You are on page 1of 24

12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

ElectricalNotes&Articles

SharingAbstracts,NotesonvariousElectricalEngineeringTopics.

VectorGroupofTransformer

MAY23,2012 111COMMENTS(HTTPS://ELECTRICALNOTES.WORDPRESS.COM/2012/05/23/VECTORGROUPOF
TRANSFORMER/#COMMENTS)

Introduction:

Threephasetransformerconsistsofthreesetsofprimarywindings,oneforeachphase,andthreesetsofsecondarywindingswound
onthesameironcore.Separatesinglephasetransformerscanbeusedandexternallyinterconnectedtoyieldthesameresultsasa3
phaseunit.

Theprimarywindingsareconnectedinoneofseveralways.Thetwomostcommoncongurationsarethedelta,inwhichthe
polarityendofonewindingisconnectedtothenonpolarityendofthenext,andthestar,inwhichallthreenonpolarities(or
polarity)endsareconnectedtogether.Thesecondarywindingsareconnectedsimilarly.Thismeansthata3phasetransformercan
haveitsprimaryandsecondarywindingsconnectedthesame(deltadeltaorstarstar),ordierently(deltastarorstardelta).

Itsimportanttorememberthatthesecondaryvoltagewaveformsareinphasewiththeprimarywaveformswhentheprimaryand
secondarywindingsareconnectedthesameway.Thisconditioniscallednophaseshift.Butwhentheprimaryandsecondary
windingsareconnecteddierently,thesecondaryvoltagewaveformswilldierfromthecorrespondingprimaryvoltagewaveforms
by30electricaldegrees.Thisiscalleda30degreephaseshift.Whentwotransformersareconnectedinparallel,theirphaseshifts
mustbeidentical;ifnot,ashortcircuitwilloccurwhenthetransformersareenergized.

BasicIdeaofWinding:

Anacvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath.Thephase
relationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwaysroundthecoilsareconnected.Thevoltageswilleitherbeinphaseor
displacedby180deg
When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseordisplaced
asabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)broughtouttoan
externalterminalornot.

SixWaystowireStarWinding:

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 1/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

(h ps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/yy.jpg)
(h ps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/y.png)

SixWaystowireDeltaWinding:

(h ps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/dd1.jpg)

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 2/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

Polarity:

Anacvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath.Thephase
relationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwayroundthecoilsareconnected.Thevoltageswilleitherbeinphaseor
displacedby180deg.
When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseordisplaced
asabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)broughtouttoan
externalterminalornot.

(h ps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/untitled33.jpg)

WhenPairofCoilofTransformerhavesamedirectionthanvoltageinducedinbothcoilareinsamedirectionfromoneendto
otherend.
WhentwocoilhaveoppositewindingdirectionthanVoltageinducedinbothcoilareinoppositedirection.

Windingconnectiondesignations:

FirstSymbol:forHighVoltage:Alwayscapitalle ers.
D=Delta,Y=Star,Z=Interconnectedstar,N=Neutral
SecondSymbol:forLowvoltage:AlwaysSmallle ers.
d=Delta,y=Star,z=Interconnectedstar,n=Neutral.
ThirdSymbol:Phasedisplacementexpressedastheclockhournumber(1,6,11)
ExampleDyn11
Transformerhasadeltaconnectedprimarywinding(D)astarconnectedsecondary(y)withthestarpointbroughtout(n)anda
phaseshiftof30degleading(11).
Thepointofconfusionisoccurringinnotationinastepuptransformer.AstheIEC600761standardhasstated,thenotationis
HVLVinsequence.Forexample,astepuptransformerwithadeltaconnectedprimary,andstarconnectedsecondary,isnot
wri enasdY11,butYd11.The11indicatestheLVwindingleadstheHVby30degrees.
TransformersbuilttoANSIstandardsusuallydonothavethevectorgroupshownontheirnameplateandinsteadavector
diagramisgiventoshowtherelationshipbetweentheprimaryandotherwindings.

VectorGroupofTransformer:

Thethreephasetransformerwindingscanbeconnectedseveralways.Basedonthewindingsconnection,thevectorgroupofthe
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 3/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Thethreephasetransformerwindingscanbeconnectedseveralways.Basedonthewindingsconnection,thevectorgroupofthe
transformerisdetermined.
ThetransformervectorgroupisindicatedontheNamePlateoftransformerbythemanufacturer.
Thevectorgroupindicatesthephasedierencebetweentheprimaryandsecondarysides,introducedduetothatparticular
congurationoftransformerwindingsconnection.
TheDeterminationofvectorgroupoftransformersisveryimportantbeforeconnectingtwoormoretransformersinparallel.If
twotransformersofdierentvectorgroupsareconnectedinparallelthenphasedierenceexistbetweenthesecondaryofthe
transformersandlargecirculatingcurrentowsbetweenthetwotransformerswhichisverydetrimental.

PhaseDisplacementbetweenHVandLVWindings:

Thevectorforthehighvoltagewindingistakenasthereferencevector.Displacementofthevectorsofotherwindingsfromthe
referencevector,withanticlockwiserotation,isrepresentedbytheuseofclockhourgure.
IS:2026(Part1V)1977gives26setsofconnectionsstarstar,stardelta,andstarzigzag,deltadelta,deltastar,deltazigzag,zigzag
star,zigzagdelta.Displacementofthelowvoltagewindingvectorvariesfromzeroto330instepsof30,dependingonthe
methodofconnections.
Hardlyanypowersystemadoptssuchalargevarietyofconnections.Someofthecommonlyusedconnectionswithphase
displacementof0,300,180and330(clockhourse ing0,1,6and11).
Symbolforthehighvoltagewindingcomesrst,followedbythesymbolsofwindingsindiminishingsequenceofvoltage.For
examplea220/66/11kVTransformerconnectedstar,staranddeltaandvectorsof66and11kVwindingshavingphase
displacementof0and330withthereference(220kV)vectorwillberepresentedAsYy0Yd11.
Thedigits(0,1,11etc)relatetothephasedisplacementbetweentheHVandLVwindingsusingaclockfacenotation.Thephasor
representingtheHVwindingistakenasreferenceandsetat12oclock.Phaserotationisalwaysanticlockwise.(International
adopted).
Usethehourindicatorastheindicatingphasedisplacementangle.Becausethereare12hoursonaclock,andacircleconsistsout
of360,eachhourrepresents30.Thus1=30,2=60,3=90,6=180and12=0or360.
Theminutehandisseton12oclockandreplacesthelinetoneutralvoltage(sometimesimaginary)oftheHVwinding.This
positionisalwaysthereferencepoint.
Example:
Digit0=0thattheLVphasorisinphasewiththeHVphasor
Digit1=30lagging(LVlagsHVwith30)becauserotationisanticlockwise.
Digit11=330laggingor30leading(LVleadsHVwith30)
Digit5=150lagging(LVlagsHVwith150)
Digit6=180lagging(LVlagsHVwith180)
Whentransformersareoperatedinparallelitisimportantthatanyphaseshiftisthesamethrougheach.Parallelingtypically
occurswhentransformersarelocatedatonesiteandconnectedtoacommonbusbar(banked)orlocatedatdierentsiteswith
thesecondaryterminalsconnectedviadistributionortransmissioncircuitsconsistingofcablesandoverheadlines.

