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CE 121: Construction Materials

Dr. NB Diola
Aggregates
 Definition
Aggregate is a combination of sand, gravel, crushed stone,
slag, or other material used in combination with a binding
medium for such materials as bituminous and portland
cement concrete, mortar, plaster, etc., or alone as in
railroad ballast, filter beds, and various manufacturing
processes.

 Significance
 30% of total cost of pavement
 65-85% volume of concrete structures
 92-96% volume of asphalt concrete
Aggregate Types
1. Natural taken from natural deposits without
altering the mineralogical nature during processing

2. Artificial/Synthetic
a. byproducts: ex. blast furnace slag
b. manufactured: ex. expanded clay, shale, or slate used
for lightweight aggregates
c. reclaimed or waste construction materials: ex. recycled
protland cement concrete
Composition and Structure
 Rocks as source of natural aggregates
 Single mineral (e.g. limestone) or contains several
minerals (e.g. granite)
 3 major types of rocks
 Igneous
 Sedimentary
 Metamorphic
The Rock Cycle
Sedimentary Compaction
rocks
Cementation Sediments
Crystallization
Transportatio
Metamorphic n
rocks Erosion
Weathering

Igneous
rocks
Magma
Rocks
Rock Type Example Remarks
Igneous Basalt Fine grained
Granite Coarse grained
Sedimentary Shale
Limestone
Sandstone Composite structure
Metamorphic Slate From shale
Marble From limestone
Quartzite From sandstone
Ref: Young, et.al., The Science and Technology of Civil Engineering Materials, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Characteristics of Aggregates
1. Geometric Properties
a. Particle size and grading
b. Particle shape and surface texture
2. Physical Properties
a. Porosity and voids content
b. Absorption, Moisture content, and permeability
3. Strength and Toughness
4. Other Properties
a. Surface chemistry
b. Surface coatings
c. Durability
d. Deleterious substances
Particle size and grading
 sieves
 diameter of aggregate particle
 Size fraction, di di-1
 MAS (maximum aggregate size)
Sieves
Opening Opening
Number Size Number Size
(mm) (mm)
1 1/2 38.100 30 0.600
1 25.400 40 0.425
3/4 19.000 50 0.300
1/2 13.000 60 0.250
3/8 9.500 80 0.177
4 4.750 100 0.150
6 3.350 140 0.106
8 2.360 170 0.088
10 2.000 200 0.075
16 1.180 270 0.053
20 0.850
Gradation
Gradation or Particle Size Distribution
 for classifying soils
 for estimating several of its properties (i.e., compaction
and drainage characteristics)
 distribution is depicted using a gradation or grain size
distribution curve
 two laboratory methods used:
 mechanical or sieve analysis and
 hydrometer analysis.
Example of Gradation Curve
Mechanical (Sieve) Analysis
ASTM D422
 for soils with grains > 0.075 m in diameter

 shaking the dried soil through a series of sieves

 weight of the soil retained in each sieve is expressed as


a percentage of the total dry weight of the sample

 grain size distribution is then plotted


parameters to describe grain size distribution curve:
1. effective size, D10
2. coefficient of gradation, Cc = (D30)2 / (D60 D10)
3. uniformity coefficient, Cu = D60 / D10

where D10, D30 and D60 are diameters corresponding to


10%, 30% and 60% finer, respectively, in the curve.

These parameters are used for classification of granular


soils.
Types of Gradation
 Continuous
 Uniform
 Gap-graded

<insert graph>
Particle shape and surface texture
 Not adequately defined qualitatively; effects cannot be
evaluated precisely
 Both are result of processing operations, mineral
composition and crystalline structure
 Particle shape: related to angularity, sphericity
 Angularity relative sharpness of edges and corners
 Rounded vs. angular
 Sphericity: ratio of surface area to volume
 Equidimensional, flaky, elongated

 Particle surface: relative degree to which the surface is


polished or dull, smooth or rough
Porosity and voids content
Porosity, n: volume of pores in the aggregates
divided by the total volume of the aggregates
n = Vpores / Vagg
Void (Pore) Ratio, e: volume of pores divided by the
volume of solids in the aggregates
e = Vpores / Vs
Void Content, v: volume of voids between
aggregates in the sample divided by the volume of
sample including the voids
v = Vvoids / Vtotal
Absorption, moisture content, and
permeability
 Oven-dry (OD); Air-dry (AD); Saturated-surface-dry
(SSD); wet

