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CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

Pressure and Manometers b)

1.1 p Ugh

What will be the (a) the gauge pressure and (b) the absolute pressure of water at depth 12m below the 103 u 9.81 u 0.4 3924 N / m 2

surface? Uwater = 1000 kg/m3, and p atmosphere = 101kN/m2.

[117.72 kN/m2, 218.72 kN/m2] c)

Z Ug

a)

p Ugh

p gauge Ugh

7.9 u 103 u 0.4 3160 N / m 2

1000 u 9.81 u 12

d)

117 720 N / m 2 , ( Pa )

p Ugh

117.7 kN / m2 , ( kPa )

520 u 9.81 u 0.4 2040 N / m2

b)

1.4

pabsolute p gauge patmospheric A manometer connected to a pipe indicates a negative gauge pressure of 50mm of mercury. What is the

(117 720 101) N / m2 , ( Pa ) absolute pressure in the pipe in Newtons per square metre is the atmospheric pressure is 1 bar?

[93.3 kN/m2]

218.7 kN / m2 , ( kPa )

patmosphere 1bar 1 u 105 N / m2

1.2

At what depth below the surface of oil, relative density 0.8, will produce a pressure of 120 kN/m2? What pabsolute p gauge patmospheric

depth of water is this equivalent to? Ugh patmospheric

[15.3m, 12.2m]

13.6 u 10 3 u 9.81 u 0.05 105 N / m2 , ( Pa )

a)

93.33 kN / m2 , ( kPa )

U JU water

1.5

0.8 u 1000 kg / m 3

What height would a water barometer need to be to measure atmospheric pressure?

p Ugh [>10m]

p 120 u 10 3 patmosphere | 1bar 1 u 105 N / m2

h 15.29m of oil

Ug 800 u 9.81 5

10 Ugh

b)

105

h . m of water

1019

U 1000 kg / m3 1000 u 9.81

5

120 u 10 3 10

h 12.23 m of water h 0.75 m of mercury

1000 u 9.81 (13.6 u 103 ) u 9.81

1.3

What would the pressure in kN/m2 be if the equivalent head is measured as 400mm of (a) mercury J=13.6

(b) water ( c) oil specific weight 7.9 kN/m3 (d) a liquid of density 520 kg/m3?

[53.4 kN/m2, 3.92 kN/m2, 3.16 kN/m2, 2.04 kN/m2]

a)

U JU water

13.6 u 1000 kg / m3

p Ugh

13.6 u 103 u 9.81 u 0.4 53366 N / m2

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 1 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 2

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

1.6 1.7

An inclined manometer is required to measure an air pressure of 3mm of water to an accuracy of +/- 3%. Determine the resultant force due to the water acting on the 1m by 2m rectangular area AB shown in the

The inclined arm is 8mm in diameter and the larger arm has a diameter of 24mm. The manometric fluid diagram below.

has density 740 kg/m3 and the scale may be read to +/- 0.5mm. [43 560 N, 2.37m from O]

What is the angle required to ensure the desired accuracy may be achieved? O

[12q 39] P

p2

p1 diameter d 1.22m 1.0m

45

A C

diameter D x

d er

Rea 2.0 m 2.0 m

ale z2

Sc

B D

Datum line

z1 The magnitude of the resultant force on a submerged plane is:

R = pressure at centroid u area of surface

R Ugz A

1000 u 9.81 u 122

. 1 u 1 u 2

43 556 N / m2

p1 p2 U man gh Uman g z1 z2

This acts at right angle to the surface through the centre of pressure.

z2

Volume moved from left to right = z1 A1 A xA2 I OO 2nd moment of area about a line through O

sin T 2 Sc

2 2 2

Ax 1st moment of area about a line through O

SD z 2 Sd Sd

z1 x

4 sin T 4 4 By the parallel axis theorem (which will be given in an exam), I oo I GG Ax 2 , where IGG is the 2nd

z2 d 2 d2 moment of area about a line through the centroid and can be found in tables.

z1 2 x 2

sin T D D I GG

Sc x

d 2 Ax

p1 p2 Uman gx sin T

D2 b

2

d

Uwater gh Uman gx sin T

D2 G G

008 2

Uwater gh 0.74 u Uwater gx sinT 00..024 2

d

bd 3

For a rectangle I GG

h 0.74 x (sin T 01111

. ) 12

The head being measured is 3% of 3mm = 0.003x0.03 = 0.00009m As the wall is vertical, Sc D and x z,

This 3% represents the smallest measurement possible on the manometer, 0.5mm = 0.0005m, giving 1 u 23

Sc 122

. 1

0.00009 0.74 u 0.0005 (sin T 01111

. ) 121 u 2122

. 1

2.37 m from O

sin T 0132

.

T 7.6$

[This is not the same as the answer given on the question sheet]

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 3 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 4

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

1.8 Forces on submerged surfaces

Determine the resultant force due to the water acting on the 1.25m by 2.0m triangular area CD shown in

2.1

the figure above. The apex of the triangle is at C.

Obtain an expression for the depth of the centre of pressure of a plane surface wholly submerged in a

[43.5u103N, 2.821m from P] fluid and inclined at an angle to the free surface of the liquid.

b A horizontal circular pipe, 1.25m diameter, is closed by a butterfly disk which rotates about a horizontal

axis through its centre. Determine the torque which would have to be applied to the disk spindle to keep

the disk closed in a vertical position when there is a 3m head of fresh water above the axis.

[1176 Nm]

G G The question asks what is the moment you have to apply to the spindle to keep the disc vertical i.e. to

d keep the valve shut?

d/3 bd 3

For a triangle I GG

36 So you need to know the resultant force exerted on the disc by the water and the distance x of this force

from the spindle.

2

Depth to centre of gravity is z . 2 cos 45 1943

10 . m. We know that the water in the pipe is under a pressure of 3m head of water (to the spindle)

3

R Ugz A

2.0 u 125

.

1000 u 9.81 u 1943

. u 2.375 h 3

2.0

2

h

23826 N / m

F

Distance from P to centre of pressure is x

I oo

Sc Diagram of the forces on the disc valve, based on an imaginary water surface.

Ax

I oo I GG Ax 2 h 3m , the depth to the centroid of the disc

3

I GG . u2

125 h = depth to the centre of pressure (or line of action of the force)

Sc x 2.748

Ax 36125

. 2.748 Calculate the force:

2.829m F Ugh A

2

1.25

1000 u 9.81 u 3 u S

2

36.116 kN

Calculate the line of action of the force, h.

2nd moment of area about water surface

h'

1st moment of area about water surface

I oo

Ah

By the parallel axis theorem 2nd moment of area about O (in the surface) I oo I GG Ah 2 where IGG is the

2nd moment of area about a line through the centroid of the disc and IGG = Sr4/4.

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 5 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 6

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

I GG If we take moments from the surface,

h' h

Ah DR fd1 fd 2 fd 3

Sr 4

3 D 3 f f d1 d 2 d 3

4(Sr 2 )3

12 d1 d 2 d 3

r2

3 3.0326m Taking the first beam, we can draw a pressure diagram for this, (ignoring what is below),

12

So the distance from the spindle to the line of action of the force is

2H/3

x h ' h 3.0326 3 0.0326m

And the moment required to keep the gate shut is H

F=58860

moment Fx 36.116 u 0.0326 1176

. kN m

2.2

A dock gate is to be reinforced with three horizontal beams. If the water acts on one side only, to a depth 1 2F

of 6m, find the positions of the beams measured from the water surface so that each will carry an equal We know that the resultant force, F UgH 2 , so H

2 Ug

load. Give the load per meter.