PhaseShift Connection
(Deg)

0 Yy0 Dd0 Dz0

30lag Yd1 Dy1 Yz1

60lag Dd2 Dz2

120lag Dd4 Dz4

150lag Yd5 Dy5 Yz5

180lag Yy6 Dd6 Dz6

150lead Yd7 Dy7 Yz7

120lead Dd8 Dz8

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 4/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

60lead Dd10 Dz10

30lead Yd11 Dy11 Yz11

ThephasebushingsonathreephasetransformeraremarkedeitherABC,UVWor123(HVsidecapital,LVsidesmallle ers).
Twowinding,threephasetransformerscanbedividedintofourmaincategories

Group Oclock TC
GroupI 0oclock,0 delta/delta,star/star
GroupII 6oclock,180 delta/delta,star/star
GroupIII 1oclock,30 star/delta,delta/star
GroupIV 11oclock,+30 star/delta,delta/star
MinusindicatesLVlaggingHV,plusindicatesLV
leadingHV

ClockNotation:0

ClockNotation:1

ClockNotation:2

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 5/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

ClockNotation:4

ClockNotation:5

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 6/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

ClockNotation:6

ClockNotation:7

ClockNotation:11

PointstobeconsiderwhileSelectingofVectorGroup:

VectorGroupsaretheIECmethodofcategorizingtheprimaryandsecondarywindingcongurationsof3phasetransformers.
Windingscanbeconnectedasdelta,star,orinterconnectedstar(zigzag).Windingpolarityisalsoimportant,sincereversingthe
connectionsacrossasetofwindingsaectsthephaseshiftbetweenprimaryandsecondary.Vectorgroupsidentifythewinding
connectionsandpolaritiesoftheprimaryandsecondary.Fromavectorgrouponecandeterminethephaseshiftbetween
primaryandsecondary.
Transformervectorgroupdependsupon
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 7/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Transformervectorgroupdependsupon
Removingharmonics:Dyconnectionywindingnullies3rdharmonics,preventingittobereectedondeltaside.
Paralleloperations:Allthetransformersshouldhavesamevectorgroup&polarityofthewinding.
EarthfaultRelay:ADdtransformerdoesnothaveneutral.torestricttheearthfaultsinsuchsystems,wemayusezigzag
woundtransformertocreateaneutralalongwiththeearthfaultrelay..
TypeofNonLinerLoad:systemshavingdierenttypesofharmonics&nonlinearTypesofloadse.g.furnaceheaters,VFDS
etcforthatwemayuseDyn11,Dyn21,Dyn31conguration,wherein,30deg.shiftsofvoltagesnulliesthe3rdharmonicsto
zerointhesupplysystem.
TypeofTransformerApplication:GenerallyforPowerexporttransformeri.e.generatorsideisconnectedindeltaandload
sideisconnectedinstar.ForPowerexportimporttransformersi.e.inTransmissionPurposeTransformerstarstarconnection
maybepreferredbysomesincethisavoidsagroundingtransformerongeneratorsideandperhapssaveonneutral
insulation.Mostofsystemsarerunninginthisconguration.Maybelessharmfulthanoperatingdeltasystemincorrectly.Yd
orDyconnectionisstandardforallunitconnectedgenerators.
Thereareanumberoffactorsassociatedwithtransformerconnectionsandmaybeusefulindesigningasystem,andthe
applicationofthefactorsthereforedeterminesthebestselectionoftransformers.Forexample:

ForselectingStarConnection:

Astarconnectionpresentsaneutral.Ifthetransformeralsoincludesadeltawinding,thatneutralwillbestableandcanbe
groundedtobecomeareferenceforthesystem.AtransformerwithastarwindingthatdoesNOTincludeadeltadoesnot
presentastableneutral.
Starstartransformersareusedifthereisarequirementtoavoida30degphaseshift,ifthereisadesiretoconstructthethree
phasetransformerbankfromsinglephasetransformers,orifthetransformerisgoingtobeswitchedonasinglepolebasis(ie,
onephaseatatime),perhapsusingmanualswitches.
Starstartransformersaretypicallyfoundindistributionapplications,orinlargesizesinterconnectinghighvoltagetransmission
systems.Somestarstartransformersareequippedwithathirdwindingconnectedindeltatostabilizetheneutral.

ForselectingDeltaConnection:

Adeltaconnectionintroducesa30electricaldegreephaseshift.
Adeltaconnectiontrapstheowofzerosequencecurrents.

ForselectingDeltaStarConnection:

Deltastartransformersarethemostcommonandmostgenerallyusefultransformers.
Deltadeltatransformersmaybechosenifthereisnoneedforastableneutral,orifthereisarequirementtoavoida30electrical
degreephaseshift.Themostcommonapplicationofadeltadeltatransformerisastanisolationtransformerforapower
converter.

ForselectingZigzagConnection:

TheZigZagwindingreducesvoltageunbalanceinsystemswheretheloadisnotequallydistributedbetweenphases,and
permitsneutralcurrentloadingwithinherentlylowzerosequenceimpedance.Itisthereforeoftenusedforearthing
transformers.
Provisionofaneutralearthpointorpoints,wheretheneutralisreferredtoeartheitherdirectlyorthroughimpedance.
Transformersareusedtogivetheneutralpointinthemajorityofsystems.Thestarorinterconnectedstar(Z)winding
congurationsgiveaneutrallocation.Ifforvariousreasons,onlydeltawindingsareusedataparticularvoltagelevelona
particularsystem,aneutralpointcanstillbeprovidedbyapurposemadetransformercalledaneutralearthing.

ForselectingDistributionTransformer:

Therstcriteriontoconsiderinchoosingavectorgroupforadistributiontransformerforafacilityistoknowwhetherwewant
adeltastarorstarstar.Utilitiesoftenpreferstarstartransformers,buttheserequire4wireinputfeedersand4wireoutput
feeders(i.e.incomingandoutgoingneutralconductors).
Fordistributiontransformerswithinafacility,oftendeltastararechosenbecausethesetransformersdonotrequire4wireinput;
a3wireprimaryfeedercircuitsucestosupplya4wiresecondarycircuit.Thatisbecauseanyzerosequencecurrentrequired
bythesecondarytosupplyearthfaultsorunbalancedloadsissuppliedbythedeltaprimarywinding,andisnotrequiredfrom
theupstreampowersource.Themethodofearthingonthesecondaryisindependentoftheprimaryfordeltastartransformers.
Thesecondcriteriontoconsideriswhatphaseshiftyouwantbetweenprimaryandsecondary.Forexample,Dy11andDy5
transformersarebothdeltastar.Ifwedontcareaboutthephaseshift,theneithertransformerwilldothejob.Phaseshiftis
importantwhenweareparallelingsources.Wewantthephaseshiftsofthesourcestobeidentical.
Ifweareparallelingtransformers,thenyouwantthemtohavethesamethesamevectorgroup.Ifyouarereplacinga
transformer,usethesamevectorgroupforthenewtransformer,otherwisetheexistingVTsandCTsusedforprotectionand
meteringwillnotworkproperly.

