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Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Linear Quadratic speed control

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Energy

Procedia

Energy Procedia

Energy Procedia0014(2011)

(2012)000000

364 369

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

2011 2nd International Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE 2011)

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with Linear Quadratic

Speed Controller

Wen-Jun Xu

School of Urban Rail Transportation, Soochow University, No.178 East Ganjiang Road Suzhou Jiangsu 215000, China

Abstract

A linearized mathematical model of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor is proposed with the help of vector

control method and the definition of new variables. Then Linear Quadratic regulator (LQR) control methodology is

investigated and an optimal speed controller is designed for PMSM system. The control performance of LQR is

compared with that of traditional PID controller in Simulink environment of MATLAB. Simulation results indicate

that the PMSM system using proposed LQR control methodology has better dynamic performance and stronger

robustness than using traditional PID controller.

2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee

2nd

of 2011International

Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Conference Selectioninand/or

on Advances Energypeer-review

Engineeringunder responsibility

(ICAEE). Open accessof [name

under organizer]license.

CC BY-NC-ND

Keywords: Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM), Linear Quadratic Regulator(LQR), PID controller, Simulink.

1.Introduction

In this paper, vector control theory [1] is discussed in control of PMSM. It is because of the vector

control theory that performance of PMSM servo drive reaches and even surpluses that of dc drives. Vector

control theory with the help of the principle of Clarke and Park transforms, transforms the actual three

phase current into the corresponding torque current and field current in order to decouple the

mathematical control model of PMSM.

As the PMSM motor is replacing the conventional dc motor for small output power rating variable

speed control system, the performance of PMSM which requires quick transient response must be

improved [2]. PID controller has been dominating the control system of PMSM especially in practical

conditions, however the performance of PMSM using PID controller is not always satisfactory. Hence,

alternative methods like Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) is being used in speed control of PMSM

[3][4]. LQR is an optimal control methodology that uses the quadratic cost function to determine its

E-mail address:xuwenjunwendy@hotmail.com.

1876-6102 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of 2nd International

Conference on Advances in Energy Engineering (ICAEE). Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.943

2 Wen-Jun

Wen-Jun Xu\ /Procedia

Xu/ Energy Energy Procedia

00 (2011)14000000

(2012) 364 369 365

control performance. In order to apply LQR to the speed control system of PMSM, however, the original

non-linear, mathematical model of PMSM must first be linearized. The linearization method proposed in

[5][6] was used.

The focus of this paper is to apply the method of LQR to improve the dynamic performance of PMSM.

The arrangement of the paper is as follows: description of linearized, decoupled mathematical model of

PMSM is presented in section 2. The principle of LQR and the design of a speed controller using optimal

control method is introduced in section3. Section4 introduces the simulation models of PMSM with PID

controller and LQR respectively and the comparison of simulation results of these two control methods.

Section5 concludes the entire paper.

The equations that govern the electric dynamics of PMSM are expressed in the rotor reference frame

(qd frame) as follows:

d 1 R Lq

id = vd id + pr iq

dt Ld Ld Ld

(1)

d 1 R Ld pr

iq = vq iq pr id

dt Lq Lq Lq Lq

(2)

Te 1.5 p[ iq + ( Ld Lq )id iq ]

=

(3)

Where:

Lq and Ld are q and d axis inductances;

R is the resistance of the stator windings;

iq and id are q and d axis currents;

vq and vd are q and d axis voltages;

r is the angular velocity of the rotor;

is the amplitude of the flux induced by the permanent magnets of the rotor in the stator phases;

p is number of pole pairs;

Te is electromagnetic torque.

