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g]kfndf k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgL / g]kfn nufgL af]8{

-


kl/ro
.

g]kfnsf] k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgLsf] Oltxf; 5}7f}F k~r alif{o



of]hgf -!(*) *!!(*$*%_ ;Fu} z'? x'G5 h;n] ljb]zL k"FhL /

k|ljwLnfO{ Ps pkof]uL k"/ssf] ?kdf ;b'kof]u ug]{ gLlt th{'df

uof]{ . ;f] of]hgfn] ljb]zL nufgL / k|ljlw k|fylds?kdf 7"nf

pWof]ux? / vlgh ;DalGw pWof]ux?df cfjZos kb{5 eg]/ pNn]v
u/]sf] lyof] . ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] tLg bzseGbf nfdf] Oltxf;df,
g]kfn nufgL af]8{-g]naf]_sf] lgdf{0f gx'Gh]n o;n] ;d'lrt
bz{g,gLlt / sfof{Gjog u/fpg] k|flwsf/ k|fKt ug{ ;s]g . ljZjsf]

;a}eGbf 7"nf] hg;FVof ePsf] ef/t / rLg lar g]kfnsf] /0fg}tLs

e"/fhgLlts cjl:ytLn] xfdLnfO{ Pp6f ;lhn} kx'Frof]Uo pTkfbg

ahf/ k|bfg ub{5 ,o;n] 7"nf] ;]jf ahf/ klg lbG5 . s'g} klg pTkfbg /

;]jfx? g]kfnsf] ;8sdfu{ eP/ ljZjsf] hg;FVofsf] b'O{ ltxfO{

hg;FVofdf k'Ug ;Sb5 . of] k|s[lt dftfn] g]kfnnfO{ pknAw
u/fPsf] dxfgtd cj;/ xf] . oxfF vf; cfjZos lgwf{/sx? 5g\ h'g k|ToIf
j}b]lzs nufgLsf] lglDt k"j{ -zt{x? x'g\ / tL k|s[ltn] k|bfg u/]ls5g\.
tL x'g\ >d zlQm -hg;FVof_ zlQm-ljWo't_, ahf/ -cjl:ylt /
hg;FVof_ / k|fs[lts ;|f]tx? . c? eg]sf dfgj lgld{t lgod / ljlwx? /
LklIfo jf ax'klIfo Jofkf/ ;Demf}tfx? x'g\ h'g w]/} pbf/ / k|ToIf
ljb]zL nufgL cfsif{0f ug]{ l;nl;nfdf x'g] pRr k|lt:kwf{sf] sf/0fn]
k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgL vf]Hg] ;a} b]zx?sf] lardf sl/a pxL 5 . g]kfnl;t
;f9] kRrL;nfv eGbf a9L o'jf sfdbf/x? 5g\ h;n] clxn] laleGg vf8L


blIf0fk"jL{ PlzofnL d'n'sx?df sfd ul//x]sf 5g\. x/]s aif{ kfFr nfv
eGbf Hofbf gofF dhb'/ zlQm g]kfnL >d ahf/df cfpF5 . xfdLl;t
;F;f/s} ;aeGbf ;:tf] >d 5 h;n] dfl;s (% cd]l/sL 8n/ Hofnf cfh{g
ub{5 . hnljWo't pTkfbg ;Defjgf *#))) d]ufjf6 5 / o; dWodf
cfly{s?kdf ;FefJotf af]s]sf] $#))) d]uf jf6 5 . g]kfn k|ToIf?kdf
laZjsf 'tt/ ultdf al9/x]sf / ;a}eGbf 7"nf ahf/x?df ;8sdfu{af6 l;w}
k'Ug ;Sb5 . /, k|fs[lts ;|f]tsf] ?kdf l;Fuf] lxdfnx?, ljZjsf] ;aeGbf
7"nf] tfhf kfgLsf] ;|f]tx? xfdLl;t 5g\ . logsf lxdgbLx? k|ltaif{ s]jn
$ k|ltzt kUnFbf @@),))) lalnog So"las ld6/ kfgL g]kfnL
gbLx?df axG5 .p;f]eP, g]kfnn] xfd|f glhs}sf l5d]sLx?n]
kfO{/x]sf] k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgLsf] Pp6f ;fgf] lx:;f lsg cfslif{t ug{
;Sb}g<lsg xfdL ;F;f/df u/Lax? dWodf dxfu/La eof}F < o;
k|Zgsf] pQ/ w]/} ;lhnf] 5 . xfd|f] b]zdf,k|ydtM ToxfF ;d'lrt
cWoog t kl/of]hgfsf] of]hgf 5Fb} 5}g,cWoog / of]hgf ePdf klg
sfof{Gjog cToGt} sdhf]/ 5 , jf sfof{Gjog 5Fb}5}g .

g]kfn nufgL af]8{sf jt{dfg r'gf}tLx? / sdhf]/Lx? M


!=7"nf] ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] k|lta2tf t/ jf:tljs?kdf lgDg txsf]
kl/jt{g . ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] k|lta2tfnfO{ jf:tljs nufgLdf kl/jt{g
sl/j !) k|ltzt 5 . o;sf] cy{ g]kfn nufgL af]8{-g]naf]_n] () k|ltzt
ljb]zL k|ToIf nfufgLsf] k|ltjtfnfO{ jf:tljs nufgLdf kl/jt{g ug{
c;kmn ePsf] 5 . ut cfly{s aif{ @)!$!%df, g]kfn /fi6 a}Fs /
pWof]u ljefusf] tYofFs cg';f/ af]nsaf]n ul/Psf] s'n ^&=@%
lalnogsf] abnfdf jf:tljs ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL ?=^=!^ lalnog k|jfx
ePsf] lyof] .
@=o;sf] glhssf l5d]sLx? rLg / ef/tsf] t'ngfdf cToGt} ckof{Kt


ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL /sd .
..