Thereisnotechnicaldierencebetweentheonevectorgroups(i.e.Yd1)oranothervectorgroup(i.e.Yd11)intermsof
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 8/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Thereisnotechnicaldierencebetweentheonevectorgroups(i.e.Yd1)oranothervectorgroup(i.e.Yd11)intermsof
performance.Theonlyfactoraectingthechoicebetweenoneortheotherissystemphasing,iewhetherpartsofthenetworkfed
fromthetransformerneedtooperateinparallelwithanothersource.Italsoma ersifyouhaveanauxiliarytransformer
connectedtogeneratorterminals.Vectormatchingattheauxiliarybusbar

ApplicationofTransformeraccordingtoVectorGroup:

(1)(Dyn11,Dyn1,YNd1,YNd11)

Commonfordistributiontransformers.
NormallyDyn11vectorgroupusingatdistributionsystem.BecauseGeneratingTransformerareYNd1forneutralizingtheload
anglebetween11and1.
WecanuseDyn1atdistributionsystem,whenweareusingGeneratorTransformerareYNd11.
Insomeindustries6pulseelectricdrivesareusingduetothis5thharmonicswillgenerateifweuseDyn1itwillbesuppressthe
5thharmonics.
Starpointfacilitatesmixedloadingofthreephaseandsinglephaseconsumerconnections.
Thedeltawindingcarrythirdharmonicsandstabilizesstarpointpotential.
AdeltaStarconnectionisusedforstepupgeneratingstations.IfHVwindingisstarconnectedtherewillbesavingincostof
insulation.
ButdeltaconnectedHVwindingiscommonindistributionnetwork,forfeedingmotorsandlightingloadsfromLVside.

(2)StarStar(Yy0orYy6)

MainlyusedforlargesystemtieupTransformer.
MosteconomicalconnectioninHVpowersystemtointerconnectbetweentwodeltasystemsandtoprovideneutralfor
groundingbothofthem.
Tertiarywindingstabilizestheneutralconditions.Instarconnectedtransformers,loadcanbeconnectedbetweenlineand
neutral,onlyif
(a)thesourcesidetransformersisdeltaconnectedor
(b)thesourcesideisstarconnectedwithneutralconnectedbacktothesourceneutral.
InThisTransformers.Insulationcostishighlyreduced.Neutralwirecanpermitmixedloading.
Tripleharmonicsareabsentinthelines.Thesetripleharmoniccurrentscannotow,unlessthereisaneutralwire.This
connectionproducesoscillatingneutral.
Threephaseshelltypeunitshavelargetripleharmonicphasevoltage.Howeverthreephasecoretypetransformerswork
satisfactorily.
Atertiarymeshconnectedwindingmayberequiredtostabilizetheoscillatingneutralduetothirdharmonicsinthreephase
banks.

(3)DeltaDelta(Dd0orDd6)

Thisisaneconomicalconnectionforlargelowvoltagetransformers.
Largeunbalanceofloadcanbemetwithoutdiculty.
Deltapermitsacirculatingpathfortripleharmonicsthusa enuatesthesame.
ItispossibletooperatewithonetransformerremovedinopendeltaorVconnectionmeeting58percentofthebalancedload.
Threephaseunitscannothavethisfacility.Mixedsinglephaseloadingisnotpossibleduetotheabsenceofneutral.

(4)StarZigzagorDeltaZigzag(YzorDz)

Theseconnectionsareemployedwheredeltaconnectionsareweak.Interconnectionofphasesinzigzagwindingeectsa
reductionofthirdharmonicvoltagesandatthesametimepermitsunbalancedloading.
Thisconnectionmaybeusedwitheitherdeltaconnectedorstarconnectedwindingeitherforstepuporstepdowntransformers.
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 9/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Thisconnectionmaybeusedwitheitherdeltaconnectedorstarconnectedwindingeitherforstepuporstepdowntransformers.
Ineithercase,thezigzagwindingproducesthesameangulardisplacementasadeltawinding,andatthesametimeprovidesa
neutralforearthingpurposes.
Theamountofcopperrequiredfromazigzagwindingin15%morethanacorrespondingstarordeltawinding.Thisis
extensivelyusedforearthingtransformer.
Duetozigzagconnection(interconnectionbetweenphases),thirdharmonicvoltagesarereduced.Italsoallowsunbalanced
loading.ThezigzagconnectionisemployedforLVwinding.Foragiventotalvoltageperphase,thezigzagsiderequires15%
moreturnsascomparedtonormalphaseconnection.Incaseswheredeltaconnectionsareweakduetolargenumberofturns
andsmallcrosssections,thenzigzagstarconnectionispreferred.Itisalsousedinrectiers.

(5)Zigzag/star(ZY1orZy11)

Zigzagconnectionisobtainedbyinterconnectionofphases.4wiresystemispossibleonbothsides.Unbalancedloadingisalso
possible.Oscillatingneutralproblemisabsentinthisconnection.
Thisconnectionrequires15%moreturnsforthesamevoltageonthezigzagsideandhencecostsmore.Henceabankofthree
singlephasetransformerscostabout15%morethantheir3phasecounterpart.Also,theyoccupymorespace.Butthespare
capacitycostwillbelessandsinglephaseunitsareeasiertotransport.
Unbalancedoperationofthetransformerwithlargezerosequencefundamentalmmfcontentalsodoesnotaectits
performance.EvenwithYytypeofpolyphaseconnectionwithoutneutralconnectiontheoscillatingneutraldoesnotoccurwith
thesecores.Finally,threephasecoresthemselvescostlessthanthreesinglephaseunitsduetocompactness.

(6)Yd5:

MainlyusedformachineandmainTransformerinlargePowerStationandTransmissionSubstation.
TheNeutralpointcanbeloadedwithratedCurrent.

(7)Yz5

ForDistributionTransformerupto250MVAforlocaldistributionsystem.
TheNeutralpointcanbeloadedwithratedCurrent.

ApplicationofTransformeraccordingaccordingtoUses:

StepupTransformer:ItshouldbeYd1orYd11.
StepdownTransformer:ItshouldbeDy1orDy11.
GroundingpurposeTransformer:ItshouldbeYz1orDz11.
DistributionTransformer:WecanconsidervectorgroupofDzn0whichreducethe75%ofharmonicsinsecondaryside.
PowerTransformer:VectorgroupisdeepenonapplicationforExample:GeneratingTransformer:Dyn1,FurnaceTransformer:
Ynyn0.

