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CAREER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION:-
The term career planning is frequently used in relation young boys and girls studying
at the college level. College students are expected to consider their qualities (physical and
mental), psychological make-up, likes and dislikes, inclinations, etc. and decide what they
want to be in their life. In other words, they should decide what they want to achieve in
their life and adjust their education and other activities accordingly. This means they have
to plan their career. In such career planning, parents, family members and college teachers
offer helping hand and guide young boys and girls in selecting the most suitable career.
Lot of literature, psychological tests etc. are also available on career planning. Even
lectures, workshops and TV programmes are arranged for guiding students on career
selection (particularly after the declaration of HSC results). Career planning enables them
to use their abilities/qualities fully and make their life happy, prosperous and rich in
quality. At present, even experts are available to help youth in their career planning. IQ
and other tests are also conducted for this purpose.
The term career planning and development is used extensively in relation to business
organizations. It is argued that if the organizations want to get the best out of their
employees, they must plan the career development programmes in their organization
effectively. Such programmes offer benefits to employees and also to the organizations.
The employees will develop new skills will be available to the organization. This type of
career planning can be described as organizational career planning.

MEANING OF CAREER (WHAT IS CAREER?):-


A career is a sequence of positions/jobs held by a person during the course of his
working life. According to Edwin B. Flippo a career is a sequence of separate but
related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a persons life.
Career of an employee represents various jobs performed by him during the course of his
working life. This is described as career path. In the case of an ordinary worker, the career
path includes the following job positions:
Unskilled worker Semi-skilled worker Skilled worker Highly skilled
worker Assistant foreman Foreman.
Employees (of all categories) want to grow in their careers as this provides more
salary, higher status and opportunity to use knowledge, education and skills effectively.
An individual with potentials joins a firm not for job but for career development. An
organization has to provide better opportunities to its employees in their career
development and also use their efficient services for the benefit of the organization.

MEANING OF CAREER PLANNING (WHAT IS CAREER


PLANNING?):-
Career planning is one important aspect of human resource planning and development.
Every individual who joins an organization desires to make a good career for himself
within the organization. He joins the organization with a desire to have a bright career in
terms of status, compensation payment and future promotions. From the point of view of
an organization, career planning and development have become crucial in management
process. An organization has to provide facilities/opportunities for the career development
of individual employees.
Career Planning is the systematic process by which one selects /decides career goals
and the path to achieve/reach these goals
If the organizations want to get the best out of their employees, they must plan regularly
the career development programmes in their organizations. In brief, career planning refers
to the formal programmes that organizations implement to increase the effectiveness and
efficiency of the human resources available. Career planning and development is the
responsibility of the HR department of the organization. As already noted, every person
joining an organization has a desire to make career as per his potentiality, ability, skills
and so on.

NEED/PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES OF CAREER PLANNING:-


1) To map out careers of employees as per their ability and willingness and to train
and develop them for higher positions.
2) To attract and retain the right type of persons in the organization.
3) To utilize available managerial talent within the organization fully.
4) To achieve higher productivity and organizational development.
5) To provide guidance and assistance to employees to develop their potentials to the
highest level.
6) To improve employee morale and motivation by providing training and
opportunities for promotion.

SCOPE OF ORGANISATIONAL CAREER PLANNING:-


The following activities/areas are covered within the scope of organizational career
planning:
a) HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING AND PLANNING:-
Here, efforts will be made to identify the number of employees required in future.
In addition, the selection procedure will be adjusted with the overall strategic
goals of the organization.
b) CAREER INFORMATION:-
Here, information relating to career opportunities (promotions, training for self
development, etc) will be supplied to employees. Supplying career
information/opportunities has special significance as this motivates employees to
grow and reach to higher position.
c) CAREER COUNSELLING:-
Such counselling is next to supplying career information. Career counselling is
possible by senior executives through periodic discussions with their subordinates.
Such career guidance encourages subordinate employees to take interest in certain
areas where suitable opportunities of career development are available. It is a type
of internal guidance and motivation of employees for the selection of possible
career paths. Such counselling is needed when employees have to plan their own
careers and develop themselves for career progress.
d) CAREER PATHING:-
Management now plans job sequences for transfers and promotions of their
employees. This makes transfers and promotions systematically with advance
information to employees. Career pathing creates suitable mental make up of
employees for self development.
e) SKILL ASSESSMENT TRAINING:-
Training is essential for career planning and also for manpower development.
Along with job analysis, organizational and job manpower requirement analysis
should be undertaken by the management. This prepares proper background for
the introduction of career planning programmes for employees.
ADVANTAGES OF CAREER PLANNING:-
A properly designed system of career planning can provide the following benefits:
i. Career planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in
an organization.
ii. Career planning encourages him to avail of the training and development facilities
in the organization so as to improve his ability to handle new and higher
assignments.
iii. Career planning involves a survey of employee abilities and attitudes. It becomes
possible, therefore to group together people talking on a similar wavelength and
place them under supervisors who are responsive to that wavelength.
iv. Career planning anticipates the future vacancies that may arise due to retirement,
resignation, death, etc. at managerial level. Therefore, it provides a fairly reliable
guide for manpower forecasting.
v. Career planning facilitates expansion and growth of the enterprise. The employees
required to fill job vacancies in future can be identified and developed in time.