. .

cfly{s aif{ @)!$-!%sf] nflu cfFs8f


s'n ljb]zL k|ToIo nufgL-ljk|n_g]kfndf o;sf] s'n u|fx:y pTkfbgsf]
)=! k|ltzt k'Uof] h'g lgDg cfo ePsf ljsf;lzn d'n'sx?sf] cf};tdf !=(
lyof].g]kfn /fi6 a}Fssf] cg';f/,@)!%sf] dWo h"nfO{ ;Dddf d'n's
ljb]zL k|ToIfnufgLsf] lglDt v'nf eP otf k|fKt u/]sf] k|ToIf ljb]zL
nufgLsf] /sd s'n ?=^#=$@ lalnog k'u]sf] lyof] . Tolx cfFs8f
@)!$sf] dWo h'nfO{;Dddf %&=@^ lalnogsf] xf/fxfl/df
lyof],h;sf] cy{ of] x'G5 ls Ps aif{sf] cjlwdf ToxfF ?=^=!^ lalnog
ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL k|jfx ePsf] lyof],d'n'sdf s'n !)=* k|ltzt
Pkm8L cfO{sf] k|jfxnfO{ k|ltlglwTj ub}{ .
#= 3/]n' sf]ifx? / ;|f]tx?sf] kl/rfng ug]{ k|of; gx'g'M
g]kfnn] k|lt aif{ sl/a $ lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/ cfgf] lab]zdf sfd ug]{
@=% ldlnog o'jfx?af6 cfo /sd k|fKt ub{5.k|ltj]bg cg';f/ ;f] cfo
/sdsf] &) k|ltzt pkef]usf] lglDt k|of]u x'G5 . o;sf] cy{ x'G5 !=@
lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/-#) k|ltzt_nfO{ k"Flhs[t ug{ / cfGtl/s nufgLsf]

lglDt k|of]u ul/g ;lsG5.g]naf]n] oL ;lhn} pknAw sf]ifx?nfO{
kl/rfng ug]{ sf]lz; ub}{g . of] /sd aFunfb]zsf] aflif{s ljb]zL k|ToIf
nufgL k|jfx a/fa/ x'g hfG5 .
$= bz{gsf] cefj
g]naf]n] lghu9b]lv sf7df8f} cfpg] 'tultsf] /fhdfu{sf] jsfnt
ul//x]sf] 5 / Tolx ;dodf lghu9df cGt/fl{\i6o xjfO{ d}bfgsf]
lgdf{0ffy{ tof/L ul//x]sf]5 . To; 't ultsf] /fhdfu{n] lghu9 b]lv
sf7df08'sf] ofqf b"/LnfO{ !@ 306fdf emfg]{ 5 / olt 5f]6f]
b"/Ldf b'O{6f cGt/fli6o xjfO{ d}bfgx? x'g'sf] s] pkfb]otf 5 <
kf]v/f / e}/xjf cGt/fl{\i6o xjfO{ d}bfgx?sf] bzf klg cfhsf] !) / !%
aif{ kl5 g]kfndf lta|ultsf /]nj]sf] z'?jf6 x'gf;fy To:t} x'g]5 . g]kfndf
k"j{klZrd 'tultsf] /]ndfu{ :yfkgf x'g] laltSs},sf]lx klg $ / %
306fdf klZrdaf6 k"j{ k'Ug ;Sg] 5g\.ta sf7df8f}b]lv kf]v/f /
e}/xjfsf] ofqfdf nfUg] ;do "t ultsf /]nx?f/f hDdf b'O{ 306f
x'g]5 . ;f] /sd sf]ifnfO{ k"j{klZrd PS;k|]; xfO{j] jf PS;k|]; /]n
kl/of]hgfdf vr{ ug{' c;n x'G5 . olb g]naf] xjfO{ d}bfg g} rfxG5
eg] la/f6 gu/ / g]kfn u~h cGt/fli6o xjfO{ d}bfgsf nflu ;a}eGbf
pQd 5gf]6sf x'g]5g\ g ls kf]v/f / e}/xjf .

%=nufgL ug]{ If]qsf] a]d]n


g]naf]l;t nufgLsf] lglDt k|fyldstf ePsf] ;'kl/eflift dfu{lgb{]lzsf /
k|fyldstf gLlt 5}g . h'g;'s} vfn] ljk|n k|ltj2tfnfO{ ;xif{ :jLsfg{ of]
tof/ 5 .
^=ahf/ k|jb{\jgsf] cefj