ConvertOneGroupofTransformertoOtherGroupbyChanning
ExternalConnection:

(1)GroupI:Example:Dd0(nophasedisplacementbetweenHVandLV).

TheconventionalmethodistoconnecttheredphaseonA/a,YellowphaseonB/b,andtheBluephaseonC/c.

Otherphasedisplacementsarepossiblewithunconventionalconnections(forinstanceredonb,yellowoncandblueona)By 10/24
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Otherphasedisplacementsarepossiblewithunconventionalconnections(forinstanceredonb,yellowoncandblueona)By
doingsomeunconventionalconnectionsexternallyononesideoftheTransformer,aninternalconnectedDd0transformercanbe
changedeithertoaDd4(120)orDd8(+120)connection.ThesameistrueforinternalconnectedDd4orDd8transformers.

(2)GroupII:Example:Dd6(180displacementbetweenHVandLV).

BydoingsomeunconventionalconnectionsexternallyononesideoftheTransformer,aninternalconnectedDd6transformercan
bechangedeithertoaDd2(60)orDd10(+60)connection.

(3)GroupIII:Example:Dyn1(30displacementbetweenHVandLV).

BydoingsomeunconventionalconnectionsexternallyononesideoftheTransformer,aninternalconnectedDyn1transformer
canbechangedeithertoaDyn5(150)orDyn9(+90)connection.

(4)GroupIV:Example:Dyn11(+30displacementbetweenHVandLV).

BydoingsomeunconventionalconnectionsexternallyononesideoftheTransformer,aninternalconnectedDyn11transformer
canbechangedeithertoaDyn7(+150)orDyn3(90)connection.

Pointtoberemembered:

ForGroupIII&GroupIV:BydoingsomeunconventionalconnectionsexternallyonbothsidesoftheTransformer,aninternal
connectedGroupIIIorGroupIVtransformercanbechangedtoanyofthesetwogroups.
ThusbydoingexternalchangesonbothsidesoftheTransformeraninternalconnectedDyn1transformercanbechangedto
eithera:Dyn3,Dyn5,Dyn7,Dyn9orDyn11transformer,Thisisjusttrueforstar/deltaordelta/starconnections.
ForGroupI&GroupII:Changesfordelta/deltaorstar/startransformersbetweenGroupIandGroupIIIcanjustbedone
internally.

Why30phaseshiftoccurinstardeltatransformerbetweenprimary
andsecondary?

Thephaseshiftisanaturalconsequenceofthedeltaconnection.Thecurrentsenteringorleavingthestarwindingofthe
transformerareinphasewiththecurrentsinthestarwindings.Therefore,thecurrentsinthedeltawindingsarealsoinphase
withthecurrentsinthestarwindingsandobviously,thethreecurrentsare120electricaldegreesapart.
Butthecurrentsenteringorleavingthetransformeronthedeltasideareformedatthepointwheretwoofthewindings
comprisingthedeltacometogethereachofthosecurrentsisthephasorsumofthecurrentsintheadjacentwindings.
Whenyouaddtogethertwocurrentsthatare120electricaldegreesapart,thesumisinevitablyshiftedby30degrees.

(h ps://electricalnotes.les.wordpress.com/2012/05/3333.jpg)

TheMainreasonforthisphenomenonisthatthephasevoltagelagslinecurrentby30degrees.consideradelta/startransformer.
Thephasevoltagesinthreephasesofbothprimaryandsecondary.youwillndthatinprimarythephasevoltageandline
voltagesaresame,letitbeVRY(takeonephase).but,thecorrespondingsecondarywillhavethephasevoltageonlyinitsphase

windingasitisstarconnected.thelinevoltageofstarconnectedsecondaryanddeltaconnectedprimarywonthaveanyphase 11/24
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
windingasitisstarconnected.thelinevoltageofstarconnectedsecondaryanddeltaconnectedprimarywonthaveanyphase
dierencesbetweenthem.sothiscanbesummarizedthatthephaseshiftisassociatedwiththewaveformsofthethreephase
windings.

WhywhenGeneratingTransformerisYd1thanDistribution
TransformerisDy11:

ThisistheHVSideortheSwitchyardsideoftheGeneratorTransformerisconnectedinDeltaandtheLVSideorthegenerator
sideoftheGTisconnectedinStar,withtheStarsideneutralbroughtout.
TheLVsidevoltagewilllagtheHVsidevoltageby30degrees.
Thus,inageneratingstationwecreatea30degreeslaggingvoltagefortransmission,withrespecttothegeneratorvoltage.
Aswehavecreateda30degreeslaggingconnectioninthegeneratingstation,itisadvisabletocreatea30degreesleading
connectionindistributionsothattheuservoltageisinphasewiththegeneratedvoltage.And,asthetransmissionsideisDelta
andtheusermightneedthreephase,fourwireintheLVsideforhissinglephaseloads,thedistributiontransformerischosenas
Dyn11.
ThereismagneticcouplingbetweenHTandLT.Whentheloadside(LT)suerssomediptheLTcurrenttrytogooutofphase
withHTcurrent,so30degreephaseshiftinDyn11keepsthetwocurrentsinphasewhenthereisdip.
SothevectorgroupatthegeneratingstationisimportantwhileselectingdistributionTransformer.

VectorGroupinGeneratingTransmissionDistributionSystem:

GeneratingTCisYd1transmi edpowerat400KV,for400KVto220KVYyisusedandbyusingYdbetweene.g.220and66kV,
thenDyfrom66to11kVsothattheirphaseshiftscanbecancelledout.AndforLV(400/230V)suppliesat50Hzareusually3
phase,earthedneutral,soaDynLVwindingisneeded.HereGTside30lag(Yd1)canbenullify+30byusingdistribution
TransformerofDy11.
AreasonforusingYdbetweene.g.220and66kV,thenDyfrom66to11kVisthattheirphaseshiftscancanceloutandItisthen
alsopossibletoparallela220/11kVYYtransformer,at11kV,withthe66/11kV(aYYtransformeroftenhasathird,delta,
windingtoreduceharmonics).IfonewentDy11Dy11from220to11kV,therewouldbea60degreeshift,whichisnotpossible
inonetransformer.Thestandardtransformergroupsindistributionavoidthatkindoflimitation,asaresultofthoughtand
experienceleadingtolowestcostovermanyyears.

GeneratorTCisYd1,CanweuseDistributionTCDy5insteadofDy11.

