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4/24/2015

Fire Hydrant Operation,


Maintenance & Testing
Todd Schaefer
Operations Manager
April 28, 201 5
8th Annual Distribution Conference Addison, IL

Acknowledgments
Michael Simpson CEO
John Van Arsdel Vice President
Aaron Horbovetz Project Engineer
Randy Lusk Regional Manager
Owen Keenan- Project Engineer

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Fire hydrants need to be

Properly installed
Properly operated
Properly tested regularly
Properly maintained

Because Fire Protection is


ESSENTIAL

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Fire hydrants are also essential for


Flushing water and air from a
new main connection or repair
Getting water samples
Checking system pressures
Providing a temporary source of
water for construction sites and
other uses

Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Fire hydrants must be operable and capable
of providing adequate fire protection
Systematic maintenance and inspection is
vital
Repairs can be scheduled pro-actively
instead of reactively
Problems can be dealt with before they
become catastrophic

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Hydrants should be inspected on a regular
basis, at least once a year, and for ISO
certification
Dry-barrel hydrants may require two
inspections per year, spring and fall
Every hydrant inspection should be
documented
Problems with a hydrant should be reported
immediately

ISO Requirements

In order for a municipality to get full credit


from ISO, they must do hydrant
maintenance every 6 months.

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Other ISO Requirements


Location and number.
Physical damage or defect.
Obstructions on or around the hydrant.
Hydrant outlets face proper direction.
Minimum 15 clearance between lowest
outlet and ground.
Auxiliary valve is visible.
Condition of paint correct color code.
All outlets are cleaned and lubricated

Fire Hydrant Maintenance

During a static pressure test, do any of


the nozzles, gaskets, or drainage holes
indicate leakage?
With a nozzle-cap or pumper-cap
removed, and using a listening device,
does the main valve leak?
Is there any ponding or standing water
near the base of the hydrant?

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


What is the condition of the paint?
Is the color correct, based on the utilities color
scheme?
Is the hydrant straight-up (plumb)? If not, does it
appear that hydrant has been hit by a vehicle?
Should bollards be installed to protect the
hydrant?
Should the hydrant be relocated away from
traffic?

Painted and Color Coded

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance

Does the hydrant need to be raised, or


lowered?
Do the pumper port and nozzles face the
correct direction?
Is the soil surrounding the hydrant
capable of supporting it?
GPS location of hydrant if required.

Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Are the nozzle/pumper threads in working
condition?
Do the nozzle/pumper ports require any
maintenance or need to be replaced?
Does the hydrant drain properly (dry-barrel)?
Is the hydrant barrel still dry after pumping out
the water and waiting a few minutes?
Is it difficult to operate?

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Does it provide adequate fire-flow?
Is the operating nut of the hydrant in good
condition?
Have the corners of the operating nut been
rounded off (from people using a pipe wrench
instead of a hydrant key)?
If it appears that the hydrant has been
illegally operated, should protective devices
be installed to deter vandalism?

Maybe you know these kids?

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Kids hate this

Other Reports and Documentation


Status: Public, Private, or Non-Potable.
Static pressure reading is taken.
Operating stem is exercised and lubricated.
Hydrant reflectors and markers are replaced
and/or repaired.
All debris is removed from around the hydrant.

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Remove one nozzle/pumper cap and,
using a listening device, check for main
valve leakage. Repair or schedule
replacement, as necessary.
Open hydrant fully, checking for ease of
operation. Repeatedly exercise the
operating stem, as needed, to remove
buildup and promote better operation. If
lubrication or stem replacement is
required, schedule the necessary work

Fire Hydrant Maintenance

With the hydrant fully pressurized, check for


leakage around the flanges,
nozzles/pumpers, seals, and operating nut.

Partially close the hydrant to open the drain


outlets, and flush for 10 to15 seconds.

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Completely close the hydrant, and then open it
a to turn to relieve the pressure on the
thrust bearing or packing.
Remove a nozzle/pumper cap, and attach a
diffuser, if needed, along with a hand valve for
control. Flush the hydrant to remove foreign
material.

