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Chng 4.

CC CNG VIC CU HNH GATEWAY H.323


Mt gateway H.323 l mt im cui (endpoint) trn mt mng LAN cung cp lin
lc hai chiu, thi gian thc gia cc u cui (terminal) H.323 trn mng LAN
v cc u cui ITU-T trong mng WAN. Mt gateway H.323 cng c th lin lc
vi gateway H.323 khc. Cc gateway cho php cc u cui H.323 lin lc vi
cc u cui khng thuc chun H.323 (non-H.323) bng cch chuyn i cc giao
thc. Gateway l im m ti mt cuc gi chuyn mch knh c m ho v
ti ng gi sang cc gi IP. V cc chc nng ca cc gateway nh cc im cui
H.323, chng cung cp iu khin thu nhn, tm kim v dch a ch, v cc dch
v tnh cc (accounting). Trong mi trng m c gatekeeper v gateway c
dng, ch c cc gateway c cu hnh gi d liu VoIP.

cu hnh mt gateway H.323, ngi qun tr thc hin cc cng vic m t


trong cc phn sau y. Ngoi tr cng vic u tin, tt c cc cng vic cn li l
tu chn.
Nhn dng mt giao tip Router nh mt Gateway H.323
Cu hnh RAS cho Gateway
Cu hnh chc nng AAA trn Gateway.
Cu hnh bo mt Gateway H.235
Cu hnh h tr Gatekeeper d khuyt
Cu hnh chuyn tip DTMF
Cu hnh chuyn tip FXS Hookflash
Cu hnh a m ho Codec
Cu hnh mu gi quay vng
Cu hnh h tr H.323 cho cc giao tip o.

4.1. Nhn dng mt giao tip Router nh mt Gateway H.323


cu hnh mt thit b Cisco nh mt gateway H.323 trong mt mi trng nh
cung cp dch v, cn cu hnh t nht mt trong cc giao tip (interface) ca n l
mt giao tip gateway. Dng mt giao tip kt ni n gatekeeper hoc mt giao
tip loopback cho giao tip gateway. Giao tip c kt ni vi gatekeeper thng
l mt giao tip mng LANFast Ethernet, Ethernet, FDDI, hoc Token Ring.

cu hnh giao tip gateway, dng cc lnh (command) sau bt u bng ch


cu hnh ton cc(global configuration mode):
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Lm hiu lc gateway v vo ch
Bc 1 Router(config)# gateway
cu hnh gateway.
Bc 2 Router(config-gateway)# exit Thot khi ch cu hnh gateway.
(Tu chn) Lm hiu lc nh tuyn
Bc 3 Router(config)# ip cef chuyn tip nhanh CEF (Cisco Express
Forwarding).
Router(config)# interface Vo ch cu hnh giao tip giao
Bc 4 type number [name-tag] tip kt ni n gatekeeper.
Cc t kho (keyword) v cc i s
(argument) nh sau:
typeCh nh kiu ca giao
tip c cu hnh.
numberCh nh cng (port),
b ni (connector), hoc s hiu
card giao tip (interface card
number). S hiu c to ra ti
ni sn xut lc ci t hoc lc
thm vo h thng v c th
hin th bng lnh show
interfaces.
name-tag(Tu chn) Ch nh
tn logic (logic name) nhn bit
cu hnh server nhiu mc
vo (entry) ca cu hnh server
c th c a vo.
Router(config-if)# h323- Xc nh giao tip ny nh mt giao
Bc 5 gateway voip interface tip gateway VoIP.
(Tu chn) nh ngha tn v v tr ca
gatekeeper cho gateway ny.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
gatekeeper-idCh ra s xc
minh H.323 ca gatekeeper. Gi
tr ny phi chnh xc vi ID
gatekeeper trong cu hnh
gatekeeper. nh dng ngh
l name.domain-name.
ipaddrCh ra rng gateway s
dng a ch IP nh v
Router(config-if)# h323- (locate) gatekeeper.
gateway voip id gatekeeper-id
ip-addressnh ngha a ch
Bc 6 {ipaddr ip-address [port-
number]| multicast} [priority IP c s dng nhn din
number] gatekeeper.
port-number (Tu chn)
nh ngha s hiu cng s dng
.
multicastCh ra rng gateway
s s dng c ch multicast
nh v gatekeeper.
priority number(Tu chn)
Mc u tin ca gatekeeper.
Khong mc t 1 n 127, v
gi tr mc nh (default) l 127.
(Tu chn) nh ngha tn H.323
(H.323 name) ca gateway, nhn bit
Router(config-if)# h323-
gateway ny vi gatekeeper lin i.
Bc 7 gateway voip h323-id
interface-id i s interface-id l tn H.323 (ID)
dng bi gateway ny khi gateway ny
lin lc vi gatekeeper lin i. Thng
thng, ID ny l tn ca gateway,
cng vi tn min (domain name) ca
gatekeeper gn vo pha sau:
name@domain-name.

4.2. Cu hnh RAS cho Gateway


Chc nng bo hiu RAS gm Registration (ng k), Admission (thu nhn), v
Status (trng thi) thc hin cc th tc ng k, thu nhn, ch trng thi, v thi
kt ni (disengage) gia gateway VoIP H.323 v gatekeeper VoIP H.323. RAS
thng tin cho gatekeeper dch s in thoi (phone number) E.164 ca bn ch
(session target) sang mt a ch IP (IP address).

Trong qu trnh trao i RAS gia mt gateway v mt gatekeeper, mt prefix


c dng nhn dng gateway c th khi khu vc(zone) c chn c nhiu
gateway. Lnh cu hnh tech-prefix dial-peer c dng nh ngha cc prefix.