Withregardstotheory,therearenospecialadvantagesofDyn11overDyn5.
InIsolationApplication:InisolatedapplicationsthereisnoadvantageordisadvantagebyusingDy5orDy11.Ifhoweverwe
wishtointerconnectthesecondarysidesofdierentDnytransformers,wemusthavecompatibletransformers,andthatcanbe
achievedifyouhaveaDyn11amongagroupofDyn5sandviceversa.
InParallelConnection:Practically,therelativeplacesofthephasesremainsameinDyn11comparedtoDyn5.
IfweuseYd1TransformeronGeneratingSideandDistributionsideDy11transformerthan30lagofgeneratingside(Yd1)is
nullifyby+30LeadatReceivingsideDy11)sonophasedierencerespecttogeneratingSideandifweareontheHVsideofthe
Transformer,andifwedenotethephasesasRYBfromlefttoright,thesamephasesontheLVsidewillbeRYB,butfromleft
toRight.
ThiswillmaketheTransmissionlineshavesamecolor(foridentication)whetheritisinputtooroutputfromtheTransformer.
IfweuseYd1TransformeronGeneratingSideandDistributionsideDy5transformerthan30lagofgeneratingside(Yd1)is
morelagby150LagatReceivingside(Dy5)soTotalphasedierencerespecttogeneratingSideis180deg(30+150=180)andif
weareontheHVsideoftheTransformer,andifwedenotethephasesasRYBfromlefttoright,thesamephasesontheLV
sidewillbeRYB,butfromRighttoLeft.
ThiswillmaketheTransmissionlineshaveNosamecolor(foridentication)whetheritisinputtooroutputfromthe
Transformer.
ThedierenceinoutputbetweentheDyn11andDny5andistherefore180degrees.


https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 12/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles

FILEDUNDERUNCATEGORIZED Abouttheseads
(https://wordpress.com/about
theseads/)
AboutJignesh.Parmar
JigneshParmarhascompletedM.Tech(PowerSystemControl),B.E(Electrical)fromGujaratUniversity.Hehasmorethan13years
experienceinPowerTransmissionPowerDistributionElectricalenergytheftdetectionElectricalMaintenanceElectrical
Projects(PlanningDesigningcoordinationExecution).HeisPresentlyassociatewithoneoftheleadingbusinessgroupasaDeputy
ManageratAhmedabad,India.HeisFreelancerProgrammerofAdvanceExcelanddesignusefulExcelSheetsofElectrical
EngineeringasperIS,NEC,IEC,IEEEcodes.HeistechnicalAuthorforElectricalMirrorandElectricalIndiaMagazines.Heis
TechnicalBloggerandFamiliarwithEnglish,Hindi,Gujarati,Frenchlanguages.HewantstoSharehisexperience&knowledgeand
helptechnicalenthusiaststondsuitablesolutionsandupdatingthemselvesonvariousEngineeringTopics.

111ResponsestoVectorGroupofTransformer

ShantanuJoshisays:
May24,2012at5:44am
Inasystemof1gridincomerconnectedtoDy11transformerandalocalgeneratorconnectedtoDy1transformerisitpossibleto
synchronisethetwoincomers?

Reply
HussainShaiksays:
May24,2012at11:17am
Thankyousomuchforwhateveryouhave,thebestyouaregivingtousregardingthesubjectTransformers.BrotherJignesh,
kindlyprovideabitofANSIStandardTransformeralsoinbriefwhereveritsuitsforthecomparisonofIECStandards.

Reply
nikhilsays:
May24,2012at12:11pm
SIRPLEASEINSISTMEWHATGRASEOFTRANSFORMEROILSHOULDBEUSEDFOR5mvaTRANSFORMERFOR33kV
SUPPLY.

Reply
Priyankasays:
June2,2012at5:07am
Thankyousomuchforthisinformation

Reply
TapaniJulinsays:
June8,2012at12:02pm
SixWaystowireStarWindingisveryhelpfultome,Honestlyidontknowhowtodoitbutbecauseofitilearnthanksforavery
goodinformation.

Reply
ByjuRamachandrnsays:
July1,2012at8:03am
DearSir,

Iunderstoodthatthegeneratortransformervectorgroupisdeltaatgeneratorsideandstarinyardside.Butinyourarticleitis
mentionedasreverseorder.Pleaseclarify

Reply
Jignesh.Parmarsays:
July1,2012at10:22am
AsperIECVectorgroupshowninHVwinding/LVwindingsoiGeneratortransformerHVsideisTransmissionsideandLV
isGeneratorside.

Reply
M.B.Sinhasays:
October13,2014at11:04am

DearMr.Parmar,WhileIappreciateyourarticleonsignicanceandselectionofvectorgroupofTransformers,pl.letme13/24
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
DearMr.Parmar,WhileIappreciateyourarticleonsignicanceandselectionofvectorgroupofTransformers,pl.letme
knowinacogenpowerplantwhereexport/importofpowerisenvisaged,ifthevectorgroupYnD1whereinGenerator
PowerTransformerssecondarywindingisDeltaconnected(Generatorside)andthedistanceofgeneratoriswithin100
metersfromthestatedtransformer,isitnecessarytoinstallanearthingtransformer?Whatwouldbetherepercussionif
theearthingtransformerisnotprovided?Ihaveinstalledandoperatedno.ofsuchpowerplantswiththisvectorgroup
withoutanearthingtransformerforseveralyearsandnothingabnormalnoticedevenoneventofearthfault.
Secondly,canweoptforYnYnoTransformerforsuchapplicationapartfromtheabovewidelyusedvectorgroupXmer
whichwillbemoreeconomicaltoo.IsthereanyconstraintinYy0conguration?Illsolicityourreplyonboththecited
pointsasap.
Regards,
M.B.Sinha

chaisays:
June15,2015at8:05am
writeclearly

kmohanakrishnasays:
July5,2012at6:06pm
sir
IamanelectricalengineerworkinginAPTRANSCO,SirIwanttoknowtheoperationofOLTCin100mvapowertransformer
withtapconnection.wehave25nosoftapswith21sttapasnormalifpossibleexplainwithsketch.

Thankingsir

KMohanaKrishna

Reply
Imranullahsays:
June5,2013at8:01am
PleaseseetheRating&Diagramplateofthat(100MVA)transformer.

Reply
SRINIVASAN.Rsays:
October24,2015at8:13am
DetailsareavailableinOLTCmakewebsiteorsearchingooglewebsiteaddresstypedasMROLTC

Reply
s.balasubramaniansays:
March27,2016at5:57pm
DearKrishna:The21beingnormaltapandhaving25tapsisnotunusual.thetapsspeciedisdependentonexpectedvoltage
variation.Probablyyoursupplymustbegoing
1.25%x20=30percentnegative(assuming@1.25%taps.itmaybeless.seethediagram)
mayIaddthatinunderstandingtheprincipleofOLTCoperationyouhavetorememberthatvoltsperturnhastobe
reatainedforge ingthesetvoltageonthesecondary.iifVgoesupv/turnincreases.sosecondaryvoltagewillincrease.to
bringbackthesecondaryvoltage,introducemoreturns.sov/turnisretained.accordinglyyouwillknowwhetghertapmoves
upordown

Reply
rehansays:
July13,2012at10:00pm
wegoodstuireallylikedthat

Reply
SUJITHCNAIR,KANHANGADKERALAsays:
September15,2012at11:50am
sir
alltheinformationsare100%practical..thankyouverymuchsir

Reply
randyaddaejuniorsays:
October17,2012at5:11pm
Ireallylikeyourdiagramesandtheexplanations

Reply
jaswantsinghbhamrasays:

October22,2012at8:29am
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 14/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
October22,2012at8:29am
ireallylikeyourdiagramesandtheexplanations
jaswantsinghbhamraseniortest&commissioningstsswitchgearuk

Reply
R.K.SHARMAsays:
October22,2012at4:34pm
Informationquiteuseful.CanweuseYD7inplaceofYd1generatortransformer.