Flushing a Hydrant
Flush hydrant until clear

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Close the hydrant and remove the diffuser.
Place your hand over the nozzle/pumper to
check for suction as the water drains out of the
barrel.
Check for hydrant leakage with a listening
device.
Remove all nozzle/pumper caps and inspect
the threads. Clean and apply approved
lubricant to caps and nozzles/pumpers.

Lubricating the Threads

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Fire Hydrant Maintenance


Inspect cap chains for binding and ease of
movement. Unbind or replace, as necessary.
Replace the caps and tighten them
Check operating nut lubrication and maintain as
needed.
Inspect breakaway flange for damage if present.
Collect or verify GPS location of hydrant. (Very
helpful when locating a hydrant under a pile of
snow.)

Fire Hydrant Maintenance

Notify the Utility personnel and Fire Dept.


personnel immediately of inoperable hydrants
needing repair or replacement. Get
stakeholder buy-in.

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Single Hydrant Testing

NOT Recognized by AWWA as a valid test


NOT
NOT Recognized
Recognizedby by
AWWA
AWWA as aas
valid
a
NOT Recognized by NFPA as a valid test
test
valid test
NOT recognized by ISO as a valid test
NOT Recognized
NOT Recognized by by
NFPA as aas
NFPA valid test
a valid
NOT
testrecognized by ISO as a valid test
NOT recognized by ISO as a valid
test

Fire Flow Testing


NFPA Ratings
Color Flow Rating
Blue 1500 GPM + Very Good
Green 1000 - 1499 GPM Good
Orange 500 - 999 GPM Marginally Adequate
Red Below 500 Inadequate

Involves a minimum of two hydrants on


any test.
#1 Flow Hydrant #2 Residual Hydrant

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Fire Flow Testing

Testing
Testing
You are testing main capacity
are testing main capacity
You ends
Dead
Dead ends
Looped Areas (2 or 3 feeds)
Looped Areas (2 or 3 feeds)
Distances
Distances
2.5 Diffuser or Hose Monster
2.5 Diffuser or Hose Monster

Preparation

Plan
Planyour
yourarea
area
Decide which
Decide which
hydrant
hydrantwill
willbebe
your
yourresidual
residual
hydrant
hydrantand
and which
will be your
which will flow
be your
hydrant
flow hydrant
Direction
Directionofofflow
flow

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Equipment Needed
2.5 Static Caps Hose Monster (4.5)
2.5 Static Caps
Gauges
Hose Monster
Landscape (4.5)
Protection
GaugesWrenches
Landscape
Record Keeping
Hydrant
Protection
Supplies
Hydrant(2.5-4)
Diffusers Wrenches
Record
Keeping
Steel Brush
Diffusers
Diffuser (2.5-4)
Pitot Tubes Supplies
Thread Grease (Food
Diffuser
Gate Valve Pitot Tubes
for Diffuser Steel
Grade)Brush
Gate Valve for Thread Grease
Diffuser (Food Grade)

Care of Equipment

Inspect
Inspectequipment
daily
equipment daily
Test
Testthe
the gauges
gauges
daily
daily
Very
Veryexpensive,
expensive,
treat
treatititlike your
like your
own
own

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Steps for Residual Hydrant


Remove all caps off of ports
Remove
Apply alltocaps
grease off of
threads of ports
nozzles
Apply grease
Replace pumperto threads of nozzles
port
Replace
Replace cappumper
not being port
utilized for test
Replace
Open capslightly
hydrant not being utilized
to vent air for test
Open
Once hydrant
vented, slightly
open hydrant toavent
littleair
more, purging
Once vented,
hydrant leg open hydrant a little more,
purging
Shut hydrant
hydrant down leg
Shut hydrant down

Steps for Residual Hydrant

Install
Installpressure
pressure gauge
gauge
Charge
Charge hydrant
hydrant open
open
fully
fully
Takestatic
Take
staticreading
reading(Pressure
during typical demands with
Signal to partner
no hydrants you are
flowing)
ready
Signalforto the flowyou
partner hydrant
are
toready for the flow hydrant to
be opened
be opened
After flow hydrant
After flow
opens, hydrant
watch opens,
gauge
watch gauge