[58 860 N/m, 2.31m, 4.22m, 5.47m] 2F 2 u 58860

H 3.46 m

First of all draw the pressure diagram, as below: Ug 1000 u 9.81

And the force acts at 2H/3, so this is the position of the 1st beam,

d1 2

h 2h/3 position of 1st beam H 2.31m

3

f d2

Taking the second beam into consideration, we can draw the following pressure diagram,

R d3

f d1=2.31

H 2H/3

f f d2

The resultant force per unit length of gate is the area of the pressure diagram. So the total resultant force

is F=2u58860 f

1

R Ugh 2 = 0.5 u 1000 u 9.81 u 62 176580 N ( per m length)

2 The reaction force is equal to the sum of the forces on each beam, so as before

Alternatively the resultant force is, R = Pressure at centroid u Area , (take width of gate as 1m to give 2F 2 u (2 u 58860)

force per m) H 4.9 m

Ug 1000 u 9.81

h

R Ug u h u 1 176580 N ( per m length) The reaction force acts at 2H/3, so H=3.27m. Taking moments from the surface,

2

(2 u 58860) u 3.27 58860 u 2.31 58860 u d 2

This is the resultant force exerted by the gate on the water.

depth to second beam d 2 4.22 m

The three beams should carry an equal load, so each beam carries the load f, where

For the third beam, from before we have,

R

f 58860 N 12 d1 d 2 d 3

3

depth to third beam d 3 12 2.31 4.22 5.47m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 7 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 8

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2.3 As this force act normal to the surface, it must act through the centre of radius of the dam wall. So the

The profile of a masonry dam is an arc of a circle, the arc having a radius of 30m and subtending an angle depth to the point where the force acts is,

of 60q at the centre of curvature which lies in the water surface. Determine (a) the load on the dam in N/m y = 30sin 39.31q=19m

length, (b) the position of the line of action to this pressure.

[4.28 u 106 N/m length at depth 19.0m] 2.4

The arch of a bridge over a stream is in the form of a semi-circle of radius 2m. the bridge width is 4m.

Draw the dam to help picture the geometry, Due to a flood the water level is now 1.25m above the crest of the arch. Calculate (a) the upward force on

R the underside of the arch, (b) the horizontal thrust on one half of the arch.

[263.6 kN, 176.6 kN]

a

The bridge and water level can be drawn as:

60 1.25m

FR y

h

R

2m

Fh

a) The upward force on the arch = weight of (imaginary) water above the arch.

Rv Ug u volume of water

Fv S 22

volume . 2) u 4

(125 u4 26.867 m 3

2

h . m

30 sin 60 2598 Rv 1000 u 9.81 u 26.867 263568

. kN

a . m

30 cos 60 150

b)

Calculate Fv = total weight of fluid above the curved surface (per m length) The horizontal force on half of the arch, is equal to the force on the projection of the curved surface onto

Fv Ug (area of sector - area of triangle) a vertical plane.

. u 15

60 2598

= 1000 u 9.81 u S 302 u 1.25

360 2

.

2711375 kN / m

Calculate Fh = force on projection of curved surface onto a vertical plane

1

Fh Ugh 2 2.0

2

05 . 2

. u 1000 u 9.81 u 2598 3310.681 kN / m

The resultant, Fh pressure at centroid u area

FR 2

F F 2 2

3310.681 2711375

. 2 Ug125

. 1 u 2 u 4

v h

176.58 kN

4279.27 kN / m

acting at the angle

2.5

Fv

tan T 0.819 The face of a dam is vertical to a depth of 7.5m below the water surface then slopes at 30q to the vertical.

Fh If the depth of water is 17m what is the resultant force per metre acting on the whole face?

T 39.32 $ [1563.29 kN]

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 9 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 10

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

d1

d2

h2

d3

f1

F

f2

f3

h1

60q

density of oil Uoil = 0.9Uwater = 900 kg/m3.

Force per unit length, F = area under the graph = sum of the three areas = f1 + f2 + f3

x

(900 u 9.81 u 2) u 2

h2 = 17.0 m, so h1 = 17.0 - 7.5 = 9.5 . x = 9.5/tan 60 = 5.485 m. f1 u 3 52974 N

2

Vertical force = weight of water above the surface, f2 (900 u 9.81 u 2) u 15

. u 3 79461 N

Fv Ug h2 u x 0.5h1 u x (1000 u 9.81 u 15. ) u 15

.

f3 u 3 33109 N

9810 u 7.5 u 5.485 0.5 u 9.5 u 5.485 2

F f 1 f 2 f 3 165544 N

659.123 kN / m

To find the position of the resultant force F, we take moments from any point. We will take moments

The horizontal force = force on the projection of the surface on to a vertical plane.

about the surface.

1

Fh Ugh 2 DF f 1d1 f 2 d 2 f 3d 3

2

2 15

. 2

0.5 u 1000 u 9.81 u 17 2 165544 D 52974 u 2 79461 u (2 ) 33109 u (2 15

.)

3 2 3

1417.545 kN / m D 2.347m ( from surface)

The resultant force is . m ( from base of wall)

1153

FR Fv2 Fh2 659.1232 1417.5452

1563.29 kN / m

And acts at the angle

Fv

tan T 0.465

Fh

T 24.94$

2.6

A tank with vertical sides is square in plan with 3m long sides. The tank contains oil of relative density

0.9 to a depth of 2.0m which is floating on water a depth of 1.5m. Calculate the force on the walls and the

height of the centre of pressure from the bottom of the tank.

[165.54 kN, 1.15m]

Consider one wall of the tank. Draw the pressure diagram:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 11 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 12

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2 2 2

Application of the Bernoulli Equation pB p A u u B A uA

zA k

3.1 1000 g 2g 2g

In a vertical pipe carrying water, pressure gauges are inserted at points A and B where the pipe diameters

are 0.15m and 0.075m respectively. The point B is 2.5m below A and when the flow rate down the pipe is

. 2.5 1045

15 . 0.065 0.065k

0.02 cumecs, the pressure at B is 14715 N/m2 greater than that at A.

v2

Assuming the losses in the pipe between A and B can be expressed as k where v is the velocity at A, k 0.319

2g

find the value of k. Part ii)

If the gauges at A and B are replaced by tubes filled with water and connected to a U-tube containing p xxL Uw gz B p B

mercury of relative density 13.6, give a sketch showing how the levels in the two limbs of the U-tube

differ and calculate the value of this difference in metres. p xxR Um gR p Uw gz A Uw gR p p A

[k = 0.319, 0.0794m] p xxL p xxR

U w gz B p B Um gR p U w gz A U w gR p p A

dA = 0.2m A pB p A U w g z A z B gR P Um U w

14715 1000 u 9.81 u 2.5 9.81R p 13600 1000

Rp 0.079 m

dB = 0.2m B 3.2

A Venturimeter with an entrance diameter of 0.3m and a throat diameter of 0.2m is used to measure the

volume of gas flowing through a pipe. The discharge coefficient of the meter is 0.96.

Assuming the specific weight of the gas to be constant at 19.62 N/m3, calculate the volume flowing when

Rp the pressure difference between the entrance and the throat is measured as 0.06m on a water U-tube

manometer.

[0.816 m3/s]

Part i)

d2 = 0.2m

dA 0.15m dB 0.075m Q 0.02 m 3 / s

d1 = 0.3m

pB p A 14715 N / m 2

kv 2

hf

2g

Taking the datum at B, the Bernoulli equation becomes:

Z2

p A u 2A p B u B2 u 2A

z zB k

Ug 2 g A Ug 2 g 2g Z1

hRp

zA 2.5 zB 0

By continuity: Q = uAAA = uBAB

uA 0.02 / S 0.075 2 1132

. m/ s

uB 0.02 / S 0.0375 2 4.527 m / s

giving

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 13 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 14

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

What we know from the question: 3.3

A Venturimeter is used for measuring flow of water along a pipe. The diameter of the Venturi throat is

U g g 19.62 N / m 2 two fifths the diameter of the pipe. The inlet and throat are connected by water filled tubes to a mercury

Cd 0.96 U-tube manometer. The velocity of flow along the pipe is found to be 2.5 H m/s, where H is the

d1 0.3m manometer reading in metres of mercury. Determine the loss of head between inlet and throat of the

d2 0.2 m Venturi when H is 0.49m. (Relative density of mercury is 13.6).