g]naf]n] o;sf] nufgL kl/of]hgfsf] j:t' tof/ ug{' k5{,o;nfO{ a|f08
lbg' k5{ / /fli6o / cGt/fl{\i6oahf/df nufgL stf{x?nfO{ pgLx?
o;df nufgL u5{g\ eg] o;sf] kmfObf olt plt 5 eg]/ b]vfpg' k5{ .
nufgLstf{x? cfgf ;Defljt ahf/,kl/of]hgf ;"/Iff,gfkmf / cNksflng /
bL3{sflng?kdf ;a} nufgL d'gfkmf;lxt lkmtf{ cfpg] af/]df cfZj:t
kfl/g} kb{5 . ahf/ k|aw{gdf ljb]zdf ePsf g]kfnsf s'6g}lts lgsfox?
nufot pknAw ;a} cf}hf/x? k|of]u ul/g' kb{5 .
&=g]naf]sf] ;fFu7lgs 9fFrf
;f+u7lgs 9fFrf g]naf] law]os @)^* sf] p2]Zo cg'?k 5}g h;n]
g]naf]nfO{ 3/]n' sf]ifsf] kl/rfng ug]{ k|flwsf/ ;d]t k|bfg ub{5 t/
g]naf]sf] ;fFu7lgs 9fFrf ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] nflu dfq pko'Qm
x'g] vfnsf] 5 .
*= ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] ljljlws/0f
jt{dfg ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] k|j[lt 7"nf] k}dfgfdf ef/t lge{/ 5 .
ef/taf6 dfq} s]jn $& k|ltzt ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL cfpFb5 / h;df
Dofg'ofSrl/ ;]S6/sf] cFz c;L k|ltzt hlt x'G5 . o;k|sf/sf] Pp6}
b]z / v08dflysf] cTolws k/lge{/tfn] eljiodf ;d:ofx? l;h{gf ug]{ 5 .
t;y{, ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] pTklQ d'n's / v08x? ;d]tsf]
ljljlws/0f ul/g' kb{5 .

g]kfndf ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] ;Defljt v08x?


g]kfndf w]/} v08x? 5g\ h;df xfdLn] ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL cfslif{t
ug{ ;Sb5f}F . tL ;Defljt v08x? x'Gf\M
!=ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x? / oftfoft

@=hnljWo't
#=Dofg'ofSrl/
$=ko{6g
%=;]jf-cfO{6L / :jf:Yo / lzIff / ljlQo ;F:yfx?_
^=s[lif tyf jg
&=vfgL
g]kfndf ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf r'gf}tLx? g]kfn;Fu ljb]zL k|ToIf
nufgLsf] lglDt c;fWo} /fd|f] ;Fefjgf 5 t/ of] r'gf}tLd'Qm eg] 5}g .
d"Vo r'gf}tLx? o; k|sf/ 5Gf\M
!=Jofkf/ jftfj/0f
@= ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x?
#=/fhgLlts / gLltut l:y/tf
$=ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL af/] ;j{;fwf/0fsf] a'emfO{.
%=gLltx?sf] sfof{Gjog.
sfo{qmdx? / of]hgfx?
!=ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x? / oftfoft
g]kfnsf] ljsf; k|of;df sd;n ;8s ;Fof]hg Pp6f k|d'v r'gf}tL xf] .
;8ssf] 3gTj blIf0f Plzof d} ;aeGbf sd 5 .kxf8x?df Ps ltxfO{
eGbf al9 hgtfx? Pp6f ;a} df};ddf rNg] ;8sb]lv sl/a rf/ 306fsf]
lxF8fO{df a:b5g\ . o;sf] cnjf, &% lhNnf ;b/d'sfdx? dWodf
cem} klg * j6f ;8s ;~hfn l;t hf]l8g afFsL 5g \. ;8s ;~hfnsf] u'0f:t/

;d]t sd;n 5 . ^) k|ltzt ;8s ;~hfnn] ,h;df clwsfFz u|fld0f ;8sx?
kb{5g\ ltgn] ;a} df};ddf x'g' kg]{ ;Fof]hg lbg ;Sb}gg\ .
g]kfn k"j{b]lv klZrd km}lnP/ /x]sf] 5 / o;sf] xjfO{ b"l/ *)) lsld
5 . p;/L g} pQ/ / blIf0f xjfO{ b"/L cf};t @)) ls=ld=sf] 5 . g]kfnsf]
hldg pQ/af6 blIf0flt/ le/fnf] k/]sf] x'gfn] pQ/ blIf0f /fhdfu{x?
w]/} le/fnf] x'g]5g\ . ;fy} t/fO{df ePsf] k"j{klZrd /fhdfu{n] kxf8L
If]qnfO{ hf]8\g, ljz]if ul/ dxfef/t If]q eGbf pQ/lt/sf] efunfO{ lgs}
sl7g x'g]5 .t;y{,g]kfnsf] larefu l5rf]n]/ k"j{b]lv klZrd rNg]
"tultsf] /fhdfu{ lgdf{0f g} ;a} eGbf /fd|f] ;dfwfg x'g] 5 h;sf] b"l/
pQ/ / blIf0f;Ldflt/af6 gfKbf a/fa/ x'G5 . ltgdf cGt/ ;Fof]hg hxfF
cfjZos kb{5 ToxfF ug{ ;lsG5. p;/L g},"t ultdf ljh'nLaf6 rNg]
k"j{ klZrd dWo-kxf8L ;dfgfGt/ /]ndfu{ ;a}eGbf pQd 5gf]6sf]
x'g]5 h;n] hLjfidf OGwgdflysf] lge{/tfnfO{ 36fO{ O{Gwgsf]
arfj6 ul/ cfoftnfO{ lj:yfkg ug]{ 5 .
@=hnljWo't
zlQm lgdf{0ffy{ g]kfnl;t cfg} lhjfidf OGwg pTkfbg 5}g .
o;n] jflif{s?kdf sl/j !=# lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/ a/fa/sf] lhjfidf OGwg
ef/taf6 cfoft ub{5.o;sf] cy{ x'G5 xfdLn] s]jn xfd|f ;jf/L
;fwgx?nfO{ rnfpgs} nflu xfd|f] j}b]lzs cfDbfgLsf] cfwf efu
nufpFb5f}F.o; eLdsfo cfoftsf] cfFs8fn] g]kfnnfO{ cfgf uf8Lx?
kl/rfng ug{df k"0f{?kdf ef/t lge{/ t'NofpFb5.xfdLl;t s'g} c?
zlQm ;~ro-;"/Iff_ 5}g\ . zlQmsf] ;"/Iff / lta| cf}Wof]lus/0f a9fpg
zlQm g} ;aeGbf dxTjk"0f{ tTj xf] . g]kfnsf] hnljWo't pTkfbg
;FefJotf *#))) d]ufjf6 5 / cfly{s?kdf ;Dej $#))) d]ufjf6 5 . of]
cg'dfg $)aif{ cl3 ul/Psf] lyof] / of] tTsflng ;dodf pknAw k|ljlwdf


