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FELLOWSHIP

PROJECT

APPARENT AGE ESTIMATION

FELLOWSHIP PROJECT APPARENT AGE ESTIMATION PREPARED BY: SHIVANI JOSHI AMEY JEDHE MADHURA ARWADE AMAN ARORA RUDRAKSH

PREPARED BY:

SHIVANI JOSHI AMEY JEDHE MADHURA ARWADE AMAN ARORA RUDRAKSH BAHRI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them.

We are highly indebted to our college authorities and respected teachers for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.

We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to university persons for giving us such attention and time.

Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleagues in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • ABSTRACT

  • INTRODUCTION

  • WHAT IS AGE ESTIMATION?

  • DATASETS AVAILABKE AND USED

  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEURAL NETWORKS AND DEEP NEURAL NETWORKS

  • ARCHITECTURE OF AGE ESTIMATION

  • PREVIOUS WORKS

A Cascaded Convolutional Neural Network for Age Estimation of Unconstrained Faces---Jun-Cheng Chen1_, Amit Kumar1_

Facial Age Estimation with Age Difference--- Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen

  • CONCLUSION

  • REFFERENCES

  • FUTURE SCOPE

ABSTRACT

Automatic age estimation has attracted much attention due to its potential applications. Most of the proposed approaches have mainly used low-level handcraft features to encode facial age related visual information and train an age estimation model. We focus on age classification task in which face image is assigned to a label that represents an age range. We proposed a deep learning based framework for age classification task. In our proposed algorithm, Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (Deep Conv Nets) are used to extract high-level complex age related visual features and predict age range of input face image. Due to lack of age labeled face images, we use the transfer learning strategy to train the Deep Conv Nets. In addition, to describe the relationships between labels that compose an ordered sequence, we define a new loss function in the training process of age classification task. The experiments are conducted on a widely used age estimation dataset-Images of Groups of People. The experimental results demonstrate the excellent performance of our proposed algorithm against the state-of- the-art methods. Age Estimation is basically automatic estimation of age, gender and race of a person from his face image, which has many potential applications ranging from forensics to social media. Given a face image, we first extract informative features via an algorithm, and then employ a hierarchical approach consisting of between-group classification, and within group regression. Quality assessment is also developed to identify low-quality face images that are difficult

to obtain reliable estimates. We propose a coarse-to-fine approach for estimating the apparent age from unconstrained face images using deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs). The proposed method consists of three modules. The first one is a DCNN- based age group classifier which classifies a given face image into age groups. The second module is a collection of DCNN-based regressors which compute the fine-grained age estimate corresponding in each age class. Finally, any erroneous age prediction is corrected using an error-correcting mechanism. Experimental evaluations on three publicly available datasets for age estimation show that the proposed approach is able to reliably estimate the age; in addition, the coarse-to-fine strategy and the error correction module significantly improve the performance. Age estimation from facial images is an important problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. Typically the goal is to predict the chronological age of a person given his or her face picture. It is seldom to study a related problem, that is, how old does a person look like from the face photo? It is called apparent age estimation. A key difference between apparent age estimation and the traditional age estimation is that the age labels are annotated by human assessors rather than the real chronological age. The challenge for apparent age estimation is that there are not many face images available with annotated age labels. Further, the annotated age labels for each face photo may not be consistent among different assessors. We study the problem of apparent age estimation by addressing the issues from different aspects, such as how to utilize a large number of face images without apparent age labels to learn a face representation using the deep neural networks, how to tune the deep networks using a limited number of examples with apparent age labels, and how well the machine learning methods can perform to estimate apparent ages. The apparent age data is from the ChaLearn. Age estimation based on the human face remains a significant problem in computer vision and pattern recognition.

In order to estimate an accurate age or age group of a facial image, most of the existing algorithms require a huge face data set attached with age labels. This imposes a constraint on the utilization of the immensely unlabeled or weakly labelled training data, e.g. the huge amount of human photos in the social networks. These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person. To improve the age estimation accuracy, we propose a novel learning scheme to take advantage of these weakly labeled data via the deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). Automatic age and gender classification has become relevant to an increasing amount of applications, particularly since the rise of social platforms and social media. Nevertheless, performance of existing methods on real-world images is still significantly lacking, especially when compared to the tremendous leaps in performance recently reported for the related task of face recognition. In this paper we show that by learning representations through the use of deep-convolutional neural networks (CNN), a significant increase in performance can be obtained on these tasks. To this end, we propose a simple convolutional net architecture that can be used even when the amount of learning data is limited.