[0.23m of water]

Calculate Q.

u1 Q / 0.0707 u2 Q / 0.0314

For the manometer:

p1 U g gz

p 2 U g g z 2 R p Uw gR p

p1 p 2 19.62 z 2 z1 587.423 (1)

For the Venturimeter

p1 u12 p2 u 22

z z Z2

Ug g 2g 1 Ug g 2g 2

p1 p 2 19.62 z 2 z1 0.803u 22 (2 ) Z1

H

h

0.803u 22 587.423

u 2 ideal 27.047 m / s

2

0.2 For the manometer:

Qideal 27.047 u S 0.85m 3 / s

2 p1 Uw gz1 p2 Uw g z2 H Um gH

Q Cd Qidea 0.96 u 0.85 0.816m 3 / s p1 p2 Uw gz2 Uw gH Um gH Uw gz1 (1)

For the Venturimeter

p1 u2 p2 u2

1 z1 2 z2 Losses

Uw g 2 g Uw g 2 g

Uw u22 Uw u12

p1 p2 Uw gz2 Uw gz1 LUw g ( 2)

2 2

Combining (1) and (2)

p1 u12 p2 u 22

z z Losses

Uw g 2 g 1 Uw g 2 g 2

Uw

LU w g Hg Um Uw u 2

2 u12 (3)

2

but at 1. From the question

u1 2.5 H . m/ s

175

u1 A1 u 2 A2

2

d2 2d

. uS

175 u2 S

4 10

u2 10.937 m / s

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 15 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 16

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2

Substitute in (3) u 3

183

.

0.49 u 9.8113600 1000 1000 / 210.937 2 1.75 2 2g

Losses L u3 5.99 m / s

9.81 u 1000

0.233m Q u 3 A3

3.4 d 32

0.02665 5.99 u S

Water is discharging from a tank through a convergent-divergent mouthpiece. The exit from the tank is 4

rounded so that losses there may be neglected and the minimum diameter is 0.05m. d3 0.0752m

If the head in the tank above the centre-line of the mouthpiece is 1.83m. a) What is the discharge?

b) What must be the diameter at the exit if the absolute pressure at the minimum area is to be 2.44m of If the mouth piece has been removed, p1 p2

water? c) What would the discharge be if the divergent part of the mouth piece were removed. (Assume

p1 p2 u 22

atmospheric pressure is 10m of water). z1

[0.0752m, 0.0266m3/s, 0.0118m3/s] Ug Ug 2g

u2 2 gz1 5.99 m / s

0.052

Q 5.99S 0.0118 m 3 / s

4

3.5

A closed tank has an orifice 0.025m diameter in one of its vertical sides. The tank contains oil to a depth

h of 0.61m above the centre of the orifice and the pressure in the air space above the oil is maintained at

13780 N/m2 above atmospheric. Determine the discharge from the orifice.

(Coefficient of discharge of the orifice is 0.61, relative density of oil is 0.9).

2 [0.00195 m3/s]

3

P = 13780 kN/m2

From the question:

d2 0.05m

p2 0.66m

minimum pressure 2.44 m oil

Ug

p1 p3

10m

Ug Ug

Apply Bernoulli: do = 0.025m

p1 u12 p2 u22 p3 u32

z z z From the question

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 Ug 2 g 3

Uo

If we take the datum through the orifice: V 0.9

Uw

z1 . m

183 z2 z3 0 u1 negligible Uo 900

Between 1 and 2 Cd 0.61

u 22 Apply Bernoulli,

10 183

. 2.44

2g p1 u12 p2 u22

u2 . m/s

1357 z z

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2

2

0.05

Q u2 A2 . u S

1357 0.02665 m 3 / s Take atmospheric pressure as 0,

2

Between 1 and 3 p1 p3

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 17 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 18

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2 2 2

13780 u2 p1 u1 p2 u2

0.61 hf

Uo g 2g Ug 2g Ug 2g

u2 6.53 m / s p1 p 2 u12 u 22

hf

0.025

2 Ug Ug 2 g 2g

Q 0.61 u 6.53 u S 0.00195 m 3 / s

2 3.77 2 u 22

25 2.5

3.6 2g 2g

The discharge coefficient of a Venturimeter was found to be constant for rates of flow exceeding a certain u 2 21.346 m / s

value. Show that for this condition the loss of head due to friction in the convergent parts of the meter can Q u 2 A2

be expressed as KQ2 m where K is a constant and Q is the rate of flow in cumecs.

d 22

Obtain the value of K if the inlet and throat diameter of the Venturimeter are 0.102m and 0.05m 0.0667 21.346 u S

respectively and the discharge coefficient is 0.96. 4

[K=1060] d2 0.063m

3.7 3.8

A Venturimeter is to fitted in a horizontal pipe of 0.15m diameter to measure a flow of water which may A Venturimeter of throat diameter 0.076m is fitted in a 0.152m diameter vertical pipe in which liquid of

be anything up to 240m3/hour. The pressure head at the inlet for this flow is 18m above atmospheric and relative density 0.8 flows downwards. Pressure gauges are fitted to the inlet and to the throat sections.

the pressure head at the throat must not be lower than 7m below atmospheric. Between the inlet and the The throat being 0.914m below the inlet. Taking the coefficient of the meter as 0.97 find the discharge

throat there is an estimated frictional loss of 10% of the difference in pressure head between these points. a) when the pressure gauges read the same b)when the inlet gauge reads 15170 N/m2 higher than the

Calculate the minimum allowable diameter for the throat. throat gauge.

[0.063m] [0.0192m3/s, 0.034m3/s]

d1 = 0.15m

d1 = 0.152m

d2

d1 . m

015 Q 240 m 3 / hr 0.667 m3 / s

u1 Q / A 3.77 m / s

p1 p2

18m 7 m

Ug Ug

p 1 p2

hf 0.1

Ug From the question:

Apply Bernoulli: d1 0.152 m A1 0.01814 m

d2 0.076m A2 0.00454 m

U 800 kg / m 3

Cd 0.97

Apply Bernoulli:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 19 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 20

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2 2

p1 u 1 p2 u

2

Tank emptying

z z

Ug 2g 1 Ug 2g 2 4.1

A reservoir is circular in plan and the sides slope at an angle of tan-1(1/5) to the horizontal. When the

a) p1 p2 reservoir is full the diameter of the water surface is 50m. Discharge from the reservoir takes place

u12 u 22 through a pipe of diameter 0.65m, the outlet being 4m below top water level. Determine the time for the

z z water level to fall 2m assuming the discharge to be 0.75a 2 gH cumecs where a is the cross sectional

2g 1 2g 2

area of the pipe in m2 and H is the head of water above the outlet in m.

By continuity: [1325 seconds]

Q u1 A1 u 2 A2 50m

A1

u2 u1 u1 4

A2

u12 16u12 r

0.914

2g 2g H

0.914 u 2 u 9.81

u1 .

10934 m/ s

15 x

Q Cd A1 u1

Q 0.96 u 0.01814 u 10934

. 0.019 m 3 / s 1

b) 5

p1 p 2 15170

From the question: H = 4m a = S(0.65/2)2 = 0.33m2

p1 p2 u 22 u12

0.914

Ug 2g Q 0.75a 2 gh

15170 Q 2 220.432 5511

. 2 10963

. h

0.914

Ug 2g In time Gt the level in the reservoir falls Gh, so

55.8577 Q 2 220.432 5511

. 2 Q Gt A Gh

Q 0.035 m 3 / s A

Gt Gh

Q

Integrating give the total time for levels to fall from h1 to h2.

h2 A

T dh

h1 Q

As the surface area changes with height, we must express A in terms of h.

A = Sr2

But r varies with h.

It varies linearly from the surface at H = 4m, r = 25m, at a gradient of tan-1 = 1/5.

r = x + 5h

25 = x + 5(4)

x=5

so A = S( 5 + 5h )2 = ( 25S + 25Sh2 + 50Sh )

Substituting in the integral equation gives

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 21 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 22

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

2

h2 25S 25Sh 50Sh And we can write an equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:

T dh

h1 10963

. h Q Gt A Gh

2

25S h2 1 h 2h A

10963

. h1 h

dh Gt Gh

Q

h2 1 h2 2h Integrating give the total time for levels to fall from h1 to h2.

.

71641 dh

h1

h h h h2 A

h2 T dh

.

71641 h 1/2 h 3/ 2 2h 1/2 dh h1 Q

h1

h h2 A

2 4 2 .

168 dh (1)

. 2h 1/2 h 53/ 2 h 3/ 2

71641 h1 h

5 3 h1

a) For the first 1m depth, A = 8 x 32 = 256, whatever the h.

From the question, h1 = 4m h2 = 2m, so

So, for the first period of time:

2 4 2 4

T . 2 u 4 1/2 u 4 53/ 2 u 4 3/ 2 2 u 2 1/2 u 2 53/ 2 u 2 3/ 2

71641 h2 256

5 3 5 3 T .