cfwfl/tx'Fbf ;Dej lyof] . t/ xfn}sf] cWoogn] k|s6 u/fpFb5 ls
g]kfnsf] jf:tljs hnljWo't ;FefJotf !#)))) d]ufjf6 b]lv !%)))) d]ufjf6
5 . clxn] xfdLn] sl/j &%) d]ufjf6 pTkfbg ul//x]sf 5f}F,h;sf] cy{
x'G5 xfdLn] xfd|f] hnljWo't ;FefJotfsf] Ps ;fgf] lx:;fnfO{ ;d]t
sfa'df /fVg ;s]sf 5}gf}.xfdL ca d]uf k|f]h]S6x?df hfg' kb{5,clxn]
;Dd cEof; ul//x]sf] dfO{qmf] k|f]h]S6x?df xf]O{g .
#=pWof]uaf6 pTkflbt ;fdu|Lx? ef/t -rLglar x'g] cf};t aflif{s
Jofkf/ &) lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/ 5 . h;df ef/tn] ug]{ cfoft ^)=$lalnog
cd]l/sL 8n/ 5 / lgof{t !@ lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/ 5.olb xfdLn] s]jn !
k|ltztsf] Pp6f lgof{t d~r vf]n]/ To;
Jofkf/nfO{ k'gdf{u{ -l/?6_ u/fpg dfq} ;Sof}F eg] , xfd|f
Jofkf/=&) lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/sf] x'g]5 h'g g]kfnaf6 aflif{s ?kdf
x'g] lgof{t eGbf !@ u'0ff 7"nf] x'G5 cyf{t =%$ lalnog cd]l/sL
8n/-cf=j=@)!$/!%_ g]kfnnfO{ b'O{ k|sf/sf cf}Wof]lus ;fdfgx?
agfpg] pWof]usf] vfFrf] 5 . klxnf], lrgLof nufgL / ef/tLo nufgLsf
sDkgL xf] / bf];|f] t];|f] d'nssf] nufgL ePsf] sDkgL.lrgLofF
sDkgLn] rLgaf6 sRrf kbfy{x? cfoft ul/,
g]kfndf ;fdfgx? lgdf{0f ub{5 / km]l/ ef/tlt/ lgsf;L ub{5 / ef/tn] klg
7Ls o;sf] ljkl/t . t];|f] d'n'sn] g]kfndf ;fdfgx? pTkfbg ub{5 / b'j}
d'n'sx?df a]Rb5 .
g]kfnl;t l;dfgf hf]l8Psf ef/tLo /fHox?sf] hg;FVof / w]/}
6f9fsf] jGb/ufx ;Dd #$! ldlnog ;Fo'Qm hg;FVof 5 h'g g]kfnsf]
hg;FVof eGbf !% k|ltzt al9 5.p;/L g} ;d'af6 6f9f /x]sf / g]kfnl;t
;Ldfhf]l8Psf ltAat nufotsf /fHox?sf] ;Fo'Qm hg;FVof !^) ldlnog
5.of] g]kfnsf] hg;FVof eGbf % u'0ff a9L xf].o;sf] cy{ xfdLn]


ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgLsf] lglDt ;xL /0fgLlt lgdf{0f ug{ ;s]df
g]kfneGbf @)cf}F u'0ff 7"nf] ahf/nfO{ ;]jf k'/fpg ;Sb5f}F .

. . . .

,, ,

,, ,,

,, ,

,, ,

lxdf~rn ^,*%^,%)(

s'n #$),*(),^)* s'n !^,@@,)),)))

;/sf/n] o:tf sDkgLx?nfO{ d'gfkmf k|bfg ug{sf] lglDt cfjZos kg]{


x/ k|sf/sf] tof/L ug{' kb{5 . s/labf,Eof6df 5'6,PS;fO{h / eG;f/s/ /
cGo s/x? 5'6 lbgfn] nufgL d}qL jftfj/0f aGb5 . p;/L g}
Dofg'ofSrl/df j}b]lzs k|ToIf nuflg a9fpg ljz]if cfly{s If]q
-ljcfIf]_ / s/ d'Qm If]q lgdf{0f ul/g ;lsG5 .