Trong hu ht cc trng hp trao i giao thc ng (dynamic protocol


exchange) gia gateway v gatekeeper lm cho gateway bo cho gatekeeper v
cc prefix v ni chuyn tip cc cuc gi. Nu, v mt vi l do no , m
ng k ng hng hc khng hiu lc, gatekeeper cu hnh tnh truy vn gateway
ly thng tin ny. cu hnh RAS, nh ngha cc tham s c th dch v in
thoi truyn thng POTS (plain old telephone service) kh dng v cc peer quay
s (dial peer) VoIP. Cc dial-peer POTS bo cho h thng c cc cng thoi vi
cc cuc gi VoIP n trc tip xc nh rng cc cuc gi RAS khi to s
c mt prefix hnh thnh t mt cng thoi ni b sang mng VoIP n bn ch.
Bn ch ch ra a ch ca gateway xa ni cuc gi c kt thc. C vi cch
khc nhau nh ngha a ch gateway ch:
Cu hnh tnh a ch IP ca gateway.
nh ngha h thng tn min Domain Name System (DNS) ca gateway.
S dng RAS. Nu RAS ang c s dng, gateway xc nh a ch ch
bng cch truy vn gatekeeper RAS.
cu hnh RAS, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Vo ch cu hnh dial-peer cu hnh
mt peer POTS. i s number l mt th
Router(config)# dial-
Bc 1 peer voice number pots (tag) nhn bit dial-peer (M s ny ch
c ngha ni b.) Cc mc vo hp l l t
1 n 2,147,483,647.
Ch nh a ch E.164 lin i vi dial-peer.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
+(Tu chn) Ch nh mt k t
ch mt s chun E.164.
Router(config-dial- stringCh ra mt dy k s ch
Bc 2 peer)# destination- nh s in thoi E.164 hoc cch
pattern [+]string[T] quay s (dialing plan) ring. Cc mc
vo hp l l t 0 n 9, cc mu t
A n D, v cc k t c bit sau:
o Du (*) v (#)Ch ra cc
phm xut hin trn cc bn
Bc Lnh Mc ch
phm in thoi bm s chun
(standard touch-tone dial
pad).
o Du (,)Chn tm dng
(pause) gia cc k s.
o Du (.)So khp (match)
bt k k s a vo (c
dng lm mt k t i din -
wildcard).
o Du (%)Ch ra mu/k s
trc xut hin nhiu ln
hoc zero, ging vi vic
dng k t i din trong cc
biu thc thng l.
o Du (+)So khp mt dy
ca mt hoc nhiu hn ca
mt k t/mu.
Lu : Du thm vo dng
nh mt phn ca chui s
th khc vi du thm c th
dng trc ca chui s
ch ra rng chui l mt s
E.162 chun.
o Du (^)Ch so khp bt u
chui.
o Du ($)So khp chui rng
(null string) ti cui chui
nhp vo.
o Du (\)c theo sau bi
k t n l so khp vi k t
hoc vi mt k t n l
khng c ngha khc (so
khp k t ).
o Du (?) Ch ra rng k s
trc xut hin zero hoc
mt ln.
o Cp du ([])Ch mt
khong cc k s. Mt
khong l mt dy k t c
bao bi cp du ngoc, v ch
cc k t s t "0" n "9" l
cho php trong khong. iu
ny ging vi quy tc thng
l.
o Cp du (())Ch ra mt mu
v ging nh quy tc thng
lth d, 408(555). Cp du
Bc Lnh Mc ch
ny c dng chung vi cc
k hiu ?, %, hoc +.
T(Tu chn) K t iu khin ch
ra rng gi tr destination-pattern l
mt chui quay s c di thay i.
Kt hp dial peer POTS vi mt cng thoi
c th.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
Router(config-dial-
Bc 3 peer)# port controller:D
controllerCh nh b iu khin
T1 hoc E1.
:DCh ra knh D kt hp vi PRI
ISDN.
Router(config-dial-
Bc 4 peer)# exit Thot khi ch cu hnh dial-peer.
Vo ch cu hnh dial-peer cu hnh
Router(config)# dial- mt peer VoIP. i s tag nhn bit mt dial
Bc 5 peer voice tag voip peer. (S ny ch c ngha ni b.) Cc
mc vo hp l l t 1 n 2,147,483,647.
Router(config-dial- Dng din gii lnh, t kho, v cc i s,
Bc 6 peer)# destination- xin xem Bc 2 ca bng cng vic cu
pattern [+]string[T] hnh.
i s number nh ngha cc s dng lm
prefix. Mi prefix c th cha ti 11 k t.
Router (config-dial-
Mc d khng hon ton cn thit, du (#)
Bc 7 peer)# tech-prefix
number thng c dng l k t sau cng ca
prefix. Cc k t hp l l 0 n 9, du (#),
v du (*).
Ch nh rng giao thc RAS ang c s
Router (config-dial-
dng xc nh a ch IP ca bn chc
Bc 8 peer)# session target
ngha l mt gatekeeper s dch a ch
ras
E.164 sang a ch IP.

4.3. Cu hnh chc nng AAA trn Gateway


gateway cung cp cc dch v xc thc v tnh cc, cho php v cu hnh
gateway h tr cc dch v xc thc(authentication), cp php(authorization), v
tnh cc(accounting) (AAA). AAA cho php gateway tng tc vi mt server bo
mt RADIUS xc thc cc thu bao (cc cuc gi vo tiu biu) v thc hin
cc dch v tnh cc.

AAA Authentication

Thng thng gateway s dng AAA cng chung vi tr li thoi tng tc IVR
(interactive voice response) kim tra tnh hp php ca user ca gateway sp
ti trn c s ca mt m s ti khon (account number) thu thp bi IVR hoc
nhn dng m s t ng ANI (Automatic Number Identification). Khi gateway s
dng AAA vi IVR, ng dng IVR thu thp thng tin ti khon user v m s nhn
dng c nhn PIN (personal identification number) v sau gi n n giao tip
AAA. Giao tip AAA to mt ngh xc thc RADIUS dng thng tin ch ra v,
da trn thng tin nhn c t server RADIUS, chuyn tip mt bn tin cho i
qua (pass message) hoc mt bn tin tht bi (fail message) n ng dng IVR.

AAA Authorization

Chc nng qun l cp quyn cho php xc nh quyn hn s dng ti nguyn cng
nh ngun thng tin trong h thng mng n nhiu phn lp cho tng user, thm
ch quyt nh n tng giao thc truy cp vo mng (PPP, SLIP,...) m user c
php s dng. ng thi, cng vi chc nng ny vic ngn chn mt vi ngun
thng tin vo bn trong h thng cng c th c thc hin.

AAA Accounting

Mt chng gi (call leg) l mt on ring r (discrete segment) ca mt kt ni


cuc gi (call connection) nm gia hai im ca cuc gi trong kt ni. Mi cuc
gi to ra qua gateway c hai chng: i vo (incoming) v i ra (outgoing). Server
RADIUS tp hp d liu tnh cc cuc gi bt u-kt thc (start-stop) c bn
hoc thng tin tnh cc nht k h thng (syslog) trong sut qu trnh x l tnh
cc cho mi chng to ra trn gateway.

Cisco IOS s dng hai kiu dial-peer c nh ngha nh sau:

Cc dial peer POTSnh ngha cc c im (characteristic) ca mt kt ni


mng thoi truyn thng(traditional telephony network connection). Dial peer POTS
vch ra mt ng dy quay s (dial string) n mt cng thoi c th trn
router/gateway a phng. Thng thng cc cng thoi kt ni router/gateway n
PSTN a phng, PBX, hoc in thoi.

Cc dial peer Voicenh ngha cc thuc tnh (attribute) ca mt kt ni mng


thoi gi. Cc dial peer Voice vch ra mt ng dy quay s n thit b mng xa
. Mt vi th d v cc thit b mng xa nh sau:

My qun l cuc gi - Cisco CallManager

My ch giao thc SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)

My ch giao thc OSP (Open Settlements Protocol)

Gatekeeper H.323

My ch chuyn giao th tn MTA (Mail Transfer Agent)

Cc kiu c th ca dial peer Voice ph thuc vo cng ngh mng gi s dng. Sau
y l mt vi cng ngh khc nhau:

Thoi qua IP - VoIP

Thoi qua Frame Relay - VoFR

Th tn a phng tin qua IP - MMoIP


Mt cuc gi thoi qua mt mng gi c phn on thnh cc chng gi (call
leg) ri rc c kt hp vi cc dial-peer (mt dial-peer c kt hp vi tng
call leg). Mt call leg l mt kt ni logic gia cc router/gateway hoc gia mt
router/gateway v mt thit b in thoi IP. Cc hnh sau minh ho khi nim ny.