DISADVANTAGES/LIMITATIONS OF CAREER PLANNING:-


The main problems in career planning are as follows:
i. Career planning can become a reality when opportunities for vertical ability are
available. Therefore, it is not suitable for a very small organization.
ii. In a developing country like India, environmental factors such as government
policy, public sector development, growth of backward areas, etc. influence
business and industry. Therefore, career plans for a period exceeding a decade
may not be effective.
iii. Career planning is not an effective technique for a large number of employees
who work on the shop floor, particularly for illiterate and unskilled workers.
iv. In family business houses in India, members of the family expect to progress
faster in their career than their professional colleagues. This upset the career
planning process.
v. Systematically career planning becomes difficult due to favouritism and nepotism
in promotions, political intervention in appointments and reservations of seats for
scheduled castes/tribes and backward classes.
HOW TO INTRODUCE CAREER PLANNING PROGRAMME?
(PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING):-
It is not easy to introduce career development programme at the level of an
organization. Moreover, such career development planning is a continuous activity. What
is happening in most of the organizations is that this concepts is given only lip service and
theoretical importance. If the organization wants to get the best out of their employees, it
must plan the career developments programmes continuously and effectively in its
organization.
DETAILS OF THE STEP IN CAREER PLANNING:-
1) ANALYSIS OF PERSONEL SITUATION:-
This is the first step which needs to be completed before the introduction of
career planning programme. This relates to a time from which career planning is
to be introduced. Here, the base line will be prepared to help the planners to make
projections for the planning period and to help in the evaluation of plans. In order
to analyze the present career situation, the following information will be required:
i. Total number of employees their age distribution, qualifications,
positions, specializations, etc.
ii. Structure broad as well as detailed and the qualifications required for
each grade.
iii. Personnel need of the organization. (Category wise)
iv. Span of control available within the organization.
v. Field staff at head office with necessary details, and
vi. Facilitates available for training and development within and outside the
organization.

The information collected on these aspects serves as the base for the preparation of
career development plan for the future period.
1. ANALYSIS OF PESONNEL SITUATION

2. PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION

3. IDENTIFYING CAREER NEEDS

4. SELECTION OF PRIORITIES
5. DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLANS

6. WRITE UP OF FORMULATED CAREER PLANS

7. MANAGERIAL PLANNING

8. IMPLEMENTATION

9. REVIEW AND EVALUATION

10. FUTURE NEEDS

2) PROJECTION OF PERSONNEL SITUATION:-


In this second step, an attempt is being made to find out the situation likely to
develop after the completion of career development plan. This can be done on the
basis of assumption which can predict what is likely to happen at the close of the
career development plan.
3) IDENTIFYING OF CAREER NEEDS:-
In this third step of career development plan, efforts are made to find out precisely
the career development needs of the future period. It is possible to identify the
scope and limitations of career development needs on the basis of the data
collected (through personnel inventory of the organization, employee potentials,
and appraisal of employees).
4) SELECTION OF PRIORITIES:-
It is rather difficult to meet all the needs of the employees and the organization for
career development immediately i.e. through one career development plan.
Naturally, there is a need to select the pressing and urgent problems of employees
and organization. In addition, other factors such as technical, financial and
administrative must be taken into consideration while finalizing the priorities.
5) DEVELOPMENT OF CAREER PLAN:-
This is the most important step in the whole process of career developing plan.
Such plan must describe the following in concrete form/forms:
a. What is to be attained/achieved?
b. The extent to which it is to be attained,
c. The employees involved,
d. The department in which the proposed plan will operate;
e. The length of time required the achieving the goals.
In order to execute the career development plan, the organization should:
a) Introduce systematic policies and programmes of staff training and career
development for all categories of employees so as to enable them to:
I. Improve their level of skill and knowledge;
II. Gain wider experiences; and
III. Assume higher responsibilities.
b) Establish and effectively implement a system of study leave;
c) Develop the experience of the employees by encouraging their rotation
from one region to another;
d) Take positive steps to encourage career development, such as:
I. Providing within the organization;
II. Giving priorities in the filling of vacancies in the following order for:
1. promotion within the organization;
2. Transfer within the organization;
3. Outside recruitment.
III. Removing artificial barriers to promotion;
IV. Establishing a register of employees for promotion on merit-cum-
seniority basis;
6) WRITE-UP OF FORMULATED PLAN:-
After deciding the priorities of career development plan, the next major step is to
prepare a write up (brief report) of the career plan. This writ-up should contain all
necessary details such as schedule (time sequence of plan), procedures and other
details so that the evaluation of the plan will be easy and meaningful.
7) MONITORING PLANNING i.e. MONITORING OF CAREER
DEVELOPMENT PLAN:-
Monitoring of the plan is essential for its effective execution. Expected
results/benefits will be available only when the plan is implemented properly.
Planned (expected) targets and targets actually achieved can be compared through
suitable monitoring of the plan. The gap between the two (i.e. short falls) can be
located quickly. In addition, suitable remedial measures can be taken to rectify the
shortfalls.
8) IMPLEMENTATION (OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PLAN):-
Implementation/execution of the plan is an integral aspect of planning process
itself. For effective implementation, co-operation and co-ordination at all levels is
necessary. The implementation needs proper monitoring so as to avoid possible
shortfalls.
9) REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF CAREER PLANS:-
A plan needs periodical review. Such evaluation avoids mistakes, deficiencies, etc
during the implementation stage. It is built-in device to measure the effectiveness
of the plan. Actual benefits available will be known only through such review and
evaluation. Such evaluation should be done by experts. It should be conducted
systematically and also impartially.
10)FUTURE NEEDS:-
This is the last step/stage of the current career development plan and the first
step/stage of the next plan. Here, on the basis of the achievements of the current
plan, the career needs of the future period (of employees and also of the
organization) are estimated. The new priorities are decided and the details of the
new career development plan are prepared. Planning is a continuous
process/activity. This rule is applicable to career development plans of an
organization.

CAREER STAGES:-
Education is thought of in terms of employment. People go for school and college
education and prepare for their occupation. Very few people stick to the same job
throughout their life. Most of them switch job either within the organization or in some
other organization. Chances are they change jobs, depending on available opportunity,
several times before retirement. Where opportunity is restricted they continue with the
same job. They go through the following stages:
1) EXPLORATION:-
Almost all candidates who start working after college education start around mid-
twenties. Many a time they are not sure about future prospects but take up a job in
anticipation of rising higher up in the career graph later. From the point of view of
organization, this stage is of no relevance because it happens prior to the
employment. Some candidates who come from better economic background can
wait and select a career of their choice under expert guidance from parents and
well-wishers.
2) ESTABLISHMENT:-
This career stage begins with the candidate getting the first job getting hold of the
right job is not an easy task. Candidates are likely to commit mistakes and learn
from their mistakes. Slowly and gradually they become responsible towards the
job. Ambitious candidates will keep looking for more lucrative and challenging
jobs elsewhere. This may either result in migration to another job or he will
remain with the Same job because of lack of opportunity.
3) MID-CAREER STAGE:-
This career stage represents fastest and gainful leap for competent employees who
are commonly called climbers. There is continuous improvement in
performance. On the other hand, employees who are unhappy and frustrated with
the job, there is marked deterioration in their performance. In other to show their
utility to the organization, employees must remain productive at this stage.
climbers must go on improving their own performance. Authority,
responsibility, rewards and incentives are highest at this stage. Employees tend to
settle down inn their jobs and job hopping is not common.
4) LATE CAREER:-
This career stage is pleasant for the senior employees who like to survive on the
past glory. There is no desire to improve performance and improve past records.
Such employees enjoy playing the role of elder statesperson. They are expected to
train younger employees and earn respect from them.
5) DECLINE STAGE:-
This career stage represents the completion of ones career usually culminating
into retirement. After decades of hard work, such employees have to retire.
Employees who were climbers and achievers will find it hard to compromise with
the reality. Others may think of life after retirement.
HIGH

Exploration Establish Mid- Late- Decline


-ment career career

LOW 25 35 45 55 60
AGE
STAGES IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT

CONCEPT/INTRODUCTION TO CAREER DEVELOPMENT:-


Career development consists of the personal actions one undertakes to achieve a career
plan. The terms career development and employee development need to be
differentiated at this stage. Career development looks at the long-term career
effectiveness of employees where as employee development focuses of effectiveness of
an employee in the immediate future. The actions for career development may be initiated
by the individual himself or by the organization.

INDIVIDUAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:-


Career progress and development is largely the outcome of actions on the part of an
individual. Some of the important steps that could help an individual cross the hurdles on
the way up may include:
I. PERFORMANCE:-
Career progress rests largely on performance. If the performance is sub-standard,
even modest career goals cant be achieved.
II. EXPOSURE:-
Career development comes through exposure, which implies becoming known by
those who decide promotions, transfers and other career opportunities. You must
undertake actions that would attract the attention of those who matter most in an
organization.
III. NETWORKING:-
Networking implies professional and personal contacts that would help inn
striking good deals outside (e.g., lucrative job offers, business deals, etc.). for
years men have used private clubs, professional associations, old-boy networks to
gain exposure and achieve their career ambitions.
IV. LEVERAGING:-
Resigning to further ones career with another employer is known as leveraging.
When the opportunity is irresistible, the only option left is to resign from the
current position and take up the new job (opportunity in terms of better pay, new
title, a new learning experience, etc.). however, jumping the jobs frequently (job-
hopping) may not be a good career strategy in the long-run.
V. LOYALTY TO CAREER:-
Professionals and recent college graduates generally jump jobs frequently when
they start their career. They do not think that career-long dedication to the same
organization may not help them further their career ambitions. To overcome this
problem, companies such as Infosys, NIIT, WIPRO (all information technology
companies where the turnover ratios are generally high) have come out with
lucrative, innovative compensation packages in addition to employee stock option
plans for those who remain with the company for a specified period.
VI. MENTORS AND SPONSORS:-
A mentor is, generally speaking, an older person in a managerial role offering
informal career advice to a junior employee. Mentors take junior employees under
their protg and offer advice and guidance on how to survive and get ahead in the
organization. They act as role models. A sponsor, on the other hand, is someone in
the organization who can create career development opportunities.
ORGANISATIONAL CAREER DEVELOPMENT:-
The assistance from managers and HR department is equally important in achieving
individual career goals and meeting organizational needs. A variety of tools and activities
are employees for this purpose.
a) SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLS:-
Here the employees go through a process in which they think through their life
roles, interests, skills and work attitudes and preferences. They identify career
goals, develop suitable action plans and point out obstacle that come in the way.
Two self-assessment tools are quite commonly used in the organizations. The first
one is called the career-planning workshop. After individuals complete their self-
assessment, they share their findings with others in career workshops. These
workshops throw light on how to prepare and follow through individual career
strategies. The second tool, called as a career workbook, consists of a form of
career guide in the question-answer format outlining steps for realizing career
goals. Individuals use this company specific, tailor-made guide to learn about
their career chances. This guide, generally throws light on organizations
structure, career paths, qualifications for jobs and career ladders.
b) INDIVIDUAL COUNSELLING:-
Employee counselling is a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming
performance problems. It is usually done through face-to-face meetings between
the employee and the counselor or coach. Here discussions of employees
interests goals, current job activities and performance and career objectives take
place. Counselling is generally offered by the HR department. Sometimes outside
experts are also be called in. if supervisors act as coaches they should be given
clearly defined roles and training. This is, however, a costly and time-consuming
process.

c) EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES:-


These consist of skill assessment and training efforts that organizations use to
groom their employees for future vacancies. Seminars, workshops, job rotations
and mentoring programmes are used to develop a broad base of skills as a part of
such developmental activities.
d) CAREER PROGRAMMES FOR SPECIAL GROUPS:-
In recent years, there is growing evidence regarding dual career families
developing tensions and frictions owing to their inability to reconcile the
differences between the family roles and work demands. When we talk of dual
career couples (a situation where both husband and wife have distinct careers
outside the home) certain puzzling questions arise naturally: whose career is
important; who takes care of children; what if the wife gets a tempting promotion
in another location; who buys groceries and cleans the house if both are busy, etc.
realizing these problems, organizations are providing a place and a procedure for
discussing such role conflicts and coping strategies. They are coming out with
schemes such as part-time work, long parental leave, child care centers, flexible
working hours and promotions and transfers in tune with the demands of dual
career conflicts.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT ACTIONS:-


a) JOB PERFORMANCE:-
Employee must prove that his performance on the job is to the level of standards
established, if he wants career progress.
b) EXPOSURE:-
Employees desire for career progress should expose their skills, knowledge,
qualifications, achievements, performance etc., to those who take the decision
about career progress.
c) RESIGNATIONS:-
Employees may resign the present job in the organization, if they find that career
opportunities elsewhere are better than those of the present organization.
d) CHANGE THE JOB:-
Employees who put organizational loyalty above career loyalty may change the
job in the same organization are better than those in the present job.
e) CAREER GUIDANCE:-
And counselling provides information, advice and encouragements to switch over
to other career or organization, where career opportunities are better.