You are on page 1of 57

Disturbances and Recovery

in Ecosystem

Arlon P. Cadiz
PhD in Science Education Dr. Eden Evangelista
Philippine Normal University, Manila Professor

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Topic Outline
1.) Disturbance in Ecosystem
1.1 Definition of Ecological Disturbance
1.2 Types of Ecological Disturbance
1.3. Impacts of Ecological Disturbance
2.) Recovery in Ecosystem
2.1 Definition of Ecological Recovery
2.2 Elements of Ecological Recovery
2.2.1 Restoration
2.2.2 Revegetation
2.2.3 Reclamation
2.2.4 Rehabilitation
2.3 Benefits of Ecological Recovery
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Topic Outline
2.4 Components in Solving Environmental Problem
2.5 Sample Research on Ecological Recovery

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

Ecological Disturbance
is an event that results in a sustained disruption of an ecosystems structure
and function. These are activities which can damage communities, remove
organisms from ecosystems, and alter resource availability.
is a temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced
change in an ecosystem. It is often act quickly and with great effect, to alter the
physical structure or arrangement of biotic and abiotic elements.
is a discrete event that damages or kills residents
on a site; either catastrophic or non-catastrophic
(Platt & Connell 2003)

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

Catastrophic disturbance a disturbance that kills all residents of all


species on a site; i.e., creates a blank slate

Non-catastrophic disturbance a disturbance that falls short of wiping out


all organisms from a site; i.e., leaves residual organisms or
biological legacies

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

The Intermediate Disturbance


Hypothesis (IDH) suggests that
local species diversity is
maximized when
ecological disturbance is neither
too rare nor too frequent. ... IDH
is a non-equilibrium model used
to describe the relationship
between disturbance and species
diversity.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

Some disturbance can be beneficial such as the idea of Darwin - he


recognized more species of grasses growing in fields that had been moved for
hay than in fields that were unmoved. In this case, disturbance may effect
species diversity in community. But too much causes ecosystem sustainability.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Disturbance

Ecosystems are sustainable when they are in balance between disturbance,


use, and productivity

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance Anthropogenic Ecological Disturbance


Forest fire Logging
Volcanic eruption Urbanization
Earthquakes Deforestation
Tsunami Water, Air, Land pollution
Landslide
Flood
Drought
Typhoons
Long Term Freezing
Large herbivores
Insect-induced diseases
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance

Forest Fire Volcanic Eruption

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance

Earthquake Tsunami

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance

Landslide Flood

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance

Drought Typhoons

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Natural Ecological Disturbance

Long-Term Insects
Freezing
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Anthropogenic Ecological Disturbance


Logging
Urbanization
Deforestation
Water, Air, Land pollution

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Anthropogenic Disturbance

Logging Urbanization

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Anthropogenic Disturbance

Pollution

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Disturbance in Ecosystem Types of Ecological Disturbance

Anthropogenic Disturbance

Deforestation

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Definition of Ecological Recovery
No system is likely to recover to exactly the same state as existed prior to
disturbance for at least two reasons:

First, the longevity of trees coupled with significant fluctuations in average


climatic conditions at cycles spanning decades to centuries means that in some
cases the dominant species in a given locale are out of equilibrium with their
current environment.

Second, variation in initial conditions (e.g., type and season of disturbance,


climatic factors during early recovery) may alter the initial species composition,
which in turn can influence the whole successional trajectory (Drake 1990,
Lawton and Brown1992).

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Elements of Ecological Recovery
Restoration
is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been
degraded, damaged, or destroyed (SER 2002).
aims at facilitating natural processes in disturbed areas that will eventually
lead to self-sustaining ecosystems similar to what was present before
disturbance.
is rarely realistic (complete restoration) because determining the pre-
disturbance state of most ecosystems is difficult, and because ecosystems
continually change (WRI, 2003).
has main goal of returning a habitat to a more desirable condition
involving a particular species composition, community structure, and/or set
of ecosystem functions.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Elements of Ecological Recovery