Hnh 4.1. Kch bn Dial Peer / Call Leg thoi

Trong hnh 4.1, mt cuc gi thoi gm c 4 call leg, 2 t cnh phi ca


router/gateway khi ngun v 2 t phi cnh ca t phi cnh ca router/gateway
kt thc.

Hnh 4.2. Cc Dial Peer / Call Leg: Kch bn H thng qun l cuc gi (Call
Manager System) cng vi IOS Gateway.

Trong hnh 4.2. H thng Call Manager vi IOS Gateway: Mt cuc gi thoi dn
xp hai chng gi.

tp hp d liu tnh cc kt ni bt u-kt thc c bn, gateway phi c


cu hnh h tr chc nng tnh cc gateway H.323 c th (gateway-specific
H.323). Gateway gi d liu tnh cc n server RADIUS bi mt trong bn cch
ch ra sau y:
Dng cp AV RADIUS

Dng cp AV RADIUS - qu ti trng Acct-Session-Id

Dng cc thuc tnh RADIUS nh cung cp c th

Dng cc mu tin Syslog

Dng cp AV RADIUS

D liu tnh cc kt ni bt u-kt thc c bn v cc thuc tnh chun RADIUS


c dng ni c th s dng cp thuc tnh/gi tr AV (attribute/value) RADIUS
chun IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) . Bng sau ch ra cc thuc tnh
RADIUS IETF c h tr.
M s Thuc tnh M t
Cho php server truy cp mng gi s in thoi b gi
l thnh phn ca gi ngh truy cp Access-
Called-Station- Request (s dng dch v nhn dng s b gi - Dialed
30 Id Number Identification Service [DNIS] hoc cng ngh
tng t). Thuc tnh ny ch h tr trn cc cuc gi
ISDN v modem.
Cho php server truy cp mng gi s in thoi gi i
l thnh phn ca gi ngh truy cp Access-
Calling-Station- Request (s dng ANI hoc cng ngh tng t).
31 Id Thuc tnh ny c gi tr ging vi thuc tnh remote-
addr t TACACS+. Thuc tnh ny ch h tr trn cc
cuc gi ISDN v modem.
Acct-Input- Ch ra bao nhiu octet (byte) c nhn t cng qua
42 Octets qu trnh dch v tnh cc ang c cung cp.
Acct-Output- Ch ra bao nhiu octet c gi n cng qua qu
43 Octets trnh phn phi dch v tnh cc.
Ch ra nh danh tnh cc n nht lm n d dng
khp vi cc mu tin bt u v kt thc trong mt tp
44 Acct-Session-Id tin log. Cc m s Acct-Session-Id khi ng li ti
mt router tng thi im c m in hoc phn
mm c np li.
Acct-Input- Ch ra bao nhiu gi nhn c t cng qua qu trnh
47 Packets dch v ny ang c cung cp cho user dn xp.
Acct-Output- Ch ra bao nhiu gi gi n cng qua qu trnh dch
48 Packets v ny ang c phn phi cho user dn xp.
Qu ti trng Acct-Session-Id (Overloading the Acct-Session-Id Field)

Cc thuc tnh khng th nh x sang cc thuc tnh chun RADIUS c ng gi


sang trng thuc tnh Acct-Session-Id nh cc chui ASCII ngn cch bi k t
"/". Thuc tnh Acct-Session-Id cha m ID phin ti khon RADIUS , m ny l
nh danh n nht lin kt cc mu tin tnh cc lin i vi phin ng nhp
ca mt user.

Bng sau ch ra cc thuc tnh trng c dng vi phng thc Acct-Session-Id


qu ti v cung cp s m t ngn gn.
Thuc tnh trng M t
SESSION-ID Ch nh ID phin ti khon chun RADIUS.
Cung cp thi gian thit lp Q.931 cho kt ni ny vi nh
dng NTP (Network Time Protocol). Cc nh dng thi gian
NTP c th hin bng %H:%M:%S.%k %Z %tw %tn %td
%Y vi:
%H l gi (00 - 23).
%M l pht (00 - 59).
SETUP-TIME %S l giy (00 - 59).
%k l phn ngn ca giy (000 - 999).
%Z l chui vng thi gian (time zone).
%tw l ngy trong tun (Saturday - Sunday).
%tn l tn thng (January - December).
%td l ngy trong thng (01 - 31).
%Y l nm trong th k (th d, 1998).
GATEWAY-ID Ch ra tn ca gateway trong dng "gateway.domain_name."
Ch ra ngun gc ca cuc gi lin quan n gateway. Cc
CALL-ORIGIN
gi tr c th l originate v answer.
Ch ra kiu chng gi (call leg). Cc gi tr c th l
CALL-TYPE
telephony v VoIP.
Ch nh nh danh ton cc n nht dng tng quan cc
chng gi thuc v cuc gi u cui ti u cui (end-to-
CONNECTION-ID end) . Trng bao gm 4 word 32 bit (128 bit). Mi word
c th hin nh mt gi tr hexadecimal v c phn
cch bi cc k t trng (space character).
CONNECT-TIME
Cung cp thi gian kt ni Q.931 cho chng gi ny, bng
nh dng NTP.
DISCONNECT-TIME
Cung cp thi gian ng kt ni Q.931 cho chng gi ny,
bng nh dng NTP.
DISCONNECT-CAUSE
Ch nh nguyn nhn mt cuc gi ng kt ni c nh
ngha trong c t Q.931.
REMOTE-IP-ADDRESS
Ch ra a ch ca cng gateway xa ni cuc gi c kt
ni.
V c gii hn ca chui Acct-Session-Id, khng th gn nhiu thnh phn thng
tin trong . Bi vy, tnh nng ny ch h tr mt tp hp c gii hn cc thnh
phn thng tnh cc.

Dng lnh gw-accounting h323 cu hnh phng thc ID phin qu ti ca


ng dng tnh cc gateway H.323 c th (H.323 gateway-specific).

S dng cc thuc tnh RADIUS nh cung cp c th

Chun phc tho IETF ch nh mt phng thc lin lc thng tin nh cung cp
c th (vendor-specific) gia server truy nhp mng NAS (network access server)
v server RADIUS bng cch s dng thuc tnh vendor-specific (Attribute 26). Cc
thuc tnh nh cung cp c th VSA (vendor-specific attribute) cho php cc
vendor h tr cc thuc tnh m rng ca mnh khng ph hp vi s dng chung.
S b sung Cisco RADIUS h tr mt tu chn vendor-specific dng nh dng
khuyn ngh trong c t. Vendor-ID ca Cisco l 9, v tu chn h tr c kiu
vendor l 1, c t tn "cisco-avpair". Gi tr l mt chui nh dng:
protocol: attribute sep value *

"Protocol" l gi tr ca thuc tnh "protocol" Cisco cho kiu xc thc ring bit.
"Attribute" v "value" l mt cp AV thch hp c nh ngha trong c t
Cisco TACACS+, v "sep" l "=" cho cc thuc tnh bt but v "*" cho cc thuc
tnh tu chn. Thit lp y cc tnh nng sn sng xc thc TACACS+ cng
c th c dng cho RADIUS.