Reply
ramsays:
October28,2012at6:00am
goodjobsir

Reply
Md.AnowarulIslamsays:
October31,2012at3:04pm
Thisisafantastictropics.ButIwanttoknowaboutthetestmethodeandvoltagerelationofdierenttypevectorgroup.

Reply
umarsays:
November4,2012at4:53pm
sirwhatismatchingfactorindierentialprotection

Reply
Rashidsays:
November6,2012at5:57am
Pleasegivethedetailprocedureofvectorgrouptestwiththeexampleof.Dyn1
Thanks.
Rashid

Reply
SANTHOSHESWARANPOTTYsays:
December2,2012at4:51pm
Usefullinformation.

Reply
AjayShidasays:
December24,2012at6:18am
T
hankyousomuchsir

Reply
Vinothsays:
January28,2013at6:21pm
Niceinformation

Reply
MariosMoschakissays:
February24,2013at12:30am
DearJignesh,

Thankyoufortheinterestinginformationabouttheselectionoftransformersvectorgroup.

Iwouldliketoaddanotherinterestingpoint:Thepositiveeectandothercharacteristicsoftransformersofcertainvectorgroups
onthemitigationofvoltagesags.Thiscanbedonebythepositiveeectoftransformersofvectorgroup1,5,7and11(e.g.Dy1,
Yd5etc)onasymmetricalfaultsandespeciallyasregardsonephasetogroundfaults,whicharethemostfrequentfaults.
Moreover,itcanbeprovedthattwophase,twophasetogroundandthreephasefaultsattheonesideofsuchtransformersgive
thesamesagmagnitudeattheothersideofthetransformerundercommonassumptionsusedinshortcircuitanalysis.Ihave
publishedajournalandaconferencepaperonthateect.

KindRegards,

Dr.MariosMoschakis,Lecturer
DepartmentofElectricalEngineering
TechnologicalEducationalInstituteofLarissa,GREECE
Reply
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 15/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Reply
M.AliImransays:
March7,2013at12:12pm
sir,
ifihaveatransformerofvectorgroupYnd11ongeneratingside.howcanitakeaneutralonLVside?

Reply
SiddavatamNizamuddinsays:
March24,2013at6:40am
Thisisagoodreadyreferenceregardingvectorgroupandselectionofvariousvectorgroups.
Iwouldliketoaskonethingregardingdistributiontransformers.AsyouknowthedistributionsystemnormallyonHVside
connectedinparallelandLVsideradial.ThatmeanstheLVoftwotransformerswillneverbeconnectedinparallel.Inthatcase,
canweconnectthetwodistributiontransformerswithdierentvectorgroupinparallel?

Reply
sachinsays:
May2,2013at12:49pm
Dearsir,whichvectorgroupgivehighestsecondaryvoltage?

Reply
Binosays:
May6,2013at10:37am
whataretheadvantageofstarstaroverdeltastarorvice
versa?

Reply
sachidanandkumarsays:
May6,2013at11:08am
Thanks,Toclearifymyproblemofvectorgrouptransformer?

Reply
Romansays:
May6,2013at7:10pm
IdonotevenknowhowIendeduprighthere,butIassumed
thissubmitusedtobegood.Idontknowwhoyourehowever
certainlyyouregoingtoafamousbloggerwhenyouarenotalready.Cheers!

Reply
powertransformersays:
May22,2013at7:58am
Ireadthisarticleandirealyappreciateyoureorts.Thanksforsharingthisinformation.Thisisveryhelpfulforpeople

Reply
patomchonLsays:
June4,2013at4:32am
WhatsthedierenceindiagrambetweentheDyn11andDy11

Reply
sunilsays:
June5,2013at9:38am
wewanttostepup415voltsto11000voltsfortunnelwork.thetransformerwehaveisstar(LV)andDelta(HV).Howtogiveearth
faultprotection?

Reply
RoopBundelesays:
June17,2013at8:17pm
ForStepupTransformer415/11kV

YouwouldnormallychooseYd11orYd1orYy0or(Yz1orYz11)(dependinguponifitislikelytogoinparallalwithother
existingsupplyatthisvoltageorfurtherafterstepsup/down)insteadofDy11orDy1forEarthfaultProtection.

AsperIECpresentationofvectorGroupFirstle errepresentHighvoltagewinding

Reply
harishpatelsays:

June14,2013at10:41am
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 16/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
June14,2013at10:41am
dearsirwillyouexplainemeformulakva=1.732*v*i*pfinwhichv=linevoltageorphasevoltage,i=lineampereorphase
ampere,becauseaspermyknowngev=avragelinetolinevoltageandi=avragephasetophasecurrentbutiamfacingproblem
fromtransformermanufacturer
hopeyoudoneedfultome

Reply
javadahamadsays:
June19,2013at7:55am
veryniceinformation,butwhywearesendingwith30deglagingenerationstation??whatisthepointbehindlaggingwhile
sending?

Reply
Jignesh.Parmarsays:
June20,2013at5:34pm
alreadygiveninpost

Reply
gyanendrapandeysays:
June13,2015at5:46am
sirplzgivemevectorgroupcalculation

TimikaLaljiesays:
June24,2013at5:51pm
dearsir
amusingthePSSSincalsoftware,andicantgureoutwhichgroupvectorrepresentsthesinglephasetwowindingtransformer.

pleasehelp

Reply
CourtneyPowellsays:
June27,2013at5:42am
veryhelpful,thankyou!

Reply
rajasekaranpalanisays:
July23,2013at2:46pm
Fora5MVA,0415/6.6KV,Whic
hvectorgroupIhavetochoosePleaseadvise

Reply
natashasays:
August2,2013at11:44pm
Whataretheonlyphasedisplacementsindegreeswithwhichitis
possibletoparallelthesecondariesoftwotransformers?

Reply
Ragssays:
August13,2013at1:54pm
Doesthedownstreamtransformervektorgroupshaveaneectonfaultcurrents.Thisisspecicallyasdistancefromthesource
andvoltagelevelshaveeect

Reply
SujitSenguptasays:
August13,2013at6:03pm
GreatworkJignesh,Iwouldliketoconnectwithyou,
SujitSengupta,

Reply
anandkumarsays:
August14,2013at3:16pm
Ilearnmoresubjectfromyouthanks

Reply
sandeepsays:

August17,2013at8:40am
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 17/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
August17,2013at8:40am
JigneshSir,Thankuforgoodinformation.