INTRODUCTION

Face analysis is an active research topic in computer vision with applications in surveillance, human-computer interaction, access control, and security. In this work, we focus on apparent age estimation. Traditionally, the problem is tackled through pure classification or regression approaches. In this paper, we present a cascaded approach which incorporates the advantages of both classification and regression approaches. Given an input image, we first apply the age group classification algorithm to obtain a rough estimate and then perform age group specific regression to obtain an accurate age estimate.Like other facial analysis techniques, age estimation is affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic challenges, such as illumination variation, race, attributes, etc. One may define the age estimation task as a process of automatically labeling face images with the exact age, or the age group (age range) for each individual. It was suggested to differentiate the problem of age estimation along four concepts:

• Actual age: real age of an individual. • Appearance age: age information shown on the visual appearance. • Apparent age: suggested age by human subjects from the visual appearance. Estimated age: recognized age by an algorithm from the visual appearance.

The proposed cascaded classification and regression approach for apparent age estimation is based on a deep convolutional neural network. Our method consists of three main stages:

(1) a single coarse age classifier (2) multiple age regressors (3) an error correcting stage to correct the mistakes made by the age group classifer.

Since the number of samples for apparent age estimation is limited, we exploit a DCNN model pre trained for large-scale face identification task and fine tune the model for age group classification and age regression tasks. The main contribution of this work is to propose the age error correction module which mitigates the common disadvantage of coarse-to-fine approaches. Typically, the errors made at the initial classification stage cannot be recovered by the regressors at the following stage. In this work, we set up the baseline algorithm which is based on the proposed regression algorithm and study how the coarse-to-fine strategy and the error correction module improve the prediction performance. Automatic age estimation task aims to use machine learning algorithms to estimate a person's age based on features extracted from face image. As an important attribute of face, age estimation has attracted much attention due to its potential applications in HumanComputer Interaction(HCI), electronic customer relationship management, surveillance monitoring and so on.

As a branch of face recognition, automatic age estimation task also shares several similar processes such as face detection, face alignment, feature extraction and estimation with other facial related tasks. Features extracted from face images representing age related visual information is a key factor to the performance of age estimation algorithms. Low-level hand craft features are usually extracted in these typical algorithms. Given features, automatic age estimation tasks can usually be categorized to two

classes: age classification task and age regression task. In age classification task, face image is usually assigned to a class label that represents an age range and multi-class classification algorithms are always used. In age regression tasks, algorithms output an accurate predicted age number. In this paper, we focus on the classification task that assigns a face image to an age range label. The Deep Conv Nets in our proposed algorithm is trained as a multi-class classifier. The public available age estimation datasets usually do not contain enough labeled images to train Deep Conv Nets that owns hundreds of millions of parameters. We take the transfer learning strategy to overcome this problem. Transfer learning has been widely used in some image classification tasks and semi-supervised learning tasks. It has been proved to be very efficient to train models on small scale dataset. To improve performance in our proposed algorithm, we define a new loss function in which a distance term is added to describe the relationships of labels. In addition, in many face related tasks, combination of results produced by different regions in face image has been proved to perform much better than single region or the whole face image. Thus, we train multiple independent Deep Conv Nets models with patches cropped from face images and combine the results as the final results to get a better performance.

Below we describe different steps involved in training our models in more detail.

Data collection: Data collection plays an important role in training any deep neural network (DNN). In this paper, we aim to label data for three separate tasks: age, gender and emotion recognition. Collecting labeled data for some tasks, such as real age estimation, is much more challenging compared to popular classification or detection problems. This disparity is due to the fact that human error in

estimating real age is large (sometimes greater than the computer vision estimations) and one cannot rely on human annotators to label faces with their corresponding real age. However, we have collected a large dataset of faces with their corresponding age, gender and emotion labels. To our knowledge, our datasets are the largest or among the largest in either the academic or commercial world.

Below we provide some statistics on the data used for training our models.

Face recognition: The base model for our facial recognition is trained on over million images of more than thousands individuals. The large variation in images of each identity makes our deep model robust to common challenges in face recognition.

Age estimation: Recently there have been some efforts in collecting data with corresponding age labels. Additionally the distribution of the data across different ages is highly unbalanced. This led to the authors using only half of the data for training in the original paper. To better address this problem we collected a large dataset of large number of images with corresponding age labels. In contrast to previous works, our dataset has a more balanced distribution across different ages.

Gender and emotion recognition: To better improve our model, we added thousands of images of different ethnicities as well as age groups. Additionally, we also annotated part of our data with emotion labels for the task of emotion recognition.