Cc trng VSA v cc gi tr ASCII ca chng c lit k trong bng sau:


Thuc
tnh M nh
M s
IETF cung cp Tn thuc tnh M t
Subtype
RADIU c th
S
h323-remote-
26 9 23 address Ch ra a ch IP ca gateway xa.
26 9 24 h323-conf-id Nhn dng ID hi thoi.
Ch ra thi gian thit lp cho kt ni ny
h323-setup- bng UTC (Coordinated Universal Time),
26 9 25 time trc y c bit l GMT (Greenwich
Mean Time) v Zulu.
Ch ra ngun gc ca cuc gi lin quan
n gateway. Cc gi tr c th l
h323-call-
26 9 26 origin
originating v terminating, tng
ng vi originate v answer trong
trng Call-Origin.
Ch ra kiu chng gi (call leg). Cc gi
26 9 27 h323-call-type
tr c th l telephony v VoIP.
h323-connect- Ch ra thi gian kt ni ca chng gi
26 9 28 time bng UTC.
h323-
Ch ra thi gian cuc gi kt thc bng
26 9 29 disconnect-
time UTC.
h323-
Ch nh nguyn nhn mt kt ni b
26 9 30 disconnect-
cause ngng bi t t Q.931.
Ch nh h s suy gim hoch nh d
h323-voice- tnh ICPIF (impairment/ calculated
26 9 31 quality planning impairment factor) nh hng
n cht lng thoi ca mt cuc gi.
26 9 33 h323-gw-id Ch nh tn ca gateway bn di.
S dng lnh gw-accounting h323 vsa cu hnh phng thc VSA p dng
tnh cc nh cung cp c th chun H.323.

S dng cc mu tin Syslog (nht k ghi thng tin h thng)

Tu chn tnh cc syslog xut cc thnh phn thng tin lin i vi tng chng
gi ca bn tin log h thng, c th c bt gi bi trnh n syslog (syslog
daemon) trn mng. Kt xut syslog gm c:
<server timestamp> <gateway id> <message number> : <message label>
: <list of AV pairs>

Cc trng bn tin syslog c lit k trong bng sau:


Trng M t
server timestamp
Nhn thi gian (time stamp) to bi server khi n nhn
c bn tin ghi log.
gateway id Tn ca gateway pht hnh bn tin.
message number S n nh cho bn tin bi gateway.
message label Mt chui nhn bit loi (category) bn tin.
Mt chui bao gm cp <attribute name> <attribute
List of AV pairs
value> phn cch bi du phy (,).
S dng lnh gw-accounting h323 syslog cu hnh phng thc bn tin
syslog tp hp d liu tnh cc chun H.323.

cu hnh cc dch v xc thc v tnh cc RADIUS, s dng cc lnh sau


bng ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Lnh hiu lc cc dch v bo mt gm xc
Router(config)# aaa
Bc 1 new-model thc (authentication), cp php (authorization),
v tnh cc (accounting) (AAA).
Cu hnh tnh cc gateway H.323 c th, c
th l h323 hoc syslog.
Cc t kho nh sau:
h323Cho php tnh cc chun H.323
s dng cc thuc tnh RADIUS IETF.
Router(config)# gw- vsa(Tu chn) Cho php tnh cc
Bc 2 accounting {h323
chun H.323 dng cc thuc tnh
[vsa]| syslog}
RADIUS nh cung cp c th.
syslogTo thun li nht k h thng
kt xut thng tin tnh cc theo mu
ca mt bn tin h thng.

Thit lp xc thc AAA lc truy nhp.


Cc t kho nh sau:
Router(config)# aaa h323nh ngha mt bn k phng
Bc 3 authentication login
thc gi l h323.
h323 radius
radiusCh nh ra giao thc bo mt
c dng.
nh ngha mt bn k phng thc gi l
h323.
Router(config)# aaa Cc t kho nh sau:
accounting connection start-stopGi mt thng bo bt u
Bc 4 h323 start-stop tnh cc ti lc bt u mt qu trnh
radius v ti lc kt thc ca mt qu trnh.
radiusCh nh ch c giao thc bo
mt RADIUS c dng.
Router(config)# Nhn bit server RADIUS v cc port s c
Bc 5 radius-server host s dng cho cc dch v xc thc v tnh
Bc Lnh Mc ch
ip-address auth-port cc.
number acct-port Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
number
ip-addressCh nh a ch IP ca
my server RADIUS.
auth-portCh nh giao thc UDP
cho cc yu cu xc thc.
numberCh nh s hiu cng cho
cc yu cu xc thc; host khng c
dng xc thc nu thit lp v 0. S
hiu cng mc nh l 1645.
acct-portCh nh cng ch UDP
cho cc yu cu tnh cc.
numberS hiu cng cho cc yu cu
tnh cc; host khng c dng tnh
cc nu thit lp v 0. S hiu cng
mc nh l 1646.
Ch nh mt khu s dng gia gateway v
RADIUS server. i s key ch nh kho m
ho (encryption) v xc thc dng router v
Router(config)# trnh n daemon RADIUS ang chy trn
Bc 6 radius-server key key server RADIUS. Kho ny ghi ln thit lp
ton cc ca lnh radius-server key. Nu
khng c chui kho ch nh, gi tr ton cc
c s dng.

4.4. Cu hnh bo mt gateway H.235


Cc tnh nng tnh cc v bo mt Cisco da trn chun H.235 cung cp phng
tin chuyn i nhau bo mt cc cuc gi H.323. Cc tnh nng ny c th
c dng bi mt gatekeeper, n c xem nh mt thc th hiu bit v c
bo v, xc thc, cp php v inh tuyn cc cuc gi H.323.

Cc gateway Cisco H.323 h tr s dng cc CryptoH323Token xc thc.


CryptoH323Token c nh ngha bi chun ITU-T H.225 phin bn V.2 v c
s dng bi mt t hp bo mt "password-with-hashing" (mt khu bm) m t
trong phn 10.3.3 ca c t k thut H.235.

Mt CryptoToken c th bao gm trong bt k bn tin RAS cp php i tng


gi bn tin. Mt c s d liu (database) ring c th c dng kim tra tn
(user ID) v mt khu (password).

Cc gateway Cisco H.323 h tr ba cp xc thc:

Endpoint (im cui)Knh RAS s dng bo hiu gateway-to-gatekeeper


khng phi l knh bo mt. m bo lin lc c bo mt, H.235 cho php
cc gateway c mt kho xc thc trong cc bn tin RAS ca chng. Kho ny
c s dng bi gatekeeper xc thc im ngun ca cc bn tin. cp
endpoint, kim tra hp l c thc hin trn tt c cc bn tin t gateway. Cc
cryptoToken c kim tra hp l bng cch s dng mt khu cu hnh
cho gateway.

Per-Call (cho mi cuc gi)Khi gateway nhn mt cuc gi qua chng in


thoi (telephony leg), n i hi user cung cp m s account v PIN. Hai m
s ny cha trong cc bn tin RAS no gi t im cui xc thc
ngun gc ca cuc gi.