The dynamic model of PMSM described by equation (1) and (2) is nonlinear due to the cross coupling

and the angular speed and current produced in d and q axis respectively. The linearization process of the

above model of PMSM was conducted by defining new variables which is described in detail in [6]. If we

consider the magnetic symmetry in the motor which is often the case in PMSM of many kinds (like

surface mounted PMSM for example), then inductance in d axis is equal to inductance in q axis. So

we define: L=q

L=

d

L .New variables are given as follows:

vd 0 = LPr iq (4)

vq 0 = Lpr id (5)

After equations (4) and (5) have been put into equations (1) and (2), the linearized dynamic model of

PMSM takes the form of following equations:

d 1 R

= id vd id

dt L L

(6)

Wen-Jun Xu / 00 (2011) Energy Procedia 000000 3

d 1 R pr

iq = vq iq

dt L L L

(7)

It can be seen from equations (6) and (7) that the dynamical model of PMSM has been decoupled

because the current in d axis has relations with variables in d axis only, it is the same case in q axis.

The mechanical model for PMSM is presented by the following two equations:

d 1

r = (Te Dr TL )

dt J (8)

d

= r (9)

dt

Where:

J is the combined inertia of rotor and load;

D is the damping coefficient.

is rotor angular position;

TL is the load torque.

The above equations (3), (6), (7) and (8) can be used to form a continuous state-space model for

PMSM as follows:

x = Ax + Bu + Ew (10)

Where x is the state vector which takes the forms of x = [iq id r ]T ; u is the input vector which

is given by: u = [v q vd ]T ; w is the disturbance input of the system, in this case it can be considered as

the mechanical load which is governed by w = TL . Matrices A and B of the state space model can be

described as follows:

R P 1

L 0

L L

0

0

R 1

= A 0 0 ,B = 0 ,E = 0 (11)

L L

1

1.5 P 0

D 0 0

J

J J

The vector control method, which is based on field orientation, is constantly applied in the control of

PMSM. Specifically, we use the method which requires id to be kept as zero [7], so that the stator

current vector is kept along q axis direction and the electromagnetic torque is linearly proportional to the

q axis current which is determined by closed loop control. This method is easy to apply but can lead to

high dynamic performance. In this way, the state-space dynamic model of PMSM can be further

simplified while still take the form of equation (10) but with different definitions of the parameters in the

equation. Please refer to the following description.

x = Ax + Bu + Ew

(12)

y = Cx

Wen-Jun Xu\ / Energy Procedia 14 (2012) 364 369 367

4 Wen-Jun Xu/ Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000000

x = [iq r r ]T , u = vq , w = TL (13)

R P

L

L

0 1

0

L

1.5 P D 1

= A 0 , B = 0 , E = , C = [ 0 1 0] (14)

J J J

0

0 1 0 0

3. Design of Optimal Linear Quadratic Regulator

The linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is an optimal control methodology of dynamic systems where the

state equation of the plant is linear and the cost function is quadratic. It can be seen from equations (12) to

(14) that the output variable is also the state variable, so the LQR designed is both state regulator and

output regulator. The cost function can be described as the following equation:

1

2 0

=J ( xT Qx + u T Ru )dt (15)

symmetric positive definite matrix.

The optimal feedback gain matrix K = [ k1 k2 k3 ] makes the cost function take the minimum value

that satisfies the equation:

K = R 1 B T P (16)

Where P is the real positive definite solution of the following Riccati equation:

AT P + PA PBR 1 BT P + Q =

0 (17)

u = Kx (18)

In order to obtain fast response and good dynamic performance of the system, the weight matrices

Q and R must be chosen properly [8]. In this case we set Q = diag [100 1 1] and R = 1 , then the

corresponding optimal feedback gain is K = [ 7.9117 0.7249 1.0000] .

In order to validate the LQR control methodologies of PMSM and its advantages over the traditional

PID controller, we use the Simulink environment in MATLAB as the simulation tool.

The simulation model of PMSM system [9] consists of six major blocks: the PMSM block, the PWM

inverter block, Clarke and Park transforms block, current to voltage transforming block, current

regulation block and speed control block. The simulation models of PMSM which use PID controller and

LQR control methodology are shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 respectively.