$=ko{6g

g]kfndf j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] w]/} ;Defjgf af]s]sf] If]q ko{6g
xf] . k|lt aif{ ;fnfvfnf kfFrnfv ko{6sx? g]kfn lelqG5g\ . d'n'ssf]
k|fs[lts ;f}Gbo{,lxdfnL dgdf]xstf / uf}tda'4sf] hGd:ynn]
e"uf]nsf] s'g} klg dflg;nfO{ cfslif{t ug{ ;Sb5g\.ef/t / rLgsf] lgs6
l5d]sL ePsf] gftfn] / g]kfnl;t ;8s ;~hfnn] hf]l8Psf] x'Fbfx'Fb}
klg g]kfnn] clxn];Dd ef/tLo / lrgLof ko{6sx?sf] ;fgf] lx:;f klg
cfslif{t ug{ ;SYof] t/ ;s]sf] 5}g . olb tkfO{n] rLg / ef/taf6 ! k|ltzt
dfq ko{6sx?nfO{ cfslif{t ug{ ;Sg' x'G5 eg] xfd|f] d'n's cfpg]
ko{6sx?sf] ;FVof rf/ u'0ffn] a9\g]5 . g]kfnsf] ko{6gsf] ljsf;sf]
lglDt lxdfnL If]qdf x'g] P8e]Gr/ 6'l/hddf j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL
clgjfo{?kdf a9fpg' kb{5 . xfdLn] lxdfnL If]qdf xf]6]n,l/;f]6{ /
kmgkfs{x? agfpg ;lsg] 7"nf kl/of]hgfx? klxrfg dfq ug{ ;Sof}F /
o;nfO{ ahfl/sg ug{ ;Sof}F eg],xfdLn] /fd|f] j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL
dfq kfpg] ge} -P8e]Gr/_ hf]lvd k|]dLx?sf] lglDt c;n ko{6lso
uGtJo ;d]t xfl;n ug{ ;Sg] 5f}F .
.. %

%= ;]jf/cfO{6L / :jf:Yo tyf lzIff / ljlQo ;F:yfgx? ef/t ljZjsf]


cfO{6L pWof]udf d"Vo v]nf8Lx? dWosf] Pp6f xf] . ;f] If]qn]
#)nfv dflg;x?nfO{ k|ToIf /f]huf/L / ck|ToIf ?kdf Ps s/f]8


dflg;x?nfO{ /f]huf/L lbFb} ef/tsf] s'n u|fx:y pTkfbgsf] * k|ltzt
of]ubfg u/]sf] 5 h'g /sd ;g @)!# df !@) lalnog cd]l/sL 8n/ a/fa/
lyof] . o; cfO{6L k|ikm'6g cFu|]hL efifL sDKo'6/ ;fIf/ o'jfx?sf]
7"nf] hg;FVofsf] df}h'bL x'g'n] ;Dej ePsf] xf].g]kfn;Fu klg
em08} plx :t/sf] cFu|]hL 5 / g]kfnL o'jfx?nfO{ cfO{6L
pWof]usf] lglDt tflnd k|bfg ug{ ;lsG5 / To;sf] nflu Psbd sd
Hofnf vr{ nfUb5 . t;y{, cfO{6Lsf] -;6j]o/ sDklgx?, aLkLcf] /
cfO{6L kfs{_ h:tf If]qdf j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] lglDt ToxfF
7"nf] ;Fefjgf 5 .
^=s[lif tyf jg
s[lif pTkfbg, kl/:sf/, Kofs]lh / a|fl08 -u}/sf7 hGo jGo
pTkfbgx?, bfnrLlg, cb'jf, cSjfsNr/, ;fUfkft, km"nv]lt, lrof, slkm /
dx_ h:tf lrhx?df 7"nf] cj;/ 5.g]kfn Jofkf/ /0fgLlt @)!) n] bfnrLlg,
cb'jf, dx, bnxg, lrof, g"8N; / hl8a'l6x? / t]nxgnfO{ k|fylds lgof{t
pTkfbgx? sf] ?kdf hf]8 lbPsf] 5 . jfl0fHogLlt @)!%n] ;d]t oL
pTkfbgx?sf] ljsf;df hf]8lbg'kg]{ cfjZostf cf}FNofPsf] 5 . OGk'6
ahf/df
/fd|f cf};/x? 5Gf\ -h:t} lap lahg,g;{/L,dnvfb,s[lif k"jf{wf/x? /
k|ljlw tyf s[lifdf ljQ nufgL_ ;fy} /fd|f] xfjfkfgL ePsf]n], pRr
u'0:t/sf cuf{lgs afnLx?sf] v]tLdf hf]8 al9/x]sf] 5 .
&=vfgL
g]kfn @%)) lsld nfdf] lxdfnL k]6Lsf] s]Gdf cjl:yt 5, h;;Fu
ljleGg lsl;dsf -wft'hGo, u}/-wft'hGo_ vlghx? / OGwgsf] lglDt
;'xfpFbf] e"uf]n 5 . oltdfq} xf]O{g g]kfnl;t g]kfnsf] cfg} k/Dk/fut
vfgL k|ljlw ePsf 5GTofn h:tf lalzi6 hghfltsf] hgzlQm 5 .g]kfnl;t