168 dh

h1 h

. >4 12.8 10.667 2.828 2.263 3.77@

71641

. >27.467 8.862@

71641

430.08 h1 h2> @

1333 sec >

430.08 2.6 16

. @

299 sec

4.2

A rectangular swimming pool is 1m deep at one end and increases uniformly in depth to 2.6m at the other

end. The pool is 8m wide and 32m long and is emptied through an orifice of area 0.224m2, at the lowest b) now we need to find out how long it will take to empty the rest.

point in the side of the deep end. Taking Cd for the orifice as 0.6, find, from first principles,

a) the time for the depth to fall by 1m b) the time to empty the pool completely. We need the area A, in terms of h.

[299 second, 662 seconds] A 8L

32.0m L 32

h 1.6

A 160h

1.0m So

2.6m

h2 160h

T .

168 dh

h1 h

L 2

268.9

3 1 >

h 3/2 h2 3/2 @

2

The question tell us ao = 0.224m2, Cd = 0.6 268.9 16

3

3/ 2

>

. 0

3/ 2

@

Apply Bernoulli from the tank surface to the vena contracta at the orifice: 362.67 sec

p1 u12 p2 u22 Total time for emptying is,

z z

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 T = 363 + 299 = 662 sec

p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh

We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice.

Q Cd a o u 2 Cd a o 2 gh

0.6 u 0.224 u 2 u 9.81 h

0.595 h

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 23 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 24

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

4.3 Q Gt A Gh

A vertical cylindrical tank 2m diameter has, at the bottom, a 0.05m diameter sharp edged orifice for A

which the discharge coefficient is 0.6. Gt Gh

Q

a) If water enters the tank at a constant rate of 0.0095 cumecs find the depth of water above the orifice

when the level in the tank becomes stable. Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level

b) Find the time for the level to fall from 3m to 1m above the orifice when the inflow is turned off.

c) If water now runs into the tank at 0.02 cumecs, the orifice remaining open, find the rate of rise in water

h2 A

T dh

level when the level has reached a depth of 1.7m above the orifice. h1 Q

[a) 3.314m, b) 881 seconds, c) 0.252m/min] h2

.

6018 h 1/ 2 dh

h1

1203.6>h 1/ 2 @h

h2

Q = 0.0095 m3/s 1

1203.6>h21/ 2 h11/ 2 @

h1 = 3 and h2 = 1 so

T = 881 sec

h c) Qin changed to Qin = 0.02 m3/s

From (1) we have Qout 0.00522 h . The question asks for the rate of surface rise when h = 1.7m.

. 0.0068 m3 / s

do = 0.005m The rate of increase in volume is:

Q Qin Qout 0.02 0.0068 0.0132 m 3 / s

From the question: Qin = 0.0095 m3/s, do=0.05m, Cd =0.6

As Q = Area x Velocity, the rate of rise in surface is

Apply Bernoulli from the water surface (1) to the orifice (2),

Q Au

p1 u12 p2 u22 Q 0.0132

z z u 0.0042 m / s 0.252 m / min

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 A S 22

p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh . 4

A horizontal boiler shell (i.e. a horizontal cylinder) 2m diameter and 10m long is half full of water. Find

We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice. the time of emptying the shell through a short vertical pipe, diameter 0.08m, attached to the bottom of the

Qout Cd a o u2 Cd a o 2 gh shell. Take the coefficient of discharge to be 0.8.

2

[1370 seconds]

0.05

0.6S 2 u 9.81 h d = 2m

2

0.00522 h (1) 32m

For the level in the tank to remain constant:

inflow = out flow

Qin = Qout

0.0095 0.00522 h

h 3.314 m

(b) Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: do = 0.08 m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 25 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 26

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

Apply Bernoulli from the water surface (1) to the orifice (2), h2 20 2h h 2

T dh

p1 u12 p2 u22 h1 .

01078 h

z z

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 h2 2h h 2

1123.6 dh

p1 = p2 and u1 = 0. u 2 2 gh .

h1 h

h2 2h h 2

With the datum the bottom of the cylinder, z1 = h, z2 = 0 1123.6 dh

h1 h

We need Q in terms of the height h measured above the orifice. h2

1123.6 2 h dh

h1

Qout Cd a o u2 Cd a o 2 gh

2

> @

3/ 2 h2

0.08

2

1123.6 2 h

0.8S 2 u 9.81 h 3 h1

2

749.07>2.828 1@ 1369.6 sec

0.0178 h

4.5

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: Two cylinders standing upright contain liquid and are connected by a submerged orifice. The diameters

Q Gt A Gh of the cylinders are 1.75m and 1.0m and of the orifice, 0.08m. The difference in levels of the liquid is

A initially 1.35m. Find how long it will take for this difference to be reduced to 0.66m if the coefficient of

Gt Gh discharge for the orifice is 0.605. (Work from first principles.)

Q

[30.7 seconds]

Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level d1 = 1.75m d2 = 1.0m

h2 A

T dh

h1 Q

But we need A in terms of h

h = 1.35m

2.0m

1.0m

a

L

h

do = 0.108m

.

2 2

Surface area A = 10L, so need L in terms of h 175

. 1

A1 S 2.4m2 A2 S 0.785m2

2 2 2

L

12 a2 0.08

2

2 do 0.08m, ao S 0.00503m2 Cd 0.605

2

a (1 h)

L

2 by continuity,

12 (1 h) 2

2 A1Gh1 A2Gh2 QGt (1)

L 2 2h h 2

defining, h = h1 - h2

A 20 2h h 2 Gh Gh1 Gh2

Substitute this into the integral term, Substituting this in (1) to eliminate Gh2

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 27 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 28

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

A1Gh1 A2 (Gh1 Gh) A2Gh1 A2Gh Q Gt A Gh

A2Gh A

Gh1 Gt Gh

A1 A2 Q

A2Gh Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level

A1 QGt ( 2)

A1 A2

A

h2

T dh

From the Bernoulli equation we can derive this expression for discharge through the submerged orifice: h1 Q

Q Cd ao 2 gh 60000 h2 1

0.678 h1 h 3/ 2

dh

So

. >h 1/ 2 @h

h2

2 u 8849558

A Gh 1

A1 2 Cd a o 2 gh Gt

A1 A2 From the question T = 3600 sec and h1 = 0.6m

3600 17699115

Gt Gh

A1 A2 Cd ao 2 g h h2 0.5815m

A1 A2 h2 1

T

A1 A2 Cd a o 2 g h1 h

dh

2 A1 A2

A A2 Cd a o 2 g

h2 h1

1

2 u 2.4 u 0.785

0.8124 11619

.

2.4 0.785 u 0.605 u 0.00503 2 u 9.81

30.7 sec

4.6

A rectangular reservoir with vertical walls has a plan area of 60000m2. Discharge from the reservoir take

place over a rectangular weir. The flow characteristics of the weir is Q = 0.678 H3/2 cumecs where H is

the depth of water above the weir crest. The sill of the weir is 3.4m above the bottom of the reservoir.

Starting with a depth of water of 4m in the reservoir and no inflow, what will be the depth of water after

one hour?

[3.98m]

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 29 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 30

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

Notches and weirs 5.2

Derive an expression for the discharge over a sharp crested rectangular weir. A sharp edged weir is to be

5.1

constructed across a stream in which the normal flow is 200 litres/sec. If the maximum flow likely to

Deduce an expression for the discharge of water over a right-angled sharp edged V-notch, given that the

occur in the stream is 5 times the normal flow then determine the length of weir necessary to limit the rise

coefficient of discharge is 0.61.

in water level to 38.4cm above that for normal flow. Cd=0.61.

A rectangular tank 16m by 6m has the same notch in one of its short vertical sides. Determine the time

[1.24m]

taken for the head, measured from the bottom of the notch, to fall from 15cm to 7.5cm.

[1399 seconds]

From your notes you can derive: 2

Q C b 2 gh 3/ 2

8 T 3 d

Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2

15 d 2 From the question:

For this weir the equation simplifies to Q1 = 0.2 m3/s, h1 = x

3

Q 144

. H 5/ 2

Q2 = 1.0 m /s, h2 = x + 0.384

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: where x is the height above the weir at normal flow.