All (tt c)Ty chn ny bao gm c hai cp trn. Vi ty chn ny, kim
tra hp l ca cryptoToken trong bn tin ngh thu nhn ARQ (admission
request) da trn mt m s account v PIN ca user ang to ra mt cuc gi.
Kim tra hp l ca cc cryptoToken gi trong tt c cc bn tin RAS khc
da trn mt khu cu hnh cho gateway.

Theo di cuc gi (Call Tracking)

Vi cc dch v thoi tr trc (prepaid calling service), s ti khon (account


number) v PIN phi c a vo v trong sut qu trnh cuc gi phi c kim
tra ngc li s tin cn d ca khch hng. Gateway Cisco H.323 gim st s d
ti khon tr trc v kt thc nu ti khon b vt qu.

Bi v thng tin xc thc c cha nhn thi gian (time stamp), n quan trng tt
c cc gateway v the gatekeeper Cisco H.323 (hoc nhng thc th khc ang thc
hin s xc thc) c ng b.

Cc gateway Cisco H.323 phi c ng b s dng giao thc NTP (Network


Time Protocol). Hnh sau minh ha dng chy ca mt cuc gi c th cc tnh
nng tnh cc v bo mt H.323 c s dng.

Hnh 4.3. Dng chy cuc gi i hi cc tnh nng tnh cc v bo mt H.323.


Trong th d ny, Telephone A ang th thit lp mt cuc gi vi Telephone B.
Nhng gii thch c nh s th t sau y tng ng vi nhng hat ng t
ch ti mi tham kho nh s th t trn hnh.

Cc Gateway thit lp lin lc bo mt vi cc Gatekeeper

(1) Cc gateway A v B gi cc bn tin (message) ngh GRQ (gatekeeper request)


n cc gatekeeper ring ca chng. Bn tin GRQ cha kh nng xc thc v ID
i tng thut ton.

(2) Cc gatekeeper A v B p tr li cc gateway ring ca chng bng cc bn tin


xc nhn GCF (gatekeeper confirmation). Bn tin GCF cha kh nng xc thc
v ID i tng thut ton.

(3) Nu cc gi tr cho cc tham s bo mt H.323 khng ng nh mong i,


gatekeeper p li bng bn tin t chi GRJ (gatekeeper rejection) c cha l do
t chi securityDenial. Bn tin ny nhc gateway gi li bn tin GRQ.

(4) Cc gateway A v B gi cc bn tin ngh ng k RRQ (registration request)


cho cc gatekeeper ring ca chng. Bn tin RRQ cha thng tin xc thc trong
trng cryptoToken.

(5) Cc gatekeeper A v B p tr cc gateway ring ca chng bng cc bn tin xc


nhn RCF (registration confirmation).

Nu xc thc xut hin hng hc, gatekeeper p tr bng bn tin t chi RRJ
(registration rejection).

Lin lc in thoi bo mt c khi to

(6) Telephone A thit lp mt kt ni vi Gateway A.

(7) Gateway A khi u kch bn (script) tr li thoi tng tc IVR (interactive voice
response) thu c m s account v PIN ca ngi s dng cng nh s
in thoi ch mong mun.

(8) Gateway A gi bn tin ngh thu nhn ARQ (admission request) n Gatekeeper
A. Gateway phi cha thng tin thm trong bn tin ARQ cho gatekeeper xc
thc cuc gi. Thng tin cha trong bn tin ARQ thay i ph thuc vo bn tin
ARQ ang c gi bi gateway ngun hay ch. Ti im ny ca kch bn,
gateway ngun ang ngh thu nhn. Bi vy, bn tin ARQ cha m s
account PIN ca thu bao. Thng tin ny c m ho bng k thut bm MD5
v cha trong trng cryptoTokens.

(9) Gatekeeper A xc nhn hp l ca thng tin xc thc, phn gii s in thoi ch,
v xc nh gateway ch thch hp (trong trng hp ny l Gateway B). Sau
Gatekeeper A gi mt bn tin xc nhn ACF (admission confirmation) cho
Gateway A. Bn tin ACF cha thng tin tnh cc (billing information) ca thu
bao (chng hn nh m ID tham kho v s d ti khon hin ti cho cc dch v
cuc gi tr trc) v chng c truy cp.

(10) Gateway A gi mt bn tin thit lp setup n Gateway B. Bn tin setup cng


cha chng c truy cp.

(11) Gateway B gi mt bn tin ARQ n Gatekeeper B. Bn tin ARQ cha chng c


truy cp nhn t Gateway A.

(12) Gatekeeper B xc nhn hp l ca thng tin xc thc trong chng c truy cp v


tr li cho Gateway B vi mt bn tin ACF.

Nu thng tin xc thc b sai, Gatekeeper B gi mt bn tin t chi thu nhn


ARJ (admission rejection) n Gateway B vi l do t chi securityDenial.

(13) Gateway B khi to mt cuc gi n telephone ch.

(14) Khi telephone ch tr li, Gateway B gi mt bn tin kt ni ti Gateway A.

(15) Cc Gateway A v B khi ng cc b m (timer) tnh thi gian cuc gi.


Nu thu bao pha gi (caller) ang s dng cc dch v thoi tr trc, ng h
m c so snh lin tc vi s d ti khon ca thu bao, thng tin ny cha
trong bn tin ACF bc (9).

Lin lc in thoi kt thc

(16) Cuc gi kt thc khi mt trong cc bn gc my hoc, trong trng hp cc


dch v cuc gi tr trc, khi mt trong cc gateway xc nh s d ti khon
ca thu bao vt qu.

(17) Cc Gateway A v B gi cc bn tin ngh kt thc DRQ (disengage request)


n cc gatekeeper ring ca chng. Bn tin DRQ cha thng tin kt qu tnh
cc.

(18) Cc Gatekeeper A v B gi bn tin xc nhn DCR (disengage confirmation) n


cc gateway ring ca chng.

Lin lc gia cc Gateway v Gatekeeper kt thc

(19) Cc Gateway A v B gi cc bn tin ngh thi ng k URQ (unregistration


request) n cc gatekeeper ring ca chng.