r'g9'Fuf -clt k|r'/_, sf]O{nf, sflndfl6, /ftf]df6f], u|]gfO{6 /
l;Fud/d/, ;'g tyf ax'd"No / cw{ ax'd"No kTy/x?
-6df{nfO{g,cJSjf dl/g ,?la / :kml6s_ nufot pWof]u / lgdf{0fdf
k|of]u ul/g] k|r'/ vlghx? 5g\ . vfgL tyf ef]ue{ ljefu g]kfndf
vlghhGo ;|f]tx?sf] cGj]if0f, pTvgg\ / d"NofFsg ug{ ;lqmo 5 .
xfn}sf ;dox?df, g]kfnsf] klZrdL e]udf UofF; / t]n /;fPsf] b]lvsf]
5, h;n] g]kfnd} t]n / k|flslts UofF; ePsf] 7f]s'jf k|dfl0ft u/]sf] 5 .
slDtdf !) j6f k]6f]n / k|fs[lts UofF; cGj]ifgsf :ynx? klxrfg ul/Psf
5g\ . *) eGbf al9 :yfgx?df u/]/ g]kfndf @) ldlnog d]l6s 6g
eGbf Hofbf vlghx?sf] e08f/ 5.g]kfnsf] !)& eGbf al9
:yfgx?df tfdf kfO{G5.xfn}sf cWoogx?n] b]vfPsf 5g\ ls g]kfnl;t
@=% lalnog d]l6s 6g l;d]G6 agfpg of]Uo r'g9'Fuf x'g ;Sb5
.g]kfnl;t cg'dflgt % lalnog d]l6s 6g 8f]nf]dfO{6 / !*) ldlnog
d]l6s 6g pRr u'0f:t/sf] DofUg]6fO{6 5 . /0fgLlt j}b]lzs k|ToIf
nufgL cfsif{0f ug{sf] lglDt /fi6x?sf] lardf x'g] s7f]/
k|lt:kwf{x?n] ;a} d'n'sx?nfO{ ljb]zL nufgLstf{x? k|lt plQs}
pbf/ lgod / sfg'gx? agfpg afWo kfof]{.pRr j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL
leqfpg] d'n'sx? / lgDg j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL leqfpg] d'n'sx?
larsf] leGgtfnfO{ >f]tx?sf] pknAwtf,/0fg}tLs cjl:ylt / ahf/l;t
hf]8]/ kl/eflift ul/G5g\ . ;fydf j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL cfslif{t ug{sf
nflu cfjZos kg]{ ;a} lgwf{/sx? x'Fbf x'Fb} klg g]kfnn] cfgf] lgs6
l5d]sLx?;Fu ePsf] j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] ;fgf] cFz ;Dd cfkm"lt/
cfslif{t ug{ ;s]g . g]kfndf k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgLsf] sd k|jfx x'g'sf]
d'n sf/0f g]kfn nufgL af]8{ -g]naf]_sf] ahf/ ug{;Sg] ansf] cefj
xf]. klxrfg ug]{, ljZn]if0f ug]{, 8LkLcf/ cWoogsf] ;xhtf ;a} ubf{
xfdLn] duhdf of] pTkfbg xfdLn] ahf/df k|:tfj ug{ nflu/x]sf 5f}F
/ ahf/n] o;nfO{ ;xh tl/sfn] lsGg] OR5f b]vfcf];\ jf nufgL u/f]; eg]/

;f]FRg' cfjZos 5 .
olb nufgLstf{x? s'g} kl/of]hgfdf ?lr b]vfpFb}gg\ eg] ls t
o;nfO{ Psbd sd cfFs]/ d"NofFsg ul/Psf] x'g'kb{5 jf a9fO{r9fO{
ul/Psf] x'g'kb{5 . xf], s'g} o:tf kl/of]hgfx? klg x'G5g\ h'g
nufgLstf{x?sf] lglDt cgfsif{s x'g ;Sb5g\ t/ tL d'n'ssf] nflu b]/}
dxTjk"0f{ x'G5g . o:tf kl/of]hgfx? d'n'ss} vr{df ul/g' kb{5 .
cljsl;t ljsf;sf k"jf{wf/x? / zlQmsf] cefjn], xfdLn] Ps}k6s b'O{6f
df]rf{df n8fO{
;Grfng ug{' k/]sf] 5.Tof] xf],xfdLn] k"jf{wf/ If]qsf] nflu hfg' kb{5
-k"j{ klZrd dWokxf8L "t /fhdfu{ / /]ndfu{_ ;Fu} slDtdf Pp6f kfj/
v08 -%))) d]ufjf6 eGbf al9 Ifdtf ePsf] ljzfn hnljWo't kl/of]hgf_ .
of] lsg eg], ljWo'tzlQm pTkfbg z'? ul/g] a]nf;Dddf ljWo'lto
/]ndfu{ klg ;Grfngsf] nflu tof/ x'g ;Sb5 . o; kl/of]hgfn]
g]kfnL cy{tGqdf ;fy} g]kfnL ;fdflhs kmfF6df ;d]t 9fFrfut 5nf
dfg]{5 . j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] ;kmn cGt/ -k|jfxsf] lglDt,
b]xfosf ahf/ /0fgLltx? pkof]uL x'g] 5Gf\
!=kl/of]hgfnfO{ cGt/fl{\i6o If]qdf lasfpof]Uo agfpg] .
@=;Defljt j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL cfpg ;Sg] d'n's km]nf kfg]{ /
o;sf] lglDt s'6g}lts lgof]ux?sf] pkof]u ug]{ .
#= cfO{6L / cGt/fl{\i6o ;d'bfonfO{ g]kfn nufgL d}qL ePsf]
hfgsf/L lbg cGt/fl{\i6o Jofkfl/s klqsfx?sf] pkof]u
$=;f] kl/of]hgf / d'n'ssf] k|lt:kwf{Tds kmfO{bfsf] af/]df lj1fkg
ug]{ .
%= j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLaf/] Pp6f ;dlk{t ahf/ k|jw{g 6f]nL agfpg]
.