368 Wen-Jun Xu\ / Energy Procedia 14 (2012) 364 369

Wen-Jun Xu / 00 (2011) Energy Procedia 000000 5

Fig. 1 Simulatian model of PMSM system which uses traditional PID controller

Fig. 2 Simulation model of PMSM system which uses LQR control methodology

= R 2.875 , L = 8.5mH , P = 2 , = 0.175Wb , J = 0.0008kg .m 2 , D = 0.0021N .m.s / rad .

Set the speed reference as 50r/min, the simulation results of speed response of PMSM system without

disturbance load torque are shown in Fig.3 and Fig. 4. As can be seen from these two figures, the

transition time of PMSM system using traditional PID controller is 0.01s, while the transition time of

LQR control methodology(with the same PID parameter) is 0.0075s. Speed overshoot of PMSM system

using PID controller is 32% while speed overshoot of LQR method is 10%. These results show that

PMSM system using LQR control methodology has better dynamic performances in terms of transition

time, speed overshoot etc.

At 0.04s, load torque of 3 N .m is applied to the PMSM system as a disturbance input. The simulation

results of speed response of the system with load disturbance are shown in Fig.5 and Fig. 6 respectively.

The results show that PMSM system using LQR control methodology can return back to the steady state

in situation of disturbance faster than system using traditional PID controller which indicates strong

robustness of system using LQR control methodology.

Wen-Jun Xu\ / Energy Procedia 14 (2012) 364 369 369

6 Wen-Jun Xu/ Energy Procedia 00 (2011) 000000

Fig. 5 Speed response of PID controller with load disturbance Fig. 6 Speed response of LQR with load disturbance

5.Conclution

In this paper, the mathematical model of PMSM dynamic system was set up. Considering the

nonlinearity and cross coupling of the system, a linearized model was proposed using the method of

defining new variables and by applying the vector control method which requires id to be kept as zero.

The LQR control methodology was investigated and its control performance was compared with that

of the traditional PID controller in a PMSM dynamic system. This was achieved with the help of

Simulink environment of MATLAB. The simulation results validate the proposed LQR methodology and

display a better dynamic performance in terms of transition time and speed overshoot and also stronger

robustness of LQR control methodology than of traditional PID controller.

Acknowledgement

The work described in this paper is fully sponsored by Chun-Tsung Endowment, an endowment

dedicated to supporting young scholars from universities in mainland China and Taiwan for scientific

researches, which was directed by doctor Tsung-Dao Lee

References

[1] N. P. Quang, Vector control of three-phase Ac machines, London: Springer Verlag, 2008

[2] RB. Sepe, J.H. Lang, Real-time adaptive control of the permanent-magnet synchronous motor, IEEE Transaction on

Industry Application,vol.28, no.6, pp.1345-1352,2002

[3] M.Yin, W. Cong, J. Lin, L. Wang, Optimal Speed Control of PMSM for Electric Propulsion Based on Exact Linearization

via State Feedback, Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on ICIA, pp.1972-1977, 20-23 June 2010

[4] R. Molavi, D. Khaburi, optimal control strategies for speed control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor drives,

Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 34, pp.428-432, October.2008.

[5] L.M. Grzesiak, T. Tarczewski, Permanent magnet synchronous discrete linear quadratic speed controller, 2011 IEEE

Internatioanl Symposium on ISIE, pp.667-672, 27-30 June 2011

[6] L.M. Grzesiak, T. Tarczewski, Permanent magnet synchronous servo-drive with state position controller, 13th Power

Electronics and Motion Control Conference. EPE-PEMC 2008, pp.1071-1076

[7] Y.P Xu, Y.R. Zhong, H.Yang, Research on vector control and direct torque control for permanent magnet synchronous

motors, Power Electronics, vol.42, no.1, pp.60-62,2008.

[8] C.X. Wang, Study of the weight matrix in LQR optimal control system, Journal of Northwest Minorities

University(Natural science), vol.24, no.2, pp.29-31,2003.

[9] L.H. Hoang, Modeling and simulation of electrical drives using MATLAB/Simulink and power system blockset, The 27th

Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, vol.3, pp.1603-1611,2001.

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