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Original Title: Notes on Sizing

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Murphy's law

To estimate the time it takes to do a task, estimate the time you think

it should take, multiply by two, and change the unit of measure to the

next higher unit. Thus allocate 2 days to do a one-hour task.

use to solve the problem.

Corollary:

calculations, and there are times when we must be precise. The

essence of engineering is to be only as complicated as you have to

be, but you must also be able to get as complicated as the problem

demands".

1

Separation Tower Design

Distillation:

Absorption:

Extraction:

Adsorption:

Sizing Problem

# of stages

Type of column

Height, Diameter, Cost

Shell Thickness & weight

Utility requirements, Operating Cost

2

Types of Equipment

(Finite stage contactors) (continuous contactors)

liquid vapor

vapor

liquid

6

5

4

3

2

1

Bubblecap Liquid redistributer

Valve Trays

Downcomer

3

Packed versus Plate Tower

Packed Tower

Diameter < 4 ft

Cannot handle dispersed solids in feed

No interstage cooling

Limited operating range

not suitable for large temperature variations

cheaper to construct

design database is poor

cheaper if corrosive fluids are involved

pressure drop is smaller (good in vacuum operation)

4

McCabe Thiele Diagrams

q=1

x

x xf

xd

L L x yF R x

Eqm line y

D 1 1 x

V D L y D xF R 1

xD yF

Rmin

yD xF

L R

V achial 1 R

5

Preliminary Design of Columns

Condenser temp boiling point of light component

decreases relative volatility

and hence make separation

more difficult

reboiler?

A

A B

C

B Most of D goes

D

C light key overhead

D

E

F

Incr. BP. Most of E goes in

E heavy key

F bottoms

[Assume 99%]

6

3. No. of stages (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Method)

Used in DSTWU

components lighter goes with LK. Heavier goes with HK.

key in Distillate, (xLK)D etc

3. Penske equation

x x

log LK HK

x HK D x LK B

N min

log LK HK

4. Underwood Equation

i x Fi

1 q : solve for

i i

L i x Di

1 Compute minimum reflux ratio

D min i i

5. Gilliland Correlation

Assume 50% if no info is available

Actual # of trays = plate efficiency

Tray Spacing = 24

Smaller for tall columns

Height = 24 x # of trays

7

5. Column Diameter

v velocity ft s

Area ft 2

e v vapor density lb ft 3

D = Distillate

L D

L+D L

F

(L+F)

L+D

F-D

Atmospheric 3 ft/sec

Vacuum 6 8 ft/sec

Pressure 1 ft/sec

trays.

6. Utility Requirements

Q R L D Heat of vaporization of Bottoms

8

Auxiliary Equipment Needed for column

reflux

5

4 coolant in

feed

condenser

1 reflux drum

reboiler

reflux pump

distillate

reboiler pump

bottoms

condensate

9

Absorbers & Strippers

Pure Gas

GGa Pure solvent, L lbmoles/hr

y0 x0

y = mx

G lbmoles/hr

Gas + Solute

Solvent + solute

yin xout

L

1.4 typical

mG

Kremser Equation

10

Packed Tower Design

See Perry for correlation

flooding

channeling

11

Heat exchanger sizing

Problem:

Given: Flow rate and inlet and outlet temperature of the stream to be

heated or cooled

Pressure drop.

References:

D.Q. Kern, Process Heat Transfer

Perry's Handbook

12

Types of Heat Exchangers

Shell and Tube

Extended surface

Coiled tube

Air-cooled

13

Selection of Tubeside fluid

Corrosive fluids

Fluid with greater fouling tendency

Fluid at higher pressure

Less viscous fluid

14

Heat Exchanger Geometry

Tube dia: 3/4 or 1 inch

Tube wall thickness: Depends on pressure

Baffle spacing: ~ shell diameter

15

Utility Selection

Chilled water 40 F

Refrigerant < 32 ( Freon, Propylene)

Dowtherm for higher temperature

Waste heat boiler ( at higher temperatures)

16

Heating Medium

Medium pressure steam 15-150 psig, 360 F

High pressure steam < 500 psig, 450 F

Dowtherm < 750 F

Fused Salt < 1100 F

Direct Fire > 450 F

17

Short cut methods for HX design

3/4 in OD tubes, 8 ft length

< 10,000 sq.ft. area per exchanger

Assume 15-20 F min approach temp.

If necessary optimize area by adjusting outlet temp of utility

Use tables and graphs for U.

Keep Q/A < 12,000 Btu/hr/sq.ft in reboilers

For coolers use max water outlet temp permissible

For air-coolers use 20 hp per 1000 sq.ft of area. Air inlet at 90 F.

Temperatue approach 40 at outlet

18

Pipe Design

Factors:

Diameter of pipe

Wall thickness

Pipe diameter

Large dia higher cost

v 22 v12

w z 2 z1 P2V2 P1V1 F

2 gc

19

Pipe Wall Thickness

Ps

Schedule # 1000

Ss

t

2000 m

Dm

20

Pumps: Pressure change in liquids

Computed from Mechanical Energy Balance

THP

Brake Horse Power = Efficiency

1. Centrifugal Pumps

15-5000 gpm

2. Axial Pumps

20-100,000 gpm

40 ft head

eg. Bike pumps

3. Rotary Pumps

1,500 gpm

50,000 ft head

4. Reciprocating Pump

10-10,000 gpm

1,000,000 ft head

[Pin Pvp]

21

Pressure change in gases

Fans

Blowers

Compressors

22

Pressure Vessels

PR

t C

SE GP

Flash Drums: H D 23

5 min holdup time (liquid)

Diameter based on gas velocity

Flash Drums

Feflux Drum

23

Chemical Reactors

2) Pressure

3) Temperature

4) Residence time

5) Conversion

6) heat effects

Specify

i) Volume of reactor

ii) geometry

iii) heat transfer

iv) agitation

v) material of construction

24

1. Homogenous Gas Phase

- fast reaction , 1 sec ras. Time

- strong heat effects

furnaces for endothermic

diluent for exothermic

small die for exothermic

(better heat transfer)

- Plug flow for faster reactions, high conversion

- combination may also be used

3. Hetero liquid/gas

- stirred vessels with baffles/agitation

- use gas velocity

0.2 ft/sec if gas is mostly absorbed

0.1 ft/sec if gas is 50% absorbed

0.05 ft/sec if gas is mostly not absorbed

4. Liquid/Solid

- well-stirred CSTR

- slurry reactors

5. Solid/gas

- packed types (solid not consumed)

- fluidized bed

- spouted bed

25

Materials of Construction

Not suitable for dilute acids or alkaline solutions

Brine, salts will cause corrosion

Not suitable at high or cryogenic temperatures

Stainless Steel

Type 302, 304, 316 common

Corrosion resistance

High temperature strength

Glass lined steel:

Teflon:

Low temperature

Liq. Elthylene -154F 9% nickel steel

LNG (methane) -258F 9% nickel steel

LNG Nitrogen -320F 304 s.s.

26

Cost Factors

Relative

Material Cost Comments

used

304 s.s. clad steel 5 Acids

316 s.s. clad steel 6

304 s.s. 7 High T applications

Corrosion Resistant

316 s.s. 10 High T applications

Corrosion Resistant

Inconel 13 Chlorides

Hastelloy c 40

Plastics Low Temp

Applications

Low Structural

Strength

Ceramics High Temp.

Glass Lab systems, Fragile

Corrosion resistant

27

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