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# CHAPTER 1 FLUID FLOW THROUGH POROUS MEDIA

Example 1

An incompressible fluid flow in a linear porous media with the following properties;
L = 2000 ft = 15%
k = 100 md P2 = 1990 psia
P1 = 2000 psia width = 300 ft
h = 20 ft = 2 cp

Calculate;
a) Flowrate in bbl/day
b) Apparent fluid velocity in ft/day
c) Actual fluid velocity in ft/day

Example 2

An incompressible fluid flows in a linear porous media with the following properties;

## L = 2500 ft = 17% = 45 lb/ft3

h = 30 ft = 2 cp
width = 500 ft inlet pressure = 2100 psia
k = 50 md Q = 4 bbl/day
Calculate and plot the pressure profile throughout the linear system.

Example 3

Assume that the porous media in Example 1 is tilted with a dip angle of 5o. The incompressible fluid has
a density of 42 lb/ft3.

Calculate;
a) Flowrate in bbl/day
b) Apparent fluid velocity in ft/day
c) Actual fluid velocity in ft/day

Example 4

A slightly compressible liquid with the average compressibility of 21 x 10-5 psi-1 flows in a linear porous
media with the following properties;

L = 2000 ft = 15%
k = 100 md P2 = 1990 psia
P1 = 2000 psia width = 300 ft
h = 20 ft = 2 cp

## Calculate the flowrate at both ends of the formation.

Example 5

A gas of 0.7 specific gravity is flowing in a linear reservoir system at 150 oF. The upstream and
downstream pressures are 2000 and 1800 psia, respectively. The system has the following properties;

L = 2000 ft
k = 40 md
width = 300 ft
h = 15 ft
= 15%
Calculate gas flowrate.

Example 6

A natural gas with a specific gravity of 0.72 is flowing in linear porous media at 140oF. The upstream and
downstream pressures are 2100 and 1894.73 psia, respectively. The cross sectional area is constant at
4500 ft2. The total length is 2500 ft with an absolute permeability of 60 md. Calculate the gas flowrate is
SCF/day. (Psc = 14.7 psia, Tsc = 520oR).

Example 7

Assuming steady state and an incompressible fluid, calculate the oil flowrate under the following
condition;

## Pe = 2500 psia rw = 0.3 ft h = 30 ft

Pwf = 2000 psia o = 2 cp k = 60 md
re = 745 ft Bo = 1.4 bbl/STB

## Then, plot the pressure profile in the formation (use 50 ft interval).

Example 8
An oil well in X field is producing at a stabilized rate of 600 STB/day at a stabilized bottom-hole flowing
pressure of 1800 psia. Analysis of pressure build up test indicates that the pay zone is characterized by a
permeability of 120 md and a uniform thickness of 25 ft. The well drains an area of approximately 40
acres.
Qo = 600 STB/day A = 40 acres
Pwf = 1800 psia rw = 0.25 ft
k = 120 md o = 2.5 cp
h = 25 ft Bo = 1.25 bbl/STB

Calculate the pressure profile and list the pressure drop across 1 ft intervals from rw to 1.25 ft, 4 to 5 ft,
19 to 20 ft, 99 to 100 ft, and 744 to 745 ft.
Example 9

## The following data is available on a well in X field;

Pe = 2506 psia co = 25 x 10-6 psi-1 h = 25 ft
re = 745 ft Pwf = 1800 psia k = 0.12 Darcy
Bo = 1.25 bbl/STB rw = 0.25 ft o = 2.5 cp
Assuming slightly compressible fluid, calculate the oil flowrate.

Example 10

The PVT data from a gas well in the X field is given as follow;

P, psia g, cp z
0 0.0127 1
400 0.01286 0.937
800 0.01390 0.882
1200 0.01530 0.832
1600 0.01680 0.794
2000 0.01840 0.770
2400 0.02010 0.763
2800 0.02170 0.775
3200 0.02340 0.797
3600 0.02500 0.827
4000 0.02660 0.860
4400 0.02831 0.896

The well is producing at a stabilized bottom-hole flowing pressure of 3600 psia. The wellbore radius is
0.3 ft. the following additional data is available;
k = 65 md h = 15 ft T = 600oR
Pe = 4400 psia re = 1000 ft

## Calculate the gas flowrate by using

a) Real-gas potential solution
b) Pressure-squared method
Example 11
An oil well is producing at a constant flowrate of 300 STB/day under unsteady state flow conditions. The
reservoir has the following rock and fluid properties;
Bo = 1.25 bbl/STB = 15% ct = 12 x 10-6 psi-1 h = 15 ft
k = 60 md Pi = 4000 psia rw = 0.25 ft

a) Calculate the pressure at radii of 0.25, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 ft for 1
hour. Plot P vs r.
b) Repeat for t = 12 and 24 hours. Plot P vs r.

Example 12
An oil well is producing at constant oil flowrate of 120 STB/day under a semisteady-state flow regime.
Well testing data indicates that the pressure is declining at a constant rate of 0.04655 psi/hour. The
h = 72 ft = 25%
Bo = 1.3 bbl/STB ct = 25 x 10-6 psi-1

## Calculate the well drainage area.

Example 13
An oil well is developed on the center of a 40 acre square drilling pattern. The well is producing at a
constant flowrate of 100 STB/day under a semisteady-state condition. The reservoir has the following
properties;
= 15% h = 30 ft k = 20 md CA = 30.8828
-6 -1
= 1.5 cp Bo = 1.2 bbl/STB ct = 25 x 10 psi
Pi = 4500 psia rw = 0.25 ft A = 40 acres

a) Calculate and plot the bottom-hole flowing pressure as a function of time (t = 1, 10, 50, 100, 200
hours)
b) Calculate the pressure decline rate
Pseudo critical properties of miscellaneous natural gases and condensate well fluids
The Zfactor correlation chart of Standing and Katz
Exponential Integral Table