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Steps for Residual Hydrant


Take residual
Take residual
reading(Pressure
reading(Pressure measured
measured while flow
while flow hydrant is open)
hydrant is open
Recommended drops
NFPA
291- 25%
10% Rule
AWWA-M17
Shut hydrant 10psi
SLOWLY
As long as good flow is
Tell partner readings
obtained from flow hydrant,
(static and
less than residual)
10psi is good
Accurate
Remove gauges
equipment
are more
important
Replace remaining
Tell
cap partner readings (static
and residual)Replace
remaining
Give partner
cap hydrant
data

Steps for Flow Hydrant

Remove all caps off


Open gatevalve
Open gate valvefully
Remove
of portsall caps off of fully
Close bleeder valve
ports
Replace pumper Close bleeder
on diffuser to keep
Replace
port pumper port valve on diffuser to
debris out of it
Install
Installpressure
pressure
gauge keep
gaugegate valve onto
Install Open debris
hydrantout of it
slowly
Install gate
remaining valve
nozzle
Open hydrant
Once water slowly
is clean,
onto remaining
Install diffuser onto Once water
close gate is clean,
valve
nozzle close
Recordgate
Datavalve
gate valve
Install diffuser onto
(Be
gate valve Record Data (Be
consistent)
consistent)

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Steps for Flow Hydrant


Once
Oncedatadata
is gathered
is gathered
notify
notify partner
partner that
that youyou
are are
readyready
Wait for partner to get
Wait for partner to get
static reading
static reading
Open gate valve
Open gate valve SLOWLY
SLOWLY
Take
Take reading
reading

Steps for Flow Hydrant


Close gate valve
Close
SLOWLYgate valve
to shut
SLOWLY
hydranttodown
shut
hydrant down
Relieve pressure
Relieve pressure
One flow hydrant
One flow hydrant
is usually good is
usually
for 3-4 testsfor 2-3
good
tests
Make sure
Make suredrains
hydrant hydrant
drains
and seatsseats
and
properly
properly

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6
#4 #5 #6
6
#7
#3 6

#2 #8 #9

#1 #10

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Example of Flow Data

Ps (Static) = 140 psi


Ps (Static) = 140 psi
Pr (residual) = 125 psi
Pr (residual) = 125 psi
Pp (Pitot pressure) = 120
Pp (Pitot pressure) = 120
Cd (coefficient) (.9)
Cd (coefficient) (.9)
D (diameter) (2.5)
D (diameter) (2.5)

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Flow Hydrant Equation

Qr=29.83*Cd*D2*Sqrt(P p)
Qr=29.83*Cd*D2*Sqrt(Pp)
Qr = Actual Flow (gpm)
CdQr = Actual (found
= Coefficient Flow (gpm) Flow hydrant
on the diffuser)
D Cd = Coefficient
= Diameter (opening(found on the diffuser)
in inches)
PpD== Diameter
Pitot Pressure (opening in inches)
(from flow hydrant)
Pp = Pitot Pressure (from flow hydrant)

Qr = 29.83 x .9 x (2.5)2 x sq root of 120


Qr = 29.83 x .9 x 6.25 x 10.95
Qr = 1837 gpm

Fire Flow Equation


Qf
Qf= =
QrQr
x {(Ps 20)/(Ps
x {(Ps Pr)}(Raise
20)/(Ps to the .54
Pr)} (Raise to the
power)
.54 power)
Qf
Qf= =Fire flow
Fire in gpm
flow at 20atpsi
in gpm 20 psi
Qr = Actual flow in gpm from
Qr = Actual flow in gpm from previous equation
previous
Psequation
= Static
PrPs= = Static
Residual
Pr = Residual