Revegetation
means to establish a plant cover of any type for aesthetic reasons (Mentis
and Ellery, 1994).
frequently sites are urban and industrial wasteland or spoil-tips, or
landscaped road-verger where safety and practical considerations have to
take priority.
Reclamation
suggests bringing something back to its original condition. It includes any
process promoting soil conservation and productive use of derelict land
(Peterson and Etter, 1970). The best methods use vegetation cover that is
self-renewing, attractive and long-term.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Elements of Ecological Recovery

Contour Farming

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Elements of Ecological Recovery

Rehabilitation
is reestablishment of part of the productivity, structure, function, and
processes of the original ecosystem (IUCN 1998a).

aims to revive important ecological services, or to restore a natural dynamic


to ecological communities.

is used to regain some but not all of the original biodiversity of an area
(WRI, 2003).

might mean to regain agricultural value or to vegetate with species merely to


have a natural system in place, (not necessarily an indigenous system).
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Elements of Ecological Recovery

Why consider Environment in Recovery?

1. Humans rely on the productive services of ecosystems to sustain life and


livelihoods. Poor and marginalized people often are more directly dependent
on ecosystem services.
2. Environmental degradation diminishes an ecosystems capacity to provide
resources critical to human life and livelihoods.
3. Environmental degradation leads to an increase in the frequency and intensity
of natural disasters, and exacerbates the impacts of such disasters.
4. Natural disasters weaken already strained ecosystems.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Benefits of Ecological Recovery

Benefits of Recovery include:

Maintenance of diversity of plants and animals

Improving wildlife habitats

Creating more aesthetically pleasing surroundings

Restoring natural communities

Protecting locally rare species

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

People should want to become part of the solution rather than part of the problem
There are five components to successfully solving any environmental problems
(Johnson, George B. et.al., 1997).
1. Assessment involves scientific analysis & gathering of information about
what is happening. Data must be collected and experiments must be
performed. Any result can then be used for future predictions on course of
events in the ecosystem.

2. Risk Analysis predicting the consequences of environmental intervention


possibly using the information obtained by scientific analysis. It is
necessary to evaluate not only the potential for solving the environmental
problem but also any adverse effects that a plan of action might create.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

3. Public Education informing the public when a clear choice cab be made
among alternative courses of action. This involves explaining the problem in
understandable terms, presenting the alternative actions available, and
explaining the probable costs and results of the different choices.

4. Political Action selecting and implementing a course of action thru elected


officials. Individuals can have a major impact at this stage by exercising their
right to vote and by contacting their elected officials.

5. Follow-through monitoring carefully the results of any action to see if


environmental problem is being solved. Results can also be used to evaluate
and improve initial assessment and plan of action. Proper & right feedback.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Sample Research in Ecological Recovery

Annie Melinda Paz-Alberto, PhD Gilbert C. Sigua, PhD


Project Leader, Phil-LIDAR Research Soil Scientist and Asst. Professor
Subtropical Agricultural Research Station -
University Professor
Brooksville
Director of ICCEM
Ph.D., Environmental Soil Chemistry, Louisiana State
Ph.D. in Botany major in Ecology with minor
University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, 1990
in Environmental Studies
USDA-ARS 2611 W LUCAS ST FLORENCE, SC
University of the Philippines, Los Baos
29501-1242
Email: gcsigua@ifas.ufl.edu
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

Professor 12, Department of Forest Biological Sciences,


College of Forestry and Natural Resources,University of the
Philippines Los Baos
PhD Botany (1994)from the University of New South Wales
(Australia); MSc Plant Taxonomy (1981) from the
University of Reading (England); MSc Forestry (major in
Forest Botany) (1980) and BS Forestry (major in Forest
Biological Sciences) (1975) from the University of the
Philippines Los Baos
Authored and co-authored more than 70 scientific and
technical papers and books mainly in the fields of plant
biodiversity and plant taxonomy since 1976, published
Edwino S. Fernando, PhD mostly in international scientific journals

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem
Environmental and Analytical Chemistry
researcher at the School of Chemistry, University
of Melbourne

PhD in Botany, School of Botany, University of


Melbourne

Worked in Italy and Switzerland as a contract


horticulturist from 1985-89. In 1989, Augustine
moved to Curtin University of Technology,
Western Australia working as a Senior Tutor and
Research Associate for 12 years with the the
Augustine Doronila, PhD Department of Environmental Biology
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Recovery in Ecosystem Components in Solving Environmental Problem