(20) Cc Gatekeeper A v B gi cc bn tin xc nhn UFC (unregistration


confirmation) n cc gateway ring ca chng.

cho php bo mt trn gateway, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng ch cu


hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Bc 1 Router(config)# gateway Vo ch cu hnh gateway.
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Lm hiu lc bo mt v ch nh cp ca
vic kim tra hp l c thc hin.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
passwordCh nh mt khu
gateway.
EndpointCh nh kim tra hp l
c thc hin trn tt c cc bn tin
t gateway bng cch s dng cc
cryptoToken c to ra da trn mt
khu bo mt cu hnh cho
gateway.
Per-Call Ch nh kim tra hp l
ch c thc hin trn cc bn tin
thu nhn t cc im cui H.323 n
Router(config-gateway)#
cc bn tin ARQ ca gateway, n i
security password hi user cung cp m s account v
Bc 2 password level {endpoint PIN. Hai m s ny cha trong cc
| per-call | all} bn tin RAS no gi t im
cui xc thc ngun gc ca cuc
gi.
AllTy chn ny bao gm c hai
cp Endpoint v Per-Call. Ch
nh kim tra hp l c thc hin
trn tt c cc bn tin RAS gi bi
gateway. Kim tra hp l ca cc
cryptoToken trong cc bn tin ARQ
da trn mt m s account v PIN
ca user ang to ra mt cuc gi, v
kim tra hp l ca cc cryptoToken
gi trong tt c cc bn tin RAS
khc da trn mt khu cu hnh
cho gateway.
Router(config-gateway)#
Bc 3 exit Thot khi ch cu hnh gateway.
Vo ch cu hnh dial-peer cu hnh
Router(config)# dial- mt dial peer POTS . Gi tr tag ca lnh
Bc 4 peer voice tag pots nhn din duy nht dial peer. Cc mc vo
hp l t 1 n 2,147,483,647.
Vo lnh khi to tn ng dng IVR v ng
dng TCL chn. Vo tn ng dng v v
tr ni kch bn (script) TCL IVR lu tr.
Router(config-dial-
Cc i s nh sau:
peer)# call application application-nameChui k t nh
Bc 5 voice application-name ngha tn ng dng.
location {word} locationCh ra v tr file TCL bng
nh dng URL. Cc v tr hp l l
TFTP, FTP, v Flash.
wordCh nh chui vn bn nh
Bc Lnh Mc ch
ngha mt cp gi tr thuc tnh
attribute-value (AV) ch nh bi
script TCL v hiu bi server
RADIUS.
Router(config-dial-
Bc 6 peer)# destination- Ch nh a ch E.164 lin i vi dial peer.
pattern [+]string[T]
Cu hnh cng thoi lin i vi dial peer
ny.
Router(config-dial- controller numberCh nh
Bc 7
peer)# port controller controller T1 hoc E1.
number:D :DCh ra knh D lin i vi PRI
ISDN.
4.5. Cu hnh h tr Gatekeeper d khuyt
Gatekeeper d khuyt cung cp l d tha cho mt gateway trong mt h thng
m cc gatekeeper c s dng. Mt gateway c th s dng ti hai gatekeeper
d khuyt d phng trong trng hp gatekeeper chnh b hng hc.

cu hnh gatekeeper d khuyt h tr trn mt gateway, dng cc lnh sau y


bt u bng ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Router(config)# interface Vo ch cu hnh giao tip cho
Bc 1 Ethernet 0/1 giao tip Ethernet.
Nhn dng a ch IP ca giao tip
Bc 2 Router(config-if)# ip address
Ethernet.
Nhn dng giao tip ny nh mt
Router(config-if)# h323-
Bc 3 gateway voip interface giao tip gateway Voice over IP
(VoIP).
Router(config-if)# h323-gateway Nhn dng gatekeeper cho giao tip
voip id gatekeeper-id {ipaddr
Bc 4 ip-address [port-number]| gateway ny v thit lp cc thuc
multicast} [priority number] tnh.
nhn dng gatekeeper d
khuyt, dng cc t kho v i s
sau:
gatekeeper-idCh ra s
xc minh H.323 ca
gatekeeper. Gi tr ny phi
Router(config-if)# h323-gateway chnh xc vi ID gatekeeper
voip id gatekeeper-id {ipaddr trong cu hnh gatekeeper.
Bc 5 ip-address [port-number] |
multicast} [priority number] nh dng ngh l
name.domain-name.
ipaddrCh ra rng gateway
s dng a ch IP nh v
(locate) gatekeeper.
ip-addressnh ngha a
ch IP c s dng nhn
Bc Lnh Mc ch
din gatekeeper.
port-number (Tu chn)
nh ngha s hiu cng s
dng .
multicastCh ra rng
gateway s s dng c ch
multicast nh v
gatekeeper.
priority number(Tu
chn) Mc u tin ca
gatekeeper. Khong mc t
1 n 127, v gi tr mc
nh l 127.
(Tu chn) nh ngha tn H.323
(H.323 name) ca gateway, nhn
bit gateway ny vi gatekeeper
lin i. i s interface-id l
Router(config-if)# h323- tn H.323 (ID) dng bi gateway
Bc 6 gateway voip h323-id interface- ny khi gateway ny lin lc vi
id gatekeeper lin i. Thng thng,
ID ny l tn ca gateway, cng vi
tn min (domain name) ca
gatekeeper gn vo pha sau:
name@domain-name.

4.6. Cu hnh chuyn tip DTMF


Lng m a tn DTMF (Dual tone multifrequency) l tone sinh ra trn my in
thoi bm s (touch-tone phone) khi bm cc s trn bn phm. Trong thi gian
cuc gi, DTMF c th c a vo truy nhp cc h thng tr li thoi tng
tc IVR (interactive voice response), nh cc dch v th thoi (voice mail) v rt
tin t ng (automated banking).

Mc d DTMF thng c truyn ti mt cch chnh xc khi s dng cc codec


thoi tc bit cao nh G.711, th cc codec tc bit thp nh G.729 v G.723.1
c ti u ho cao cho cc cc mu thoi (voice pattern) v c khuynh hng
mo tone DTMF. Kt qu l cc h thng IVR c th khng nhn bit ng tone.

Chuyn tip DTMF (DTMF relay) gii quyt vn mo DTMF bi cch chuyn ti
cc tone DTMF ngoi bng (out of band), hoc tch ri t lung thoi m ho.

cu hnh DTMF relay trn gateway, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng ch


cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
nh ngha mt dail-peer VoIP v vo ch
cu hnh dial-peer.
Router(config)# dial-
Bc 1 peer voice tag voip
Cc t kho v i s nh sau:
tagCh ra m s nh ngha mt dial-
peer c th. Cc mc vo hp l l t 1
Bc Lnh Mc ch
n 2,147,483,647.
voipCh ra y l mt peer VoIP s
dng ng gi thoi trn mng POTS.
Dng t kho ny cu hnh DTMF
relay.
Chuyn tip cc tone DTMF.
Cc t kho nh sau:
cisco-rtp(Tu chn) Chuyn tip cc
tone DTMF bng cch dng giao thc
RTP vi mt kiu ti trng (payload) c
quyn ca Cisco.
h245-alphanumeric(Tu chn)
Router(config-dial- Chuyn tip cc tone DTMF bng cch
peer)# dtmf-relay
Bc 2 [cisco-rtp] [h245- dng phng thc UUI (User Input
alphanumeric] [h245- Indication) H.245 alphanumeric (theo
signal] cc ch ci con s). N h tr cc tone 0
n 9, *, #, v A n D. Dng t kho
ny cu hnh DTMF relay.
h245-signal(Tu chn) Chuyn tip
cc tone DTMF bng cch dng phng
thc UUI H.245 "signal" (theo tn hiu).
N h tr cc tone 0 n 9, *, #, v A
n D.
Ch nh tc m ho thoi ca li ni cho
mt dial peer.
Cc t kho codec nh sau:
o clear-channelKnh r rng
64,000 bps (bits per second).
o g711alaG.711 a-Law 64,000
bps.
Router(config-dial- o g711ulaG.711 u-Law 64,000
peer)# codec codec
{clear-channel |
bps.
g711alaw | g711ulaw | o g723ar53G.723.1 Annex A
g723ar53 | g723ar63 | 5300 bps.
g723r53 | g723r63 | o g723ar63G.723.1 Annex A
Bc 3 g726r16 | g726r24
6300 bps.
|g726r32 | g726r53 |
g726r63 |g728 | o g723r53G.723.1 5300 bps.
g729abr8 | g729ar8 | o g723r63G.723.1 6300 bps.
g729br8 | g729r8 | o g726r16G.726 16,000 bps.
gsmefr | gsmfr}
[bytes payload_size] o g726r24G.726 24,000 bps.
o g726r32G.726 32,000 bps.
o g728G.728 16,000 bps.
o g729abr8G.729 Annex A & B
8000 bps.
o g729ar8G729 Annex A 8000
bps.
o g729br8G.729 Annex B 8000
Bc Lnh Mc ch
bps.
o g729r8G.729 8000 bps. y l
codec mc nh.
o gsmefrGlobal System for
Mobile Communications
Enhanced Full Rate (GSMEFR)
12,200 bps.
o gsmfrGlobal System for
Mobile Communications Full
Rate (GSMFR) 13,200 bps.
bytes(Tu chn) Ch nh s byte
trong payload thoi ca tng khung
(frame).
payload-size(Tu chn) S byte trong
payload thoi ca tng khung.
Router(config-dial- Ch nh prefix, s in thoi E.164 y ,
Bc 4 peer)# destination- hoc mt s danh b ISDN dng cho dial peer
pattern [+]string[T] (ph thuc vo cch gi).
Ch nh a ch mng c th cho mt dial peer
hoc gatekeeper ch c th.
Cc t kho v i s nh sau:
ipv4:destination-addressa ch IP
ca dial peer.
dns:host-nameCh ra DNS s c
s dng phn gii tn ca a ch IP.
Cc mc vo hp l cho tham s ny l
cc k t m t tn ca thit b host.
(Tu chn) C th dng mt trong 4 k
t i din sau khi nh ngha bn ch
Route(config-dial- cho cc peer VoIP:
peer)# session target
{ipv4:destination-
o $s$.Ch ra mt mu (pattern)
address | dns:[$s$. | ngun s c dng nh mt
$d$. | $e$. | $u$.] phn ca tn min
Bc 5 host-name | o $d$.Ch ra mt s ch s
loopback:rtp |
c dng nh mt phn ca
loopback:compressed |
loopback:uncompressed tn min
| mailto:{name | o $e$.Ch ra mu ch c
$d$.}@domain-name} dng nh mt phn ca tn min
o li nh dng du chm cho
nh dng DNS tpc.int. Th d,
nu s ch l 310 555-1234 v
bn ch c cu hnh l
$e$.cisco.com, tn DNS dch s
l 4.3.2.1.5.5.5.0.1.3.cisco.com.
o $u$.Ch ra phn khng so khp
ca mu ch (nh mt s ko
di) s c dng nh mt phn
ca tn min.
Bc Lnh Mc ch
loopback:rtpCh ra tt c d liu
thoi s c loopback v ngun khi
u. iu ny kh dng cho cc peer
VoIP.
loopback:compressedCh ra tt c d
liu thoi s c loopback bi ch
nn n ngun khi u. iu ny kh
dng cho cc peer POTS.
loopback:uncompressedCh ra tt c
d liu thoi s c loopback bi ch
gii nn n ngun khi u. iu
ny kh dng cho cc peer POTS.
mailto:namea ch e-mail ngi
nhn, tn, hoc b danh mailing list.
@domain-nameCh nh tn min
thch hp lin i vi a ch e-mail.

4.7. Cu hnh chuyn tip FXS Hookflash


Ch th "hookflash" l mt tnh trng gc my (on-hook) ngn trong thi gian cuc
gi. Ch th ny khng di trong khong thi gian c phin dch nh mt
tn hiu kt thc cuc gi.

Cc chuyn mch PBX v in thoi thng xuyn c lp trnh chn cc ch


th hookflash v dng chng nh l mt cch cho php mt user cn n cc
dch v b sung. Trong mt mng in thoi truyn thng, mt hookflash a n
mt s thay i in p trn ng dy in thoi. V khng c s thay i in p
tng ng ny trn mng IP, mt bn tin c th c gi qua mng IP trnh by
mt hookflash. gi mt ch th hookflash dng bn tin ny, mt im cui H.323
gi mt bn tin ch th cung cp user H.245 cha mt cu trc "H.245-signal" hoc
"H.245-alpha".

Hookflash relay c h tr trn cc router Cisco 2600, 3600, v 7200 v trn


concentrator a dch v MC3810.

cu hnh hookflash relay trn mt gateway, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng


ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Router Cisco 2600 v Vo ch cu hnh cng thoi voice-port.
3600 Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
Router(config)# voice-port Router Cisco 2600 v 3600:
{slot-number/subunit- slot-numberCh nh s hiu slot
number/port} | trong router ni card giao tip thoi
{slot/port:ds0-group-no}
Bc 1 c ci t. Cc mc vo hp l
Router Cisco 7200 t 0 n 3, ph thuc vo slot
Router(config)# voice-port
{slot/port:ds0-group-no} |
ni c ci t.
{slot-number/subunit- subunit-numberCh nh
number/port} subunit trn card giao tip thoi ni
Concentrator Cisco cng thoi c t. Cc mc vo
Bc Lnh Mc ch
MC3810 hp l l 0 hoc 1.
Router(config)# voice-port portCh ra cng thoi. Cc gi tr
slot/port
hp l l 0 hoc 1.
slotCh nh v tr router ni
adapter cng thoi c ci t.
Cc mc vo hp l l 0 n 3.
Router Cisco 7200:
slotCh nh v tr router ni
adapter cng thoi c ci t.
Cc mc vo hp l l 0 n 3.
portCh ra v tr card giao tip
thoi. Cc mc vo l 0 hoc 1.
ds0-group-nonh ngha m s
nhm DS0. Mi m s nhm DS0
nh ngha c m t trn mt
cng thoi ring bit. iu ny cho
php bn nh ngha cc DS0 ring
l trn card s T1/E1.
slot-numberCh nh s hiu slot
trong router ni card giao tip thoi
c ci t. Cc mc vo hp l t
0 n 3, ph thuc vo slot ni
c ci t.
subunit-numberCh nh
subunit trn card giao tip thoi ni
cng thoi c t. Cc mc vo
hp l l 0 hoc 1.
portCh ra cng thoi. Cc gi tr
hp l l 0 hoc 1.
Concentrator Cisco MC3810:
slotCh nh m s slot trn
router ni card giao tip thoi c
ci t. Mc vo hp l duy nht l
1.
portCh nh s hiu cng thoi.
Khong hp l nh sau:
o Cc cng analog : t 1 n 6.
o T1 s: t 1 n 24.
o E1 s: t 1 n 15 v t 17
n 31.
Ch nh khong thi gian ln nht ca
mt ch th hookflash. Nu hookflash ko
Router(config-voice-port)# di hn gii hn ch nh, giao tip FXS
Bc 2 timing hookflash-input (Foreign Exchange Station) x l ch th
duration nh mt on-hook. duration c ch bng
cc ms (millisecond). Cc gi tr c th l
50 n 1550. Gi tr mc nh l 600 ms.
Bc 3 Router(config-voice-port)# Ch nh khong thi gian, tnh bng ms,
Bc Lnh Mc ch
timing hookflash-out ca cc ch th hookflash m gateway sinh
duration ra trn mt giao tip FXO (Foreign
Exchange Office). Cc mc vo hp l t
50 n 1550 ms. Gi tr mc nh l 400
ms.