Instarstartransformerhowcanwedovectorgrouptest??

Reply
FuadArshadsays:
August23,2013at6:56am
ThankuIlikedurpost

Regards

Reply
Egbe,edigbomichaelsays:
August23,2013at10:16pm
Iamimpressedbytheexplicitinformationaboutthetransformer,andisaycongratandkeepitup.

Reply
niranjansahusays:
September9,2013at1:40am
Jignesh,IamNiranjanSahu,RetiredDGMofOdishaHydropowerCorpn.ButIhavespentmuchtimeineldofdistribution.Can
uadvisehowtocheckPowertheftofconsumersbythedistributioncompanies.

Reply
surendarsays:
September15,2013at6:26am
howcanweselectvectorgroupfortransformer?

Reply
Helmysays:
September17,2013at9:36am
Thanks

Reply
Ajaysays:
September27,2013at7:51am
Sir,wearedesigninga50MVAsolarpowerplantinIndia.Weneedsomeclaricationwhileselectingthetransformers.Firstweare
steppingupthevoltagefrom400Vto22KV,furtherwearesteppingupto110KVfortransmi ing.Herewhichtype(Eg.Dy,Yyor
Dy)weneedtoselectfortheaboveone.Theanswerwillbeusefulforustodesign.

Reply
sagarsays:
October7,2013at9:04am
whyboththesupplyStar&deltarequiredinvariablefrequencydriveofmodelACS800ofABBmake?

Reply
sagarsays:
October7,2013at9:06am
whatisthereasonofusingstar&DeltaboththesupplyinVariableFrequencyDriveinmodelACS800ofmakeABB

Reply
Prashantsays:
November4,2013at7:22am
Howonecancheckthevectorgroupoftransformerbyexternallyapplyingvoltage?

Reply
umeshsays:
November7,2013at1:48pm
sirkindlyexplainfortransformervectorgroupIi0

Reply
Gajanansays:
January1,2014at8:53am
Sir,howwendoutvectorgroupfromcalculation,ifvectorgroupnotmentiononnameplate?

Reply
shivyasays:
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 18/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
shivyasays:
January4,2014at11:25am
Howcanwecalculatethevectorgroup?

Reply
vadivelsays:
January28,2014at9:23am
sirhowsawthevectorgroupintransformerwinding.

Reply
S.ParameswaraIyersays:
February21,2014at2:33pm
Sir,Thanksforsharingvaluableinformation

Reply
Deepaksays:
February22,2014at9:22am
Dearjigneshbrother,

Yourelectricalnotesareveryveryhelpful.Andineedahelpisearchedsomemorerelatedtotransformerbutnotabletoget
exactapplicationfordrytypetransformer,uptowhatratingsthedrytypetransformersareusedandexactdierencebetweenoil
immersedtransformeranddrytypetransformer.

Thanksinadvanceandhopeinyournotes
Deepak

Reply
SRINIVASAN.Rsays:
February25,2014at6:39pm
Sir,
ThankusomuchforgivinglotofinformationregardingVECTORGROUP,itsallveryusefultome.Onceagainthankstou.

Reply
prashantsays:
February27,2014at7:22am
itisverybestwebsite

Reply
kenanelilyovasays:
March12,2014at9:54am
agoodliteratureforreadingandassimilation

Reply
pijushkantidey(dhrua)says:
March12,2014at3:46pm
whatisthecalculationofcopperinHV&LVsidewithoutremovalofthetransformer,whereonlytotalweight&coreweight
found&alsowhatwillbethesizeofwindingwire.

Reply
nayeemsays:
March27,2014at2:54am
hiiwouldliketoknowwhatarethepossiblevectorgroupconnectionsforparallelorsynchronizationoftransformers.

Reply
Jignesh.Parmarsays:
March27,2014at5:37pm
alreadygiveninthePost

Reply
ManuRamsays:
April9,2014at7:00am
Veryinformative.IneedguidancewithregardstouseofGeneratorStepupTransformer(11/132KV),whicharenormallyofYd1
orYd11Vectorgroup.CantheTransformerswithvectorgroupDyn11orYNyn0d11beused?132Kvsystem,withwhichthe
transformerissupposedtobesynchronized,iswithsolidlygroundedneutral.Thanks.

Regards,
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 19/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Regards,
ManuRam

Reply
ManuRamsays:
October15,2014at5:30am
DearMr.Jignesh,
Justtoremindthatreplytomyquestionisstillawaited.Thanks.

Regards,
ManuRam

Reply
PrabirChandraDu asays:
June12,2014at4:42am
Veryveryinformativeanduseful.Itwouldbebe erifPDFformatisavailable.

Reply
harisays:
July31,2014at9:23am
WhataretheconditionstoconrmDY11?

Reply
simonsays:
August13,2014at5:35pm
beforetestingthevectorgroupofatransformer,howdoicalculatethevoltagebetweenRrinastardeltaordeltastar

Reply
leesays:
August15,2014at12:43am
sir,pleaserecheckyourdrawingsregardingtransformerpolarity,additiveandsubtractivepolaritydrawinghadbeen
interchanged.thanks.

Reply
Nszbeersays:
September3,2014at8:15am
whatisthevectorgroupconditionsforDd0Transformer?

Reply
senthilmurugansays:
September12,2014at7:40am
incaseofstepdowntransformer[230/12],
12vacisappliedtosecondaryside.whatwillhappeninprimary?

Reply
ARIVUSINGAMPUNARIsays:
September29,2014at6:15pm
SIRIFUHAVEANYPDFFILEABOUTTHISVECTORGROUPKINDLYSENDMETHELINK

Reply
Herisays:
October7,2014at3:21am
DearSir,
pleasegivemeadvice
wewillsynchronizegeneratorwithconditionlikebelow;
Transformervoltageis70/6.6kV(LVsideinGeneatorandHVsideinBus)
TransformervectorisYd11
GeneratorVTsensingon6.6kV
BusVTsensingon70kV
VTsensingvectorisYy0

soiwillusethePhasesiftertransformerafterBusVTforcanceledoutofphaseshift.
whatthevectorgroupofPhaseshiftertransformerthatineed?

Thankyou

Regards
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 20/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Regards
Heri

Reply
eknathwaghsays:
November3,2014at11:00am
DearSirMyselfEknath,iwasconnectingthreephasetransformerinYYconguration&observingboththeprimary&
secondarywaveformonScope,bothweardistortedsinewave,whyididntgotthereason,pleasesuggestmehowtoresolvethe
problem

Reply
VikasJoshisays:
November14,2014at12:01pm
IhaveaGSUtrafowithYNd11buttheLVterminalsarewvufromlefttorightinsteadofuvwrequiredaspertheGenerator
denition.TheUAT(unitauxiliarytrafo)onthegeneratorbusducttapofisDyn11.MyquestioniswhetherIneedtomatchtheu
vwbydoinginterchangeofphasesinthebusductorIcanconnectgeneratoruwithGSUwandsoon.InsuchcasetheGSU
vectorgroupwillchangeornot.IfyesthanthewhatshouldbethevectorgroupforUAT?

