.C.C Slabs:

Simple span (ft) = 1.2(S + 10)/30

S

Where S = span of bridge.

Determine load DC, WDC = hconcrete

Dead Loads

Determine load DW, WDW = hwearing surface

Determine slab moments due to dead loads:

MDC = WDCS2/8

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 43

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

(Max. moment due to truck load can be obtained by placing the middle axle at mid span of

the bridge and rear axle load at distance of 14 ft from the middle axle load)

32 kips 32 kips

8 kips

14 ft 14 ft

S/2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 44

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

(Max. moment due to tandem load can be obtained by placing the two loads at distance of

2 ft from the mid span)

24 kips 24 kips

2 ft 2 ft

S/2

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 45

Determine slab moments due to live loads:

0.64 kip/ft

MLane = 0.64 S2/8

Take greater moment value among MTandem and MTruck and multiply

it by impact factor of 1.33 and then add it with MLane

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 46

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

For Interior Strip, Single Lane Loaded, E is given by:

E (inches) = 10.0 + 5.0 (L1W1) (1)

E (inches) = 84 + 1.44 (L1W1) W1/NL (2)

Finally, Design Lane Width E, is the smallest value of (1) & (2)

E = Barrier width at base + 1 ft + (1/2) strip width Full strip width or 6

ft (whichever is less)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 47

Reinforcement Detail in Slab Bridge:

temperature reinforcement

requirements

reinforcement reinforcement

(to be designed) (least of 100/S % or 50 %) of As

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 48

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Design Problem: Design of simply supported slab

bridge for HL-93 live load.

Span length of 35 ft centre to centre of bearings.

overlay.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 49

Example

Design Pb: Simply supported slab bridge.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 50

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 1: Sizes.

44 + (2 15/12) = 46.5 ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 51

Example

Solution:

Step No 2: Loads.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 52

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 53

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

Truck Load moments:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 54

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

Tandem moment:

Lane moment:

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 55

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

Mtandem > Mtruck, therefore we will use Mtandem

width.

The AASHTO code recommends separate calculation of E and

resulting bending moment M for an interior and edge strips of a RC

slab bridge. Hence next slides discusses interior and edge strips

separately.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 56

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

E (inches) = 10.0 + 5.0 (L1W1)

ft = 30 ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 57

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

E (inches) = 84 + 1.44 (L1W1) W1/NL

L1 = 35 ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 58

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

MLL +IM (Interior strip) per foot = 593/11.84 = 50 ft-kip/ft

Now,

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 59

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

code A4.6.2.1.4,

E = Barrier width at base + 1 ft + (1/2) strip width Full strip width

or 6 ft (whichever is less)

E = 8.17 ft > 6 ft

Therefore E = 6 ft

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 60

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 3: Analysis.

Because the edge strip width is limited to 6, one-lane loaded

(wheel line = lane load) with a multiple presence factor, m of

1.2 will be critical. Hence edge strip moment per foot width is

equal to (Reference: chapter 4, Barker and Puckett) :

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 61

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

Interior strip moment (Mu) = 155.3 ft-kip/ft = 1863.6 in-kip/ft

Using #8 bar, effective depth is bottom cover for slab is taken equal

to 1.

d = 22 1 1 = 20.5 inch

As = Mu/{fy (d a/2)}

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 62

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

reinforcement) {A5.14.4.1}:

The amount of bottom transverse reinforcement may be taken as a

percentage of the main reinforcement required for positive moment as

follows but not less than Shrinkage reinforcement:

inches c/c)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 63

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

reinforcement) {A5.14.4.1}:

Maximum spacing for temperature steel reinforcement in one way

slab according to ACI 7.12.2.2 is minimum of:

3hf =3 22 = 66

18

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 64

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

Edge strip moment (Mu) = 172.48 ft-kip/ft = 2069.79 in-kip/ft

Using #8 bar, effective depth is bottom cover for slab is taken equal to

1.

d = 22 1 1 = 20.5 inch

Finally use #8 @ 4 inches c/c both for interior as well as edge strips

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 65

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

Atransverse = 0.169 2.014 = 0.34 in2

inches c/c)

slab according to ACI 7.12.2.2 is minimum of:

5hf = 3 22 = 66

18

everywhere.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 66

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Example

Solution:

Step No 4: Design.

(long and transverse both): For grade 60 steel,

Ast = 0.0018Ag = 0.0018 12 22 = 0.47 in2 (#5 @ 8 inches c/c)

Final Recommendation:

Main steel (bottom) = #8 @ 4 c/c for interior as well as exterior.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 67

Example

Solution:

Step No 5: Drafting

(Shrinkage reinforcement)

(Shrinkage reinforcement)

(Main reinforcement)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 68

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Longest Bridge

DanyangKunshan Grand Bridge in China (164800 m)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 69

Longest Span

Akashi Kaiky Bridge, Japan (1991 m)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 70

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Highest Bridge

Si Du River Bridge (472 m high)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 71

Bridges in Pakistan

Lansdowne Bridge, Sukkur

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 72

36

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan

Jamshoro Bridge, Jamshoro

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 73

Bridges in Pakistan

Attock Bridge, Attock

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 74

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan

Malir Bridge, Karachi

Longest Bridge in Pakistan (5000 m)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 75

Bridges in Pakistan

Chiniot Railway Bridge

Constructed in 1877.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 76

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

Bridges in Pakistan

Bridge on M2 Motorway

One of the highest in Asia.

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 77

References

Design of Highway Bridges by Richard M. Barker.

ACI 318

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 78

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Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar

THE END

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 404 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 79

40

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