Edwino S. Fernando, PhD

Augustine Doronila, PhD

Marilyn O. Quimado, PhD

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction

Arlon P. Cadiz
PhD in Science Education
Philippine Normal University, Manila Dr. Eden Evangelista
Professor
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Topic Outline
1.) Plant Reintroduction
1.1 Definition of Plant Reintroduction
1.2 Guidelines for Plant Reintroduction
1.3 Justifications for Plant Reintroduction
1.4 Choosing Species for Plant Reintroduction
1.5 The Economics of Plant Reintroduction
1.6 Monitoring after Plant Reintroduction
1.7 Sample Case Studies

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction
is the release of individuals into a formerly occupied area after the native
population has been lost or become extinct. Also known as reestablishment
(IUCN 1998a).
restoring or increasing the viability of plant populations is not an easy
exercise. The procedures are long-term, time consuming and expensive, and,
if their application is to be considered as a valid conservation exercise, they
require rigorous control, with the establishment of strict guidelines and
appropriate national legislation.
term to describe the controlled placement of plant material into a natural
or managed ecological setting.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction
is the release and management of plant into an area in which it formerly
occurred, but in which it is now extinct or believed to be extinct also
known as reinstatement
is the deliberate establishment of individuals of a species into an area
and/or habitat where it has become extirpated with the specific aim of
establishing a viable self-sustaining population for conservation purposes.
can involve the establishment of an extirpated species into a relatively
intact habitat or it can be part of the restoration of a degraded habitat. This
will be performed as species become extinct for a number of reasons, such
as collecting, introduced herbivores or pathogens and potentially climate
change.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction

have the potential to play an important role in species' conservation the


long term viability of many reintroductions has yet to be assessed.

is the release and management of plant into an area in which it formerly


occurred, but in which it is now extinct or believed to be extinct also
known as reinstatement

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction or Restitution techniques exist that may be used to restore


or establish populations of plants to enable them to become self-sustaining
in natural habitats.
Such techniques may include:
direct sowing of seed or the planting of material raised in nurseries
producing conditions that will encourage the growth of seed already
existing in the soil or
introduced by birds and other natural means
The introduction of threatened species into conservation areas for future
recovery and the reconstruction of entire communities may be regarded as
a potential measure for saving plants threatened with extinction.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction science is making demonstrable progress, but it is still a


young science. The ability of reintroduction to contribute to endangered
species recovery is significant, and enhanced when it is part of larger,
integrated strategies that encompass in situ and ex situ practices.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Definition of Plant Reintroduction

In some degraded sites it may be necessary to introduce an alien species to


assist with the restoration process.
Introduced species used in restoration must be monitored over time, and only
used if no other options.
Introduced species do sometimes have a role to play in restoring functional
aspects of ecosystems, but this must be related to the overall goal of
restoration and the context within which restoration is carried out (Hobbs
and Mooney, 1993).

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Guidelines for Plant Reintroduction

1. Determine the causes of decline or extinction.

2. Analyse past and present ecological characteristics.

3. Submit proposals to remedy any causes of decline or extinction.

4. Delimit and indicate exactly the areas in which introductions are to be carried
out.

5. Enumerate planning, management and supervision measures to be taken


before, during and after the implementation of the project.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Guidelines for Plant Reintroduction

6. Evaluate the probability of success and the possible repercussions of


reintroduction.

7. Establish which population or which of any intraspecific taxa of the species


should be reintroduced into a given area.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Justifications for Plant Reintroduction

Reintroduction can be a controversial step, either because of genuine fears of


deleterious ecological or genetic consequences, or through dogmatic
views on the authenticity of natural communities. Several arguments can be
advanced in favour of reintroductions:
1. Conservation in situ must always be the preferred policy. Reintroduction
should be seen as an acceptable compromise and safety-net.

2. There may be an identified. frequently practical, need for reintroduction by a


land-management agency, especially where the species is a dominant or
significant element in the habitat. Reintroduction may be part of a large-scale
restoration of vegetation or habits.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Justifications for Plant Reintroduction

3. A successful reintroduction programme requires detailed information on the


species and its ecology, providing scientific information in addition to that
directly applicable to the project. The ecology of a rare species may indicate
environmental conditions that show why a habitat is special, why a rare
species occurs there, and why it (and perhaps other species) may have declined.