 Absorption capacity (%) = 100*(WSSD WOD)/ WOD


 Effective absorption (%) = 100*(WSSD WAD)/ WSSD
 Surface moisture (%) = 100*(WWET WSSD)/ WSSD
 Moisture content (%) = 100*(WAGG WOD)/ WOD

Normal-weight agg: 0.5 2.0% absoprtion capacities


Characteristics of Aggregates
1. Geometric Properties
a. Particle size and grading
b. Particle shape and surface texture
2. Physical Properties
a. Porosity and voids content
b. Absorption, Moisture content, and permeability
3. Strength and Toughness
4. Other Properties
a. Surface chemistry
b. Surface coatings
c. Durability
d. Deleterious substances
Rocks
Rock Type Example Specific Porosity Compressive Modulus
Gravity (% vol) Strength of
(MPa) Elasticity
(GPa)
Igneous Basalt 2.6-3.0 0.1-1.0 50-200 30-70
Granite 2.6-3.0 0.5-1.5 100-250 5-50
Sedimentary Shale 2.0-2.7 10-30 10-100 5-25
Limestone 2.3-2.8 5-20 35-250 2-70
Sandstone 2.2-2.7 5-25 20-175 5-50
Metamorphic Slate 2.6-2.9 0.1-0.5 100-200 10
Marble 2.6-2.8 0.5-2.0 100-250 40-100
Quartzite 2.6-2.7 0.5-5.0 100-300 10-70
Ref: Young, et.al., The Science and Technology of Civil Engineering Materials, Prentice Hall, 1998.
Aggregate Types
Aggregate for concrete:
1. Fine aggregate = passing the 3/8 sieve, almost entirely
passing the No. 4 Sieve (4.75 mm), and predominantly
retained on the No. 200 Sieve (75 m)
2. Coarse aggregate = predominantly retained on the No. 4
Sieve

Aggregate for bituminous concrete mixtures:


- same as for concrete but the dividing line is the No. 8 Sieve
(9.5 mm) or No. 10 Sieve (11.8 mm)
Definitions related to aggregate
particles:
 Gravel = consists of naturally rounded particles resulting from
natural disintegration and abrasion of rock or a processing of
weakly bonded conglomerate. (> 4.75 mm)

 Sand = consists of rock particles that have been disintegrated


naturally; grains are generally granular but have been subjected
to weathering. (< 4.75 mm)

 Crushed stone = product of artificial crushing of rocks, boulders,


or large cobblestones, substantially all faces of which result from
crushing operation.

 Stone sand = crushed rock corresponding to sand in size.


Applications
 Base Material
 Portland Cement Concrete
 Asphalt Concrete
 etc
Aggregates for Base Courses
PC Concrete Slab

Base course
may include:
sub-bases
Compacted filter beds
subgrade leveling courses
Uses of Base Courses
 provide STRUCTURAL CAPACITY to bituminous
concrete slab
 DRAINAGE for portland cement concrete slab
 FROST RESISTANCE
Important Parameters
 GRADATION of aggregates affects the structural capacity, drainage,
and frost susceptibility of base courses
 control of gradation is a principal concern
 also, hardness of aggregate is important (soft, weak, friable);
aggregate degradation may change the aggregate gradation

 particle STRENGTH, SHAPE & TEXTURE should be checked  to


resist stress due to repeated loads; to avoid aggregate degradation

 shape and texture for interlocking (angularity and equidimensionality)


and non-slippage (surface roughness)

 open graded base courses are more susceptible to degradation than


dense-graded ones.
3 general types of aggregate mixtures
(accdng to Krebs & Walker):

1. aggregates only, no fines


2. fines just filling the voids of aggregate fraction
3. fines overfilling the voids of aggregate fraction
Type Strength Stability Drainage Frost
1 grain to grain contact unstable excellent completely non-
of aggregate particles unless frost susceptible
confined
2 -same- stable even adequate can be non-frost
unconfined susceptible
3 grain to grain contact unstable poor frost susceptible
of fine particles

* in most highway construction, the base course falls between 1 & 2