A 2

Gt Gh 0.2 C b 2 g x 3/ 2 1801

. bx 3/ 2 (1)

Q 3 d

2 3/ 2 3/ 2

Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level 10

. C b 2 g x 0.384 . b x 0.384

1801 ( 2)

3 d

h2A From (1) we get an expression for b in terms of x

T dh

h1 Q

b . x 3/ 2

0111

16 u 6 h2 1

.

144 h1 h5/2 dh Substituting this in (2) gives,

2 x 0.384

3/ 2

u 66.67>h 3/ 2 @h

h2

3 10

. 1801

. u 0111

.

1

x

h1 = 0.15m, h2 = 0.075m x 0.384

52 / 3

44.44>0.075

T 3/ 2

015

. 3 / 2

@ x

x 01996

. m

1399 sec

So the weir breadth is

3/ 2

b . 01996

0111 .

. m

124

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 31 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 32

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

5.3 b) Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change:

Show that the rate of flow across a triangular notch is given by Q=CdKH5/2 cumecs, where Cd is an

Q Gt A Gh

experimental coefficient, K depends on the angle of the notch, and H is the height of the undisturbed

water level above the bottom of the notch in metres. State the reasons for the introduction of the A

Gt Gh

coefficient. Q

Water from a tank having a surface area of 10m2 flows over a 90q notch. It is found that the time taken to

Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level

lower the level from 8cm to 7cm above the bottom of the notch is 43.5seconds. Determine the coefficient

Cd assuming that it remains constant during his period. A

h2

T dh

[0.635] h1 Q

8 T 56000 h2 1

. B h1 h 3/ 2

The proof for Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2 Cd KH 5/ 2 is in the notes. dh

15 d 2 177

2 u 56000 1/ 2 0.3

From the question:

. B

177

> h @ 0. 6

A = 10m2 T = 90q h1 = 0.08m h2 = 0.07m T = 43.5sec

5784>0.3 0.6 1/ 2 @

1/ 2

So

T 3093 sec

Q = 2.36 Cd h5/2

5.5

Write the equation for the discharge in terms of the surface height change: Develop a formula for the discharge over a 90q V-notch weir in terms of head above the bottom of the V.

Q Gt A Gh A channel conveys 300 litres/sec of water. At the outlet end there is a 90q V-notch weir for which the

A coefficient of discharge is 0.58. At what distance above the bottom of the channel should the weir be

Gt Gh placed in order to make the depth in the channel 1.30m? With the weir in this position what is the depth

Q

of water in the channel when the flow is 200 litres/sec?

Integrating between h1 and h2, to give the time to change surface level [0.755m, 1.218m]

A h2 8 T

T dh Derive this formula from the notes: Q C tan 2 g H 5/ 2

Qh1 15 d 2

10 h2 1 From the question:

2.36Cd h1 h 5/2

dh

T = 90q Cd 0.58 Q = 0.3 m3/s, depth of water, Z = 0.3m

2 4.23 3/2 0.08

u

3 Cd

>h @0.07 giving the weir equation:

. H 5/ 2

Q 137

2.82

435

.

Cd

>0.07 3/2 0.083/2 @ a) As H is the height above the bottom of the V, the depth of water = Z = D + H, where D is the height

Cd 0.635 of the bottom of the V from the base of the channel. So

5/2

5.4 . Z D

Q 137

A reservoir with vertical sides has a plan area of 56000m2. Discharge from the reservoir takes place over . 13

0.3 137 . D

5/2

a rectangular weir, the flow characteristic of which is Q=1.77BH3/2 m3/s. At times of maximum rainfall, D 0.755m

water flows into the reservoir at the rate of 9m3/s. Find a) the length of weir required to discharge this

quantity if head must not exceed 0.6m; b) the time necessary for the head to drop from 60cm to 30cm if b) Find Z when Q = 0.2 m3/s

the inflow suddenly stops. . Z 0.755

0.2 137

5/ 2

[10.94m, 3093seconds]

Z 1218

. m

From the question:

A = 56000 m2 Q = 1.77 B H 3/2 Qmax = 9 m3/s

a) Find B for H = 0.6

9 = 1.77 B 0.63/2

B = 10.94m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 33 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 34

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

5.6 Application of the Momentum Equation

Show that the quantity of water flowing across a triangular V-notch of angle 2T is 6.1

8 The figure below shows a smooth curved vane attached to a rigid foundation. The jet of water,

Q Cd tan T 2 g H 5/ 2 . Find the flow if the measured head above the bottom of the V is 38cm, when

15 rectangular in section, 75mm wide and 25mm thick, strike the vane with a velocity of 25m/s. Calculate

T=45q and Cd=0.6. If the flow is wanted within an accuracy of 2%, what are the limiting values of the the vertical and horizontal components of the force exerted on the vane and indicate in which direction

head. these components act.

[0.126m3/s, 0.377m, 0.383m] [Horizontal 233.4 N acting from right to left. Vertical 1324.6 N acting downwards]

Proof of the v-notch weir equation is in the notes.

From the question:

H = 0.38m T = 45q Cd = 0.6

45q

The weir equation becomes:

25q

Q 1417

. H 5/ 2

. 0.38

1417

5/ 2 From the question:

0126

. m3 / s a1 0.075 u 0.025 1875

. u 10 3 m 2

u1 25 m / s

Q 1875

. u 10 3 u 25 m 3 / s

Q+2% = 0.129 m3/s

a1 a 2 , so u1 u 2

.

0129 .

1417 H 5/ 2

H 0.383m Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:

FT x UQu 2 cos 25 u1 cos 45

Q-2% = 0.124 m /s 3 1000 u 0.0469 25 cos 25 25 cos 45

.

0124 .

1417 H 5/ 2 233.44 N

H 0.377m FT y UQu 2 sin 25 u1 sin 45

1000 u 0.0469 25 sin 25 25 sin 45

1324.6 N

Body force and pressure force are 0.

So force on vane:

Rx Ft x 233.44 N

Ry Ft y 1324.6 N

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 35 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 36

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

6.2 FRy FTy FPy FBy

A 600mm diameter pipeline carries water under a head of 30m with a velocity of 3m/s. This water main is 2.457 80.376 0 82.833 kN

fitted with a horizontal bend which turns the axis of the pipeline through 75q (i.e. the internal angle at the

bend is 105q). Calculate the resultant force on the bend and its angle to the horizontal. These forces act on the fluid

[104.044 kN, 52q 29] The resultant force on the fluid is

u2

y FR FRx FRy 104.44 kN

FRy

T tan 1 52 $ 29 '

FRx

x

6.3

A horizontal jet of water 2u103 mm2 cross-section and flowing at a velocity of 15 m/s hits a flat plate at

60q to the axis (of the jet) and to the horizontal. The jet is such that there is no side spread. If the plate is

stationary, calculate a) the force exerted on the plate in the direction of the jet and b) the ratio between the

u1

quantity of fluid that is deflected upwards and that downwards. (Assume that there is no friction and

therefore no shear force.)

[338N, 3:1]

y

x u2

From the question:

2

0.6

a S 0.283 m 2 d 0.6 m h 30 m

2

u1 u2 3m / s Q 0.848 m 3 / s

u1

Calculate total force.

FTx UQ u 2 x u1x FRx FPx FBx

FTx 1000 u 0.848 3 cos 75 3 1.886 kN

FTy

UQ u2 y u1 y FRy FPy FBy u3

From the question a2 = a3 =2x10-3 m2 u = 15 m/s

Calculate the pressure force

Apply Bernoulli,

p1 = p2 = p = hUg = 30u1000u9.81 = 294.3 kN/m2

FTx p1 a 1 cos T1 p 2 a 2 cos T2 p1 u12 p 2 u 22 p 3 u 32

z z z

Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2 Ug 2 g 3

294300 u 0.2831 cos 75

. kN

6173

FTy p1 a1 sin T1 p 2 a 2 sin T2 Change in height is negligible so z1 = z2 = z3 and pressure is always atmospheric p1= p2 = p3 =0. So

80.376 kN By continuity Q1= Q2 + Q3

so a1 = a2 + a3

FRx FTx FPx FBx

1886

. 61.73 0 63.616 kN Put the axes normal to the plate, as we know that the resultant force is normal to the plate.