4. Reintroductions can assist in habitat stabilization and rehabilitation. The study


of individual species for reintroduction focuses on all the factors that affect
them and how the species interact with their habitat.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Justifications for Plant Reintroduction

5. Reintroduction of species into the wild is not cheap, but may work out
cheaper in the long-term than their permanent maintenance in cultivation.
Reintroduction of a plant involves research, planning, aftercare and monitoring,
but also envisages the ultimate survival and reproduction of the species in the
wild.

6. Reintroduction is a very positive process. Conservationists frequently


emphasise the negative, highlighting loss of species and overall biodiversity.
Reintroduction enhances or replaces something that had previously diminished
or disappeared an imporrant consideration for public relations and education
policy.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Choosing Species for Plant Reintroduction

Priority must be given to endangered species, especially those that are of


global rarity and are of economic, cultural or biological importance. This
usually means:

1. Species exploited for agricultural, medicinal, commercial or industrial


purposes, or closely related species and intraspecific taxa.
2. Wild populations of species formerly or currently exploited in a sustainable
manner by rural or traditional communities; also plants of cultural, religious
and historical significance.
3. Species of significant biological value: for example, morphologically or
genetically isolated species, monospecific genera and relict populations.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Choosing Species for Plant Reintroduction

4. Plants listed in international, national, or local legislation; plants which have


special propagation problems; local endemic or relict species; species at the
limit of their natural distribution or threatened outside region.

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Economics of Plant Reintroduction

To prevent reintroduction projects becoming a financial liability to a botanic


garden, it is important to consider the following:
How many species can be managed adequately by a single institution?
How many species should be the target of reintroduction programmes nationally
and Internationally?
Is the reintroduction of a particular species cheaper and safer than the
maintenance of material ex situ?
What are the precise costs of reintroduction?
Are funds available from collaborating agencies, government departments or
interested societies and individuals?

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Economics of Plant Reintroduction

How will the other partners in the Species Recovery Programme be involved in
the reintroduction experiment, either through practical measures or through
advice and consultation?
Have studies been undertaken to determine the genetic variation of surviving
wild populations and cultivated material?
What is the provenance and genetic constitution of - available wild-collected
material? Is there any evidence for inbreeding depression or genetic erosion?
What is the likelihood that genetic erosion, inbreeding, hybridization, disease or
other loss or damage to the variation of the material has occurred in
cultivation?

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Monitoring after Plant Reintroduction

Monitoring after reintroduction includes the following:

1. What degree and frequency of monitoring will be necessary?


2. Who will undertake the monitoring and how will it be resourced?
3. What provision will be necessary, feasible or desirable for the replacement
of any plants that fail to establish?
4. What sort of data collection and analysis, publication or other forms of
information dissemination will be desirable or necessary?
5. What evaluation of methodology and overall review of the Species
Recovery Plan may be necessary or desirable to improve future projects?

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Plant Reintroduction: Case Studies

1. Meads milkweed is a threatened tall-grass prairie species that does better as


juveniles and in burned prairie.

2. Eight rare, New England wildflowers were established at 596 plots in two
sites in Massachusetts using seeds, seedlings, and adult plants by Drayton
and Primack (2012). After two years all eight had at least 15% of the plots
with plants. For six species, establishment was greater using seedlings and
adults rather than seeds but 13 years later none persisted. One, bloodroot
persisted with plants on 25% of plots. DIFFICULT to establish new plant
populations and long term monitoring is required to determine success of
reintroduction.
Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Plant Reintroduction: Case Studies

Planted seedling and juvenile Meads milkweeds are evaluated in a


reintroduction experiment

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Plant Reintroduction: Case Studies

Bloodroot is a perennial
wildflower that was a successful
reintroduction

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Plant Reintroduction Plant Reintroduction: Case Studies

A successful case from


Texas called the Texas Snowbell,
which is a success story involving
private land owners that established
the plant on their ranches using
wild-collected seeds obtained by
rancher J. David Bamberger and
grown at the San Antonio Botanical
Garden

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017
Thank you for Listening!

Sci 611 Environmental Management for Sustainable Development 3rd Term 2016 - 2017