4.8. Cu hnh nhiu Codec


Bnh thng ch c mt codec c ch nh khi mt dial peer c cu hnh trn
mt gateway. Tuy nhin , mt danh sch u tin ca cc codec c th cu hnh
tng xy ra thit lp mt kt ni gia cc im cui trong qu trnh trao i H.245.
cu hnh nhiu codec cho mt dial peer, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng ch
cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Vo ch cu hnh phn lp thoi v n
nh mt m s th nhn dng cho phn lp
Router(config)# voice codec. i s tag l s duy nht n nh
Bc 1 class codec tag cho phn cp thoi. Khong gi tr hp l t
1 n 10,000. Mi m s th phi duy nht
trn b nh tuyn.
Thm codec vo danh sch codec c th t
u tin.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
valueCh nh th t u tin, vi 1
l u tin cao nht v 12 l u tin
thp nht.
codec-typeCh nh kiu ca
codec u tin. Cc kiu ny nh sau:
o clear-channelKnh r rng
64,000 bps.
o g711alawG.711a-Law
64,000 bps.
Router(config-class)#
o g711ulawG.711 u-Law
codec preference value 64,000 bps.
Bc 2 codec-type [bytes payload- o g723ar53G.723.1 Annex-A
size] 5300 bps.
o g723ar63G.723.1 Annex-A

6300 bps.
o g723r53G.723.1 5300 bps.
o g723r63G.723.1 6300 bps.
o g726r16G.726 16,000 bps.
o g726r24G.726 24,000 bps.
o g726r32G.726 32,000 bps.
o g728G.728 16,000 bps.
o g729abr8G.729 Annex-A
v B 8000 bps.
o g729br8G.729 Annex-B
Bc Lnh Mc ch
8000 bps.
o g729r8G.729 8000 bps.
y l codec mc nh.
o gsmefrGlobal System for
Mobile Communications
Enhanced Full Rate
(GSMEFR) 12,200 bps.
o gsmfrGlobal System for
Mobile Communications Full
Rate (GSMFR) 13,200 bps.
bytes(Tu chn) Ch nh c ca
khung thoi tnh bng byte.
o payload-size(Tu chn)
S byte bn ch nh cho
payload thoi ca tng frame.
Cc gi tr ph thuc vo kiu
codec v giao thc thoi gi.
Bc 3 Router(config-class)# exit Thot khi ch cu hnh phn cp thoi.
Vo ch cu hnh dial-peer cu hnh
Router(config)# dial-peer
Bc 4 voice tag voip mt peer VoIP. i s tag nhn bit mt dial
peer. (S ny ch c ngha ni b.)
tag l m s n nht n nh cho phn cp
Router(config-dial- thoi. Khong hp l ca tag t 1 n
Bc 5 peer)# voice-class codec 10,000. M s tag nh x vi m s tag
tag to ra bng lnh cu hnh ton cc voice
class codec.

4.9. Cu hnh mu cuc gi quay vng


Mu cuc gi quay vng (Rotary calling pattern) nh tuyn mt cuc gi vo n
t mt giao tip telephony rt lui qua mt giao tip telephony khc di nhng
hon cnh no . Mu cuc gi quay vng ch yu cung cp dch v tin cy trong
qu trnh mng hng hc. Cuc gi thit lp dng mu cuc gi quay vng c h
tr bi s h tr nhm quay ca cc dial peer, ni m nhiu dial peer c th ng
vi s in thoi ch cho v c chn la theo dy. Thm vo , nu cc
im ch cn c th nghim theo mt th t no , s u tin c th c n
nh. Dng lnh preference khi cu hnh cc dial peer phn nh th t u tin (0
l u tin cao nht v 10 l thp nht).

Nu vi dial peer ng vi mt mu ch ring bit, h thng c gng t mt cuc


gi n dial peer cu hnh vi u tin cao nht. Nu cuc gi khng th hon
thnh v mt h thng ngng (th d, gatekeeper hoc gateway khng th lin lc),
mu cuc gi quay vng thc hin cc cng vic sau:

Lit k tt c iu kin m hon cnh th d ny xut hin.

Th li cuc gi n dial peer k tip c u tin cao hn.

Tip tc cho n khi khng cn dial peer ng c tm thy.


Nu cc dial peer c u tin nh nhau, th t c xc nh ngu nhin.

cu hnh u tin dial-peer cho mt gateway, dng cc lnh sau y bt u bng


ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Vo ch cu hnh dial-peer cu hnh
Router(config)# dial-peer
Bc 1 voice tag voip mt peer VoIP. i s tag nhn bit mt dial
peer. (S ny ch c ngha ni b.)
Lnh preference dng ch ra th t c
u tin ca mt dial peer bn trong mt
nhm tm kim khi c so khp vi chui
quay s, s dng lnh preference trong ch
Router(config-dial-
Bc 2 peer)# preference value cu hnh dial-peer bc 1.

value l mt s nguyn ch ra th t u tin


t cao n thp tng ng vi cc gi tr t 0
n 10. Mc nh l 0 (u tin cao nht).

4.10. Cu hnh h tr H.323 cho cc giao tip o


H tr H.323 cho cc giao tip o cho php a ch IP ca gateway c cu hnh
a ch IP cha trong gi H.323 lun l a ch IP ngun ca gateway, bt chp
giao tip vt l v giao thc s dng. Tnh nng a ch n cho php cc ng dng
firewall cu hnh d dng lm vic vi cc bn tin H.323.

cu hnh a ch IP ngun cho mt gateway, dng cc lnh sau y bt u


bng ch cu hnh ton cc:
Bc Lnh Mc ch
Vo ch cu hnh giao tip interface cu
hnh cc tham s cho giao tip ch nh.
Cc t kho v cc i s nh sau:
Router(config)# typeCh ra kiu ca interface.
interface type slotCh nh s lng slot ang c
Bc 1 slot/port cu hnh.
portCh nh s lng cng ang
c cu hnh.
Lu : C php s khc nhau, ph thuc vo
platform.
Thit lp a ch IP ngun dng cho gateway
ny. i s ip-address ch nh a ch IP
Router(config-if)#
c dng cho lu lng H.323 ia ra ngoi,
Bc 2 h323-gateway voip bind
srcaddr ip-address n cha trong cc bn tin H.225, H.245, v
RAS. c bit, y l a ch IP n nh cho
giao tip Ethernet.