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 37 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 38

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

-3

Q1 = a1u = 2u10 u15 = 0.03 FTx = UQ( 0 - u1x )

Q1 = (a2 + a3) u FTx = 1000u0.11 ( 0 - 25 cos 30 ) = 2.39 kN

Q2 = a2u 6.5

Q3 = (a1 - a2)u The outlet pipe from a pump is a bend of 45q rising in the vertical plane (i.e. and internal angle of 135q).

The bend is 150mm diameter at its inlet and 300mm diameter at its outlet. The pipe axis at the inlet is

Calculate total force. horizontal and at the outlet it is 1m higher. By neglecting friction, calculate the force and its direction if

the inlet pressure is 100kN/m2 and the flow of water through the pipe is 0.3m3/s. The volume of the pipe

FTx UQ u 2 x u1x FRx FPx FBx

is 0.075m3.

FTx 1000 u 0.03 0 15 sin 60 390 N [13.94kN at 67q 40 to the horizontal]

Component in direction of jet = 390 sin 60 = 338 N y p2 u

2 A2

x

FTy Uu22 a2 Uu32 a3 Uu12 a1 cosT 0

a 2 a 3 a1 cosT 0

a1 a2 a3 p1 1m

a 3 a1 cosT a1 a 3

u1 45

4

4a 3 a1 a

3 2

1 A1

a3 a

3 2

Thus 3/4 of the jet goes up, 1/4 down

6.4 1&2 Draw the control volume and the axis system

A 75mm diameter jet of water having a velocity of 25m/s strikes a flat plate, the normal of which is

inclined at 30q to the jet. Find the force normal to the surface of the plate.

[2.39kN] p1 = 100 kN/m2, Q = 0.3 m3/s T = 45q

y d1 = 0.15 m d2 = 0.3 m

A1 = 0.177 m2 A2 = 0.0707 m2

x u2

in the x direction

u1 FT x UQu2 x u1 x

UQ u2 cosT u1

u3

Force normal to plate is

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 39 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 40

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

0.3 FP x 100000 u 0.0177 2253614

. cos 45 u 0.0707

u1 16.98 m / s

S 015

. 2 / 4 1770 11266.34 9496.37 kN

0.3

u2 4.24 m / s

0.0707 FP y 2253614

. sin 45 u 0.0707

11266.37

FT x 1000 u 0.3 4.24 cos 45 16.98

1493.68 N 5 Calculate the body force

The only body force is the force due to gravity. That is the weight acting in the y direction.

and in the y-direction FB y Ug u volume

FT y

UQ u2 y u1 y 1000 u 9.81 u 0.075

1290156

. N

UQ u2 sin T 0

There are no body forces in the x direction,

1000 u 0.34.24 sin 45

FB x 0

899.44 N

6 Calculate the resultant force

4 Calculate the pressure force.

FT y FR y FP y FB y

FP x p1 A1 cos 0 p2 A2 cosT p1 A1 p2 A2 cosT

FR x FT x FP x FB x

FP y p1 A1 sin 0 p2 A2 sin T p2 A2 sin T 4193.6 9496.37

5302.7 N

We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.

we can use Bernoulli to calculate this unknown pressure. FR y FT y FP y FB y

899.44 11266.37 735.75

2 2 . N

1290156

p1 u1 p2 u2

z z hf

Ug 2g 1 Ug 2g 2

And the resultant force on the fluid is given by

where hf is the friction loss

FRy

In the question it says this can be ignored, hf=0 FResultant

The height of the pipe at the outlet is 1m above the inlet.

Taking the inlet level as the datum:

z1 = 0 z2 = 1m

So the Bernoulli equation becomes:

100000 16.982 p2 4.242 FRx

0 10

.

1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81

2

p2 2253614. N /m

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 41 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 42

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

FR F 2

F 2 6.7

Rx R y

A curved plate deflects a 75mm diameter jet through an angle of 45q. For a velocity in the jet of 40m/s to

5302.7 2 1290156

. 2 the right, compute the components of the force developed against the curved plate. (Assume no friction).

13.95 kN [Rx=2070N, Ry=5000N down]

u2

y

And the direction of application is

FR y .

1290156

I tan 1 tan 1 67.66$ x

FR x 5302.7

The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction

R FR

u1

6.6

The force exerted by a 25mm diameter jet against a flat plate normal to the axis of the jet is 650N. What

is the flow in m3/s?

[0.018 m3/s]

y u2 From the question:

a1 S 0.0752 / 4 4.42 u 10 3 m2

u1 40 m / s

x

Q 4.42 u 10 3 u 40 01767

. m3 / s

a1 a2 , so u1 u2

u1

Calculate the total force using the momentum equation:

FT x UQ u2 cos 45 u1

1000 u 01767

. 40 cos 45 40

207017

. N

FT y UQ u2 sin 45 0

u2 1000 u 01767

. 40 sin 45

4998 N

From the question, djet = 0.025m FTx = 650 N

Body force and pressure force are 0.

Force normal to plate is

So force on vane:

FTx = UQ( 0 - u1x )

Rx Ft x 2070 N

650 = 1000uQ ( 0 - u )

Ry Ft y 4998 N

Q = au = (Sd2/4)u

650 = -1000au2 = -1000Q2/a

650 = -1000Q2/(S0.0252/4)

Q = 0.018m3/s

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 43 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 44

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

6.8 FT x 1000 u 0.45 6.365 cos 45 159

.

A 45q reducing bend, 0.6m diameter upstream, 0.3m diameter downstream, has water flowing through it 1310 N

at the rate of 0.45m3/s under a pressure of 1.45 bar. Neglecting any loss is head for friction, calculate the

force exerted by the water on the bend, and its direction of application.

[R=34400N to the right and down, T = 14q] and in the y-direction

2

y

u2 FT y

UQ u2 y u1 y

A2

UQu2 sin T 0

1000 u 0.45 6.365 sin 45

x 1800 N

4 Calculate the pressure force.

1

FP pressure force at 1 - pressure force at 2

u1

1&2 Draw the control volume and the axis system We know pressure at the inlet but not at the outlet.

we can use Bernoulli to calculate this unknown pressure.

5 2 3

p1 = 1.45u10 N/m , Q = 0.45 m /s T = 45q p1 u12 p2 u22

z z hf

d1 = 0.6 m d2 = 0.3 m Ug 2 g 1 Ug 2 g 2

A1 = 0.283 m2 A2 = 0.0707 m2

where hf is the friction loss

In the question it says this can be ignored, hf=0

3 Calculate the total force

Assume the pipe to be horizontal

in the x direction

z1 = z 2

So the Bernoulli equation becomes:

FT x UQu2 x u1 x 145000 . 2

159 p2 6.3652

UQu2 cosT u1 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81 1000 u 9.81 2 u 9.81

p2 126007 N / m 2

FP x 145000 u 0.283 126000 cos 45 u 0.0707

41035 6300 34735 N

0.45

u1 . m/ s

159

S 0.6 2 / 4

FP y 126000 sin 45 u 0.0707

0.45

u2 6.365 m / s 6300 N

0.0707

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 45 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 46

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

The only body force is the force due to gravity. Laminar pipe flow.

There are no body forces in the x or y directions, 7.1

FB x FB y 0 The distribution of velocity, u, in metres/sec with radius r in metres in a smooth bore tube of 0.025 m

bore follows the law, u = 2.5 - kr2. Where k is a constant. The flow is laminar and the velocity at the pipe

6 Calculate the resultant force surface is zero. The fluid has a coefficient of viscosity of 0.00027 kg/m s. Determine (a) the rate of flow

in m3/s (b) the shearing force between the fluid and the pipe wall per metre length of pipe.