Reply
JoeWi elsays:
November15,2014at3:26pm
Thisissuchawellwri enarticle.Howcanwegetacopytoprintoutorinpdf?
Thanks.

Reply
sudhirsharmasays:
January25,2015at4:59pm
Dearsir
canyoutellmeprocedureforndingvectorgroupforunknownvectorgroupofatransformer.

Reply
User1says:
March10,2015at7:31am
HiJignesh
WhatwouldbetheeectsontheZigzagneutralcurrentduringnormalsystemoperation,ifthevoltagesareseverelyunbalanced
duetoloadunbalancingonthepowersystemfeeders?AssumingYnd1TransformerwithZigzagconnectedondeltasidefor
groundingpurposes.

Reply
ramkumarsinghsays:
March12,2015at5:31am
whatisthedierancevectorgroupDy11andDy5ofatransformer

Reply
alisays:
March18,2015at1:18pm
DearSir,
Pleasedescribewhichtypeofloadissuitableforwhichvectorgroupoftransformer.imeantosaylikeVFDs,3rdharmonic
correspondswithDYN11etc.

Reply
Alansays:
March22,2015at11:49pm
howtointerchangephasingof60MVAfurnacetransformerofDd0connection.
ThankYou!

Reply
DavidPaynesays:
April15,2015at12:45pm
Excellentarticle.However,youshouldcoverautotransformerssince75%ofthetransmissiontransformerinNorthAmericaare
YYautoswithorwithoutdeltatertiariesorwihburiedtertiaries.t

Reply
AkshataKamagoudasays:
May7,2015at5:32am
Sir,
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 21/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Sir,
CanutellmethevectorgroupconnectionofYnO..

Reply
Charlesobisays:
May7,2015at3:35pm
ThanksIlearnedalotfromtheinformations

Reply
pradeepanandsays:
May27,2015at1:23pm
IwanttoknowthedetailsofDY5D0with+7.5degreephaseshift

Reply
SATHISHsays:
May29,2015at11:09am
ihaveaDd0vectorgrouptransformerof1:1ratio,380/380voltInthishowtocheckthevectorgrouptest.

Reply
MohanSahusays:
June1,2015at5:36pm
thankyousir,itsveryhelpfulforusnowicandebatewithmyseniors

Reply
SureshMangaloresays:
June8,2015at10:07pm
WehaveaDYN5Transformerwhichisusedasastepdowntransformer(10.5kVto0.38kV)Canweuseitasastepup
transformer(0.38kVto10.5kV)?ThetransformerisastandaloneandisNOTinparallelwithanyotherdevice.

Reply
ankushsontakkesays:
July12,2015at6:11pm
thankssirforsharingknowledge.itisveryhelpful

Reply
Balamurugansays:
July13,2015at5:13am
ihaveaYNd1trafosteppingdown33kVto6.6kV

plzletmeknowwhatistheHVneutralconductorsizeicanarriveat?

Reply
Ashwiniojhasays:
July24,2015at5:24am
NowIcansolvegatequestionsthanks

Reply
electricalabcsays:
October13,2015at5:40pm
Ihavedoubtinyourdrawingsforzigzagconnection.Isntitsupposedtobeconnectedinsubtractivepolarity?

Reply
saravananroczzsays:
October25,2015at10:59am
whythereisno90degreelag/leadbetweenprimaryandsecondary

Reply
amitsinghsays:
December12,2015at8:39am
nicecontent.thanksalotsir..

Reply
mohammadsays:
December20,2015at4:37am
thanksforpostinghelpfulinformationfortransformerdesigner.couldyoupleaseexplainangleofD1Z.

Reply
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 22/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
Reply
abdulwahidassafanysays:
December25,2015at9:01pm
ThanksSir;
Couldyouhelpmeformycase.Wehave5MVAYnD11stepuptransformerwhichisshouldbeconnectedbetweenGenset400V
andtransferitto11000V,butwehavealsoaDYn11transformerattheothersideonSTScrane.
Isitokatconnection,whataboutdistributionandhowtonuetralearting..andwhatabouttheharmonicsproducedfromcrane
isitcancelledoraectmyGenset?
Pleasereplyme
Pleasereplyme
Thanksagain

Eng.Abdulwahidassafany,workingatHodiadahSeaport.Yemen

Reply
ShashidharCsays:
December28,2015at2:37pm
IwouldliketosynchroniseLT415VGeneratorvoltagedrivenbybackpressuresteamtoaLTbusderivedoutofdyn11
transormer.Thecapacityoftransformeris1500kva,Turbinegeneratoris1MW/1250kva.
Iinviteyourposiblilityandsuggesstionsfromauthorandthegroupplease

Reply
darshitsays:
December29,2015at2:17am
siritispossibletoconnectyy0andyy6xmerinparallel?

Reply
BazLewissays:
February10,2016at9:23am
brilliantmanythanks

Reply
Santhoshkumarsays:
March14,2016at3:01am
HaieverybodyisanybodyknowsabouttheYd11:40andYz0:20vectorgroupinVFDTransformersopleaseexplainmethatwhat
is:40&:20isstantesforcananyonecanexplainandIalsoifuhaveanyrelateddocumentspleasesendtomymailIDgiven

Reply
TGUNASEKARANsays:
April22,2016at4:42pm
Goodjob.Thishelpfulforallelectricalengineer.Youdoneaverygoodjob.

Reply
Md.SiddiqueSharifulIslamsays:
April23,2016at7:27am
ThanksSir,
WeNeedMore..

Reply
SurendraKr.Vermasays:
May3,2016at10:38am
ThankyousomuchJigneshsir,
Forsharinggoodarticle.

ihaveaqueryregardingDyconnection.
YoustatedthatinDyconnection,ynulliesthe3rdharmonics.
Irequesttoyou,pleaseexplainthatpoint.

Reply
Chandansays:
June14,2016at12:14pm
HaiParmarSiryourinformationsareveryeducative,basicallyIamfrominstrumentationarea.Canyoupleaseguidemehowto
calculatenominalmaximumdemand(NMD).IamsizingtransformerforMCC

Reply

sandipansays:
https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 23/24
12/19/2016 VectorGroupofTransformer|ElectricalNotes&Articles
sandipansays:
July7,2016at8:43pm
Siritsveryhelpfull.
Whatisoatingneutraland..weatherallneutralcanbeconnectedtogrid?orindIvisualearthpitrequiredwhicharenot
connectedtogridearthing.

whatistheconceptofindivisualearhpit.pleaseexplain

Reply

CreateafreewebsiteorblogatWordPress.com.

https://electricalnotes.wordpress.com/2012/05/23/vectorgroupoftransformer/ 24/24