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Fire Flow Equation


Qf = 1837 x {(140-20)/(140-125)}
(Raise to the .54 power)
Qf = 1837 x {(140-20)/(140-125)} (Raise to
Qf .54
the = 1837 x (120/15) (Raise to the .54
power)
power)
Qf = 1837 x (120/15) (Raise to the .54
Qf = 1837 x (8) (Raise to the .54
power)
power)
Qf = 1837 x (8) (Raise to the .54 power)
Qf = 1837 x 3.07375
Qf = 1837 x 3.07375
Qf = 5647 gpm flow at 20 psi

Safety while Flowing

Check areas
Check
Check areas
areas
Landscaping
Landscaping
IfIfLandscaping
damage
damage isis
If damage
unavoidable is
unavoidable
unavoidable
Relocate
Relocate
Relocate

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Safety while Flowing


Open
Openandandclose ALL
close
hydrants slowly
ALL hydrants
Traffic
slowly
Children
Traffic
Children

Whats this data used for ?

Other
Otherthan
than
giving
givingyou
youaa
migraine.
migraine.

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Whats this Data used for ?

Water System
Modeling
Water System
Modeling
Water System
Hydraulics
Water System
Hydraulics
Fighting Fires
Fighting Fires
New Construction
New
NFPAConstruction
Ratings

Whats this Data used for ?

ISO (Insurance Services Office)


ISOlower
The (Insurance
the I.S.O.Services
rating onOffice)
a scale of 1 to
The
10, thelower
betterthe
theI.S.O. rating
insurance on a scale of
rates
1 to
The 10, reviews
I.S.O. the better the primarily
3 areas insurance rates
The I.S.O.
The Fire reviews 3 areas primarily
Department
The
The Fire
City Department
water main &
The dispatch
9-1-1 City water main services.
& paging & hydrant capabilities
9-1-1 dispatch & paging services.

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Why do we fire flow test ?

Fire-flow
Fire-flow testing
testing is aimed
is aimed not not
onlyonly
at
at Best
Best Management
Management Practices,
Practices, but to
but identify
help to helphydrant
identifyissues,
hydrant issues,
closed valve
closed
issues valve
(from mainissues (from
breaks main
service work
breaks service
shutdowns, etc.), work
and toshutdowns,
keep the flow
etc.), history
testing and to upkeep the flow testing
to date.
history up to date.

Fire Flow Recommendations


ISO recommends fire flow testing every 5 years or
ISO whenever hydraulic conditions change. or
ISOrecommends
recommendsfire fireflow
flowtesting
testingevery
every55years
years or
NFPA states that you must perform inspection,
whenever hydraulic conditions change.
whenever hydraulic conditions change.
NFPAmaintenance
states that andmust
you flushing annually
perform as well as fire
inspection,
NFPA
flowstates
testingthat you must
every 5 years perform inspection,
or whenever hydraulic
maintenance and
and flushing annually as wellasasfire
flushing annually as well
maintenance
conditions change. fireflow
flow
testing
testingevery
every55years
yearsororwhenever
wheneverhydraulic
hydraulicconditions
conditions
AWWAs Best Management Practices believes that it
change.
change.
is a good
AWWAs Bestpractice
Management to conduct fire flow
Practices testing it is a
believes
AWWAs
whenever Best Management
hydraulic Practices
conditions believesthat
change. that it is a
good practice to conduct fire flow testing whenever
good practice to conduct fire flow testing whenever
We recommend
hydraulic
hydraulic conditionsthat
conditions change.you develop criteria that best
change.
We suits your Utilities
recommend that youneeds, yet at least meets suits
AWWA,
WeISOrecommend
and NFPA that youdevelop
developcriteria
recommendations criteriathat
thatbest
best suits
your
yourUtilities
Utilitiesneeds,
needs,yet yetatatleast
leastmeets
meetsAWWA,
AWWA,ISO ISOandand
NFPA recommendations
NFPA recommendations

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Additional Information
Detailed procedures for the installation,
operation, testing and maintenance of
fire hydrants can be found in the AWWA
M17 Installation, Field Testing, and
Maintenance of Fire Hydrants

QUESTIONS?
Please contact
todd.schaefer@mesimpson.com

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