[6.14x10-4 m3/s, 8.49x10-3 N]

FT x FR x FP x FB x The velocity at distance r from the centre is given in the question:

FT y FR y FP y FB y u = 2.5 - kr2

Also we know: P = 0.00027 kg/ms 2r = 0.025m

FR x FT x FP x FB x

We can find k from the boundary conditions:

1310 34735 when r = 0.0125, u = 0.0 (boundary of the pipe)

33425 N 0.0 = 2.5 - k0.01252

k = 16000

FR y FT y FP y FB y u = 2.5 - 1600 r2

1800 6300 a)

8100 N Following along similar lines to the derivation seen in the lecture notes, we can calculate the flow GQ

through a small annulus Gr:

GQ ur Aannulus

And the resultant force on the fluid is given by Aannulus S (r Gr ) 2 Sr 2 | 2SrGr

FRy

FResultant

GQ 2.5 16000r 2SrGr

2

0.0125

Q 2S 2.5r 16000r dr

0

3

0.0125

2.5r 2 16000 4

2S r

2 4 0

. m3 / s

614

FRx

b)

FR FR2 x FR2 y

The shear force is given by F = W u (2Sr)

334252 8100 2 From Newtons law of viscosity

34392 kN

du

W P

dr

And the direction of application is du

2 u 16000r 32000r

dr

FR y 8100 F 0.00027 u 32000 u 0.0125 u (2 u S u 0.0125)

I tan 1 tan 1 13.62 $

FR x 33425

8.48 u 10 3 N

The force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction

R FR

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 47 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 48

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

7.2 'p 1

A liquid whose coefficient of viscosity is m flows below the critical velocity for laminar flow in a circular ur

L 4P

R2 r 2

pipe of diameter d and with mean velocity u. Show that the pressure loss in a length of pipe is 32um/d2.

Oil of viscosity 0.05 kg/ms flows through a pipe of diameter 0.1m with a velocity of 0.6m/s. Calculate the The flow in an annulus of thickness Gr

loss of pressure in a length of 120m. GQ ur Aannulus

[11 520 N/m2]

Aannulus S (r Gr ) 2 Sr 2 | 2SrGr

See the proof in the lecture notes for 'p 1

Consider a cylinder of fluid, length L, radius r, flowing steadily in the centre of a pipe GQ

L 4P

R 2 r 2 2SrGr

R

'p S

r Q

L 2 P 0

R 2r r 3 dr

'p SR 4 'p Sd 4

r r

L 8P L128P

R So the discharge can be written

'p Sd 4

Q

L 128P

The fluid is in equilibrium, shearing forces equal the pressure forces.

To get pressure loss in terms of the velocity of the flow, use the mean velocity:

W 2Sr L 'p A 'pSr 2 u Q/ A

'p r

W 'p d 2

L 2 u

32 PL

du 32 PLu

Newtons law of viscosity W P , 'p

dy d2

du 32 Pu

We are measuring from the pipe centre, so W P 'p per unit length

dr d2

Giving: b) From the question P= 0.05 kg/ms d = 0.1m

'p r du u = 0.6 m/s L = 120.0m

P

L 2 dr 32 u 0.05 u 120 u 0.6

du 'p r 'p 11520 N / m2

01.2

dr L 2P

In an integral form this gives an expression for velocity,

'p 1

L 2P

u r dr

'p r 2

ur C

L 4P

At r = 0, (the centre of the pipe), u = umax, at r = R (the pipe wall) u = 0;

'p R 2

C

L 4P

At a point r from the pipe centre when the flow is laminar:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 49 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 50

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

7.3 vpiston = 0.00064 m/s

A plunger of 0.08m diameter and length 0.13m has four small holes of diameter 5/1600 m drilled through 7.4

in the direction of its length. The plunger is a close fit inside a cylinder, containing oil, such that no oil is A vertical cylinder of 0.075 metres diameter is mounted concentrically in a drum of 0.076metres internal

assumed to pass between the plunger and the cylinder. If the plunger is subjected to a vertical downward diameter. Oil fills the space between them to a depth of 0.2m. The rotque required to rotate the cylinder in

force of 45N (including its own weight) and it is assumed that the upward flow through the four small the drum is 4Nm when the speed of rotation is 7.5 revs/sec. Assuming that the end effects are negligible,

holes is laminar, determine the speed of the fall of the plunger. The coefficient of velocity of the oil is 0.2 calculate the coefficient of viscosity of the oil.

kg/ms. [0.638 kg/ms]

[0.00064 m/s]

From the question r-1 = 0.076/2 r2 = 0.075/2 Torque = 4Nm, L = 0.2m

F = 45N

d = 5/1600 m

Q The velocity of the edge of the cylinder is:

ucyl = 7.5 u 2Sr = 7.5u2uSu0.0375 = 1.767 m/s

udrum = 0.0

plunger Torque needed to rotate cylinder

T W u surface area

0.13 m

4 W 2Sr2 u L

W . N / m2

226354

Distance between cylinder and drum = r1 - r2 = 0.038 - 0.0375 = 0.005m

du

W P

dr

du 1767

. 0

0.8m

dr 0.0005

W 22635 . P 3534

P 0.64 kg / ms ( Ns / m 2 )

'p Sd 4

Q

L 128P

There are 4 of these so total flow is

'p Sd 4 4S (5 / 1600) 4

Q 4 'p 'p3601

. u 10 10

L 128P . u 128 u 0.2

013

Force = pressure u area

0.08 2 2

5 / 1600

F 45 'p S 4S

2 2

'p 9007.206 N / m2

Q 3.24 u 10 6 m 3 / s

Flow up through piston = flow displaced by moving piston

Q = Avpiston

3.24u10-6 = Su0.042uvpiston

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 51 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 52

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

Dimensional analysis And the second group S2 :

8.1 M 0 L0 T 0 LT 1 a2 c2

L b ML 3 L2 T 1

2

A stationary sphere in water moving at a velocity of 1.6m/s experiences a drag of 4N. Another sphere of

twice the diameter is placed in a wind tunnel. Find the velocity of the air and the drag which will give M] 0 = c2

dynamically similar conditions. The ratio of kinematic viscosities of air and water is 13, and the density

L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 + 2

of air 1.28 kg/m3.

[10.4m/s 0.865N] -2 = a2 + b2

Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: T] 0 = -a2 - 1

variable water air a2 = -1

u 1.6m/s uair b2 = -1

Drag 4N Dair S2 u 1d 1 U 0Q

Q Q 13Q Q

3 3 ud

U 1000 kg/m 1.28 kg/m

So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,

d d 2d

D Q

I S1 , S 2 I , 0

Uu 2 d 2 ud

Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU

For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both the sphere in water and

Uud ud

The Reynolds number = Re in the wind tunnel i.e.

P Q

S1air S 1water

Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, d, U

S 2 air S 2 water

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups.

For S1

I u, d , U , D,Q 0

D D

I S 1 , S 2 0 2 2 2 2

Uu d air Uu d water

S1 u a1 d b1 U c1 D

Dair 4

S2 u a2 d b2 U c2 Q . u 10.4 2 u (2d ) 2

128 . 2 ud2

1000 u 16

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: Dair 0.865 N

(note D is a force with dimensions MLT-2) For S2

1 a1 3 c1

M LT 0 0 0

LT L ML

b1

MLT 2 Q

Q

ud air ud water

M] 0 = c1 + 1

13Q Q

c1 = -1 uair u 2d . ud

16

L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 + 1 uair 10.4 m / s

-4 = a1 + b1

T] 0 = -a1 - 2

a1 = - 2

b1 = -2

S1 u 2 d 2 U 1 D

D

Uu 2 d 2

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 53 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 54

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

8.2 M] 0 = c1

Explain briefly the use of the Reynolds number in the interpretation of tests on the flow of liquid in pipes. L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 + 2

Water flows through a 2cm diameter pipe at 1.6m/s. Calculate the Reynolds number and find also the

velocity required to give the same Reynolds number when the pipe is transporting air. Obtain the ratio of -2 = a1 + b1

pressure drops in the same length of pipe for both cases. For the water the kinematic viscosity was T] 0 = -a1 - 1

1.31u10-6 m2/s and the density was 1000 kg/m3. For air those quantities were 15.1u10-6 m2/s and

1.19kg/m3. a1 = -1

[24427, 18.4m/s, 0.157] b1 = -1

Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: S1 u d 1 U 0Q

1

u 1.6m/s uair ud

p pwater pair

U 1000 kg/m3 1.19kg/m3 And the second group S2 :

Q u m s

u m s (note p is a pressure (force/area) with dimensions ML-1T-2)

1 a1 c1

U 1000 kg/m3 1.28 kg/m3 M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 MT 2 L1

1

d 0.02m 0.02m M] 0 = c2 + 1

c2 = -1

Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1

Uud ud -2 = a2 + b2

The Reynolds number = Re

P Q T] 0 = -a2 - 2

Reynolds number when carrying water: a2 = - 2

ud 16. u 0.02 b2 = 0

Re water 24427

Q . u 10 6

131 S2 u U 1 p

2

Re water

Re air Uu 2

uair 0.02 So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,

24427

15 u 10 6

Q p

uair 18.44m / s I S 1 , S 2 I , 0

ud Uu 2

To obtain the ratio of pressure drops we must obtain an expression for the pressure drop in terms of

governing variables.

Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, d, U For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both water and air in the pipe.

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. S1air S1water

I u, d , U , Q , p 0 S 2 air S 2 water

a1 b1 c1

S1 u d U Q

S2 u a2 d b2 U c2 p

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1:

1 a1 c1

M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 L2 T 1

1

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 55 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 56

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

1 1 1

p p S1 Q d U P

2 2

Uu air Uu water dP

pwater Uwater u 2 UQ

water

2

pair Uair u air

. 2

1000 u 16 1 And the second group S2 :

6.327

. u 18.44 2

119 0158

. (note p is a pressure (force/area) with dimensions ML-1T-2)

Show that Reynold number, Uud/P, is non-dimensional. If the discharge Q through an orifice is a function 1 a1 c1

of the diameter d, the pressure difference p, the density U, and the viscosity P, show that Q = Cp1/2d2/U1/2 M 0 L0 T 0 L T

3

Lb ML3 MT 2 L1

1

Draw up the table of values you have for each variable:

c2 = -1

The dimensions of these following variables are

L] 0 = 3a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1

U ML-3

-2 = 3a2 + b2

u LT-1

T] 0 = -a2 - 2

d L

a2 = - 2

P ML-1T-1

b2 = 4

Re = ML-3 LT-1L(ML-1T-1)-1 = ML-3 LT-1 L M-1LT = 1

S2 Q 2 d 4 U 1 p

i.e. Re is dimensionless.

d4 p

UQ 2

We are told from the question that there are 5 variables involved in the problem: d, p, U, P and Q.

So the physical situation is described by this function of non-dimensional numbers,

Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; Q, d, U

dP d 4 p

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. I S 1 , S 2 I , 0

QU UQ 2

I Q, d , U , P , p 0 or

I S 1 , S 2 0 dP d4 p

I1

S1 Q a1 d b1 U c1 P QU UQ 2

S2 Q a2 d b2 U c2 p

dU 1/2 p 1/2 d 2 p 1/2

The question wants us to show : Q f

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: P U

1 a1 c1

M 0 L0 T 0 L T

3

Lb ML3 ML1T 1

1

1 U 1/2 Q

S 2a ,

S2 d 2 p1/2

M] 0 = c1 + 1

c1 = -1 Convert S1 by multiplying by this number

L] 0 = 3a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1 dP U 1/ 2 Q P

S1a S1S 2 a

-2 = 3a1 + b1 QU d 2 p 1/ 2 dU 1/ 2 p1/ 2

T] 0 = -a1 - 1 then we can say

a1 = -1

b1 = 1

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 57 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 58

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

1 a1 3 c1

I 1 / S 1a , S 2 a I

1/ 2 1/ 2

p U d d p

, 1/2

2 1/ 2

0

M 0 L0 T 0 LT L ML

b1

ML1T 1

P U

M] 0 = c1 + 1

or

c1 = -1

p 1/2 U 1/2 d d 2 p 1/ 2

Q I L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1

P U 1/ 2

-2 = a1 + b1

8.4

A cylinder 0.16m in diameter is to be mounted in a stream of water in order to estimate the force on a tall T] 0 = -a1 - 1

chimney of 1m diameter which is subject to wind of 33m/s. Calculate (A) the speed of the stream a1 = -1

necessary to give dynamic similarity between the model and chimney, (b) the ratio of forces.

b1 = -1

Chimney: U = 1.12kg/m3 P = 16u10-6 kg/ms

S1 u 1d 1 U 1 P

Model: U = 1000kg/m3 P = 8u10-4 kg/ms P

[11.55m/s, 0.057] Uud

Draw up the table of values you have for each variable: i.e. the (inverse of) Reynolds number

variable water air And the second group S2 :

u uwater 33m/s 1 a2 c2

M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML 3 ML1T 2

2

F Fwater Fair

M] 0 = c2 + 1

U 1000 kg/m3 1.12kg/m3

c2 = -1

P u kgms ukg/ms

L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1

d 0.16m 1m

-3 = a2 + b2

T] 0 = -a2 - 2

Kinematic viscosity is dynamic viscosity over density = Q PU

a2 = - 2

Uud ud

The Reynolds number = Re b2 = -1

P Q

S2 u d 1 U 1 F

2

F

Re water Re air u 2 dU

1000uwater 016

. . u 33 u 1

112

So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,

8 u 10 4 16 u 10 6

uwater . m/ s

1155 P F

I S 1 , S 2 I , 0

To obtain the ratio of forces we must obtain an expression for the force in terms of governing variables. Uud Udu 2

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. For dynamic similarity these non-dimensional numbers are the same for the both water and air in the pipe.

I u, d , U , P , F 0 S1air S1water

S 2 air S 2 water

I S 1 , S 2 0

S1 u a1 d b1 U c1 P To find the ratio of forces for the different fluids use S2

a2 b2 c2

S2 u d U F

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1:

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 59 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 60

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

S 2 air S 2 water And the second group S2 :

1 a2 c2

F

2

F

2 M 0 L0 T 0 LT L b ML3 ML1T 2

2

Uu d air Uu d water

M] 0 = c2 + 1

F F

2 2 c2 = -1

Uu d air Uu d water

L] 0 = a2 + b2 - 3c2 - 1

Fair . u 332 u 1

112

0.057 -3 = a2 + b2

Fwater . 2 u 016

1000 u 1155 .

T] 0 = -a2 - 2

8.5

If the resistance to motion, R, of a sphere through a fluid is a function of the density U and viscosity P of a2 = - 2

the fluid, and the radius r and velocity u of the sphere, show that R is given by b2 = -1

P 2 Uur S2 u 2 r 1 U 1 R

R f

U P R

Hence show that if at very low velocities the resistance R is proportional to the velocity u, then R = kPru u 2 rU

where k is a dimensionless constant. So the physical situation is described by this function of nondimensional numbers,

A fine granular material of specific gravity 2.5 is in uniform suspension in still water of depth 3.3m.

Regarding the particles as spheres of diameter 0.002cm find how long it will take for the water to clear. P R

I S1 , S 2 I , 0

Take k=6S and P=0.0013 kg/ms. Uur Uru 2

[218mins 39.3sec]

or

Choose the three recurring (governing) variables; u, r, U R, P

R P

From Buckinghams S theorem we have m-n = 5 - 3 = 2 non-dimensional groups. I1

Uru 2 Uur

I u , r , U , P , R 0

P 2 Uur RU Uur

I S 1 , S 2 0 he question asks us to show R f or 2 f

U P P P

S1 u a1 r b1 U c1 P

Multiply the LHS by the square of the RHS: (i.e. S2u(1/S12) )

S2 u a2 r b2 U c2 R

R U 2u2r 2 RU

As each S group is dimensionless then considering the dimensions, for the first group, S1: u

Uru 2 P2 P2

1 a1 3 c1

M 0 L0 T 0 LT L ML

b1

ML1T 1 So

M] 0 = c1 + 1 RU Uur

f

c1 = -1 P2 P

L] 0 = a1 + b1 - 3c1 - 1 The question tells us that R is proportional to u so the function f must be a constant, k

-2 = a1 + b1 RU Uur

k

T] 0 = -a1 - 1 P2 P

a1 = -1 R Pkru

b1 = -1

S1 u 1r 1 U 1 P The water will clear when the particle moving from the water surface reaches the bottom.

P At terminal velocity there is no acceleration - the force R = mg - upthrust.

Uur From the question:

i.e. the (inverse of) Reynolds number V = 2.5 so U = 2500kg/m3 P = 0.0013 kg/ms k = 6S

Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 61 Examples: Answers CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics 62

CIVE1400: Fluid Mechanics Examples: Answers

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4

mg S 0.000013 u 9.81 u 2500 1000

3

. u 10 11

616

. u 10 11

Pkru 0.0013 u 6S u 0.00001u 616

u 2.52 u 10 4 m / s

3.3

t 218 min 39.3 sec

2.52 u 10 4

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