3/]n' nufgLsf] lglDt b]xfosf /0fgLltx? ;xof]uL l;2 x'g]5Gf
!=3/]n' nufgL kl/of]hgfg';f/ g]naf]df Pp6f ;dlk{t ljefu v8f ug]{ .
lgofds k|flws/0fsf] nflu
@=Pp6f gofF zfvf vf]Ng] h;n] lgod / clwlgodx? x]g]{ 5 /
g]naf]nfO{ cfjZos ldnfg / 3f]if0ffx? ug]{ ;Nnfx lbg] 5 . g]kfnL
j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLdf d]/f] s] of]ubfg x'g ;Sb5 < k|ToIf j}b]lzs
nufgLdf b'O{ cfwf/e"t k|Zgx? x'G5g\ . k|yd, lsg ljb]zL
sDkgLx? cGo d'n'sx?df nufgL ug{ hfG5g\ < / bf];|f] xf]
pgLx?n] vf; nfufgLsf] lglDt vf; d'n's s;/L 5gf]6 ub{5g\ . logsf
hjfkmx? x'Gf, s'g} klg ljb]zL sDkgLn] k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgL
ug{'sf] d"n Wo]o Pp6} x'G5 d'gfkmf . bf];|f] hjfkm xf], pgLx?n]
laleGg d'n'sx?df pQm nufgLsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds kmfO{bfx?
x]b{5g\ . hlt w]/} k|lt:kwf{Tds kmfO{bfx? 5g\ , plt w]/} Pp6f vf;
d'n'sdf nufgL ug]{ df}sfx? cfpF5g\ . p;f] eP, g]kfndf lsg ljb]zL
k|ToIf nufgL cfpg' kb{5 < s] xfdLl;t xfd|f l5d]sLx?sf]df eGbf
al9 d'gfkmf;DefJotfx? 5G<s] g]kfnl;t Pkm8LcfO{ ;|f]t
d'n'sx?sf] nflu cGo d'n'sx?df eGbf k|lt:kwf{Tds
kmfO{bfx? 5g\ /< 5}gg\ eg],s;/L xfdLn] g]kfnnfO{ nufgL d}qL
agfpg ;Sb5f}F <tL s'g s'g If]qx? x'g\ hxfF xfdLn] k|lt:kwf{Tds
kmfO{bfx? xfl;n ug{ ;Sb5f}F / s;/L nufgLstf{x? cfZj:t x'g
;Sb5Gf < s'g If]qdf k|fylds?kdf k|ToIf j}b]lzs nufgLsf] vfFrf] 5
elg ul/g] 5gf]6 sfo{ g} j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL cfsif{0f ug]{ k|j]zf/
xf] / d'n'sx?sf] j}b]lzs k|ToIf nuflgsf] ;kmn cfudg k|jfxdf o;sf]
bL3{sflng k|efj kb{5.g]kfnsf] j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] $)% a:q
lgdf{0f If]qdf cfpFb5 / of] lgof{t lj:yfkg >]0fLdf kb{5.o;n] Pp6f
lglZrt xb;Dd g]kfndf /f]huf/Lsf] l;h{gf ug{ dbt k'/fpFb5 t/

g]kfndf bIf sfdbf/x?sf] cefj / v'nf ;Ldfgf ePsf] x'gfn] of]
/f]huf/L ef/tLo dhb"/x?n] vf];].t;y{, s'g} vf; If]qdf j}b]lzs k|ToIf
nufgL vf]Hg' eGbf cl3,xfdL ;f] If]q;DalGw k"0f{ ;r]t x'g} kb{5 .
s] j:t' pTkfbg ;DalGw ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL xfd|f] k|fyldstf
If]qdf kb{5 < $&% eGbf al9 j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL ef/taf6
cfpFb5.ef/tl;tsf] j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLdf /x]sf] o:tf] clws lge{/tfn]
xfdLnfO{ eljiodf cGo d'n'sx?af6 k|ToIf j}b]lzs nufgL leqfpg
sl7gx'g] kl/l:yltdf k'/fpg] 5 . j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] cfGtl/s
k|jfxnfO{ k|fyldstfsf] If]q / d'n'sx? cg';f/ ljljlws/0f ugf{n]
cfltYok|bfos d'n'sx?sf] xft dfly x'G5 . xfdL j}b]lzs k|ToIf
nufgLsf] k|jfx z'?df cfpg] a]nflt/ o;f] ug{ c;kmn eof}F eg],o;n]
xfdLnfO{ cNksflng / bL3{sflng b'j} cj:yfdf Psbd hl6n cj:yfdf
k'/fpg] 5.xfd|f j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL ljljlws/0fsf /0fgLltx? s] s]
x'g\ t < g]kfn ;fdflhs -/fhgLlts ;Fqmd0fsf] r/0fdf 5 . clwsfFz
/fhgLlts bnx?n] ev{/} dfq nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfx? l;Sb}5g\ .
hgtfx?sf] dfgl;stf klg w]/} cl:y/ 5.j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgL ;DaGwdf
cfd dflg;x? / lhDd]jf/ lgsfox?sf] af]w /fd|f] 5}g\ . ltgLx?n]
sfo{:ynx?df lgoldt c8\sf] yflk/x]sf 5g\.xfdLn] s;/L of] c8\rgnfO{
Go"lgs/0f ul/ j}b]lzs k|ToIf nufgLsf] af/]df hgr]tgf a9fpg
;Sb5f}F < g]kfn nufgL af]8{-g]naf]_sf] ljwfgn] ;fj{hlgs gLlh
;xeflutf-;flg;_ / a'6 k|0ffnLsf] jsfnt ul//x]sf] 5.oL 9fFrfx?sf]
af/]df xfdLn] g]kfndf ut b'O{ bzsb]lv ;'lg/x]sf 5f}F.s] oL
gd"gfx? g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df plrt 5Gf\ cyjf cGo s'g} gd"gf g}
g]kfnsf] nflu c;n Kof{Kt x'g]5 < lsg kfFr aif{df kfj/ a08 b'O{
kN6 c;kmn x'G5 < xfd|f ljWodfg cf}hf/x? l7s 5Gf\ jf k"jf{wf/
lgdf{0fsf] If]qdf nufgL a9fpg cGo s'g} gofF ljlQo pks/0fx?
;';lHht ul/g' kb{5 < h'g If]qsf] lglDt ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL xfdLnfO{

cfjZos k/]sf] 5 To;sf] 5gf]6 ug{' xfd|f] lglDt w]/} dxTjk"0f{
5.s]xL If]qx? d'n'ssf] ;fdflhs sNof0fsf] lglDt w]/} /0fgLlts / k|d'v
dxTjsf x'G5g\ . oL If]qx?sf] klxrfg / ;F/If0f ug]{sfd :yfgLo
nufgLstf{sf] lglDt Hofb} sl7g x'G5.xfdLn] unt If]q :yfgLo
nufgLstf{nfO{ v'nf ugf{;fy le8ef8sf] k|efj kg]{5 / :yfgLo nufgL
stf{x?n] cj;/x? u'dfpFb5g\ . 3/]n' nufg]stf{x?sf] lgDtf]
nufgLsf] lglDt cf/lIft s'g If]q x'g;Snf < ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL-ljk|n_
kmut Pp6f d'n'ssf] cy{tGq / cfly{s enfO{l;t hf]l8Psf] x'Fb}g,of]
t Pp6f d'n'ssf] ;"/Iff / ;fj{ef}d;Qf l;t ufFl;Psf] x'G5 . ljz]if
ul/,g]kfn h:tf ;fgf / lgw{g d'n's h'g ef/t / rLg h:tf eLdsfo b]zx?sf]
lardf 5 h;sf zf;gk|0ffnLx? k|ltnf]ddf 5g\ . s] ToxfF lgs6
l5d]sLx? / t];|f] d'n'ssf] lglDt Pp6} ljb]zL k|ToIf nufgL gLltx?
5Gf <
g]naf] g]kfnsf k|wfgdGqL / cy{,ko{6g,pWof]u tyf jfl0fHo
dGqfno kl/ifbsf] k|ToIf dftxtdf x'g] ;a}eGbf zlQmzfnL /
pkof]uL ;/sf/L lgsfo xf].o;n] ;jf]{Qd kl/0ffd Nofpg ;Sb}g lsgeg]
o;sf] k|d'v sfo{sf/L 5fGg] a]nfdf cgfjZos /fhgLlts x:tIf]k
x'G5.g]kfndf /fhgLlts lgo'lQmaf6 x'g] cfwf/e"t ulNt eg]sf] ;xL
dflg; unt 7fpFdf / unt dflg; ;lx 7fpFdf x'g' xf], ob\Blk o;nfO{
tyfslyt cf}krfl/s
Joj:yff/f 9fs5f]k ul/Psf] x'G5 . g]kfn nufgL af]8{-g]naf]_ h:tf
;/sf/L lgsfox?df ;LO{cf] lgo'lQm ubf{ of]Uotfsf] cfwf/df ul/g'
kb{5,/fhg}lts l;2fGtsf] cfwf/df xf]O{g,h'g /fi6 lgdf{0fsf] lglDt
hjfkmb]xL 5,h;sf gLlt / sfo{x? l;w} hgtf / /fi6sf] ;DkGgtfl;t
hf]l8Psf x'G5g\ .;a}eGbf of]Uo / ultlzn i6f To; kbdf cfl;g x'g'
kb{5.o;sf] dxTj ga'lem g]kfn nufgL af]8{ -g]naf]_df cfgf]

sfo{stf{ etL{ ug]{ s'g} klg /fhgLlts kfl6{ / To; kb vfnL tna
k8\sfpgsf] lglDt u|x0f ug]{ JolQm b'j}nfO{ b]zf]xL d's// ul/g'
kb{5.lsgeg],olb Pp6f of]Uo bzL{ ;f] kbdf lgo'Qm ul/Psf]
x'GYof] eg],p;n] hgtfnfO{ Pp6f emg c;n dfu{ b]vfpg ;SbYof]
hxfF hgtf lxF8\g ;Sb5G,nf]8;]l8af6 d'Qm x'G5G, / b]z
rf/ aif{ klxNo} cuf8L al9 ;Sb5 ./fhgLlts bnx? / JolQmx?n]
l;Fuf] d'n's / k':tfnfO{ h'g lsl;dn] Pp6f hflu/sf] vflt/ $ aif{ kl5
ws]Ng] sfd u/]sf 5g\ ltgnfO{ s8f?kdf bl08t ul/g' kb{5 . cfh
xfdLnfO{ g]kfn nufgL af]8{-g]naf]_df alnof] g]t[Tj Ifdtf,of]Uotf
/ g]kfnnfO{ ?kfGt/0f ug{sf] lgldQ k|dfl0ft dful{\rqsf] clen]v
ePsf] / g]naf]nfO{ abNg ;Sg] / g]kfnnfO{ cGt/fl{\i6o d~rdf
k|ToIf ljb]zL nufgLsf] lglDt n}hfg ;Sg] / cGt/fl{\i6o
nufgLstf{x?sf] lbdfunfO{ lsg g]kfndf nufgL ug]{af6 lsg
g]kfndf nufgL ul/ gx]g]{ < df kl/jt{g ug{ ;Sg] Pshgf bzL{sf]
cfjZostf 5 .

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