Data pre-processing: We pre-process each image before feeding them to our DNNs. These pre-processing steps include face detection, facial landmark detection and alignment. If more than one face is detected in an image, we choose the most centered one. In the Chalearn dataset we were able to detect all faces using a combination of techniques. Given the face bounding boxes, we detect accurate, mostly due to occlusion or low resolution of some images. As shown, the performance of our method drops mostly for gray-scale/old-style images where our network tends to over estimate the age for those images.68 facial landmarks and use those for alignment. Finally the aligned faces are all cropped and resized to a fixed size. In contrast to some previous works, which do not use any face alignment, we found this to be important in our final accuracy numbers.

Deep training: Our face recognition model is not only computationally inexpensive, but also achieves outstanding results on the LFW dataset. This model serves as the backbone of our facial attribute recognition engine. We designed a highly optimized deep network architecture for accuracy and speed for each task. In some recent works, researchers try to design a network which performs all tasks at the same time, and they have shown marginal improvements. However, having separate networks for each task allowed us to design faster and more portable models for each task. Additionally running all models combined takes less time compared to the all-in-one model of and we achieve better results. Age estimation is an important problem in computer vision and pattern recognition. Estimating the age from facial images has received great interests in recent years.

Typically the goal of age estimation is to predict the chronological age of a person given his or her face picture.

An age estimation system usually involves two components, i.e aging pattern representation and aging function learning. Representative approaches to age estimation can be found in some survey papers. A related but different problem is apparent age estimation, where the focus is on predicting “how old does the person look like?” rather than “what is the real age of this person?” It is relatively new to study the problem of apparent age estimation. A key difference between apparent age estimation and the traditional age estimation is that the age labels are annotated by human assessors rather than the real chronological age. In reality, some people may look younger than the real chronological age, while some may look older. As a result, the apparent age may be quite different from the real age for each subject.

The challenge for apparent age estimation is that there are not many face images available with annotated age labels. Further, the annotated age labels for each face photo may not be consistent among different assessors. The problem of apparent age estimation is studied in this work. Particularly, we firstly utilize a large number of face images without apparent age labels to learn a face representation using the deep neural networks, then we study how to fine-tune the deep networks using a limited number of data with apparent age labels. We also explore how well the machine learning methods can perform to estimate apparent ages.

WHAT IS AGE

ESTIMATION ?

Age estimation is an active topic today due to the growing necessity of including this information in real-world systems. This necessity comes from the fact that age is important to understand requirements or preferences in different aspects of the daily life of a person. Systems implementing age specific human computer interaction can cope with these aspects. Some examples are biometric systems that filter their database for the estimated age range of a subject, vending machines capable of denying some products such as alcohol or cigarettes to an underage customer, or advertisements in different automated environments that can be personalized according to the age of the individual interacting with the system. Automatic facial age estimation is affected by the traditional factors that make face analysis difficult in general. When a person smiles, for instance, wrinkles are formed and these can be misleading when only the appearance cues are taken into account . Similarly, sagging of the face in a sad expression can resemble the effects of aging.

Face analysis is an active research topic in computer vision with applications in surveillance, human-computer interaction, access control, and security. In this work, we focus on apparent age estimation. Traditionally, the problem is tackled through pure classification or regression approaches. Given an input image, we first apply the age group classification algorithm to obtain a rough estimate and then perform age group specific regression to obtain an accurate age estimate.

Human facial age estimation aims to automatically label a facial image with exact age or age group based on visual features derived from a facial image. In addition, the proposed method aggregates the linear prediction models for different age labels into a matrix. Instead of learning all the prediction models independently, we propose to learn all the prediction models simultaneously by exploring the theory of matrix recovery, where a trace norm regularization is introduced to capture the dependence among different age labels and to control the model complexity.

These images may provide no age label, but it is easily to derive the age difference for an image pair of the same person. To improve the age estimation accuracy, we propose a novel learning scheme to take advantage of these weakly labeled data via the deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). The combination of these losses is designed to drive the neural network to understand the age gradually from only the age difference information. We also contribute a dataset including more than one hundred thousand face images attached with their taken dates. Each image is both labeled with the timestamp and people identity. Experimental results on two aging face databases show the advantages of the proposed age difference learning system and the state-of-the-art performance is gained.

Database Avaliable and Used

Adience Age Database

Adience Age Database is another large scale database, which was collected to capture all the variations in appearance, noise, pose, lighting and more, and can be expected to serve as images taken without careful preparation or posing. There are 18,300 images in this dataset. However, different from the CACD, this database doesn’t have the accurate age annotation, i.e. age is annotated in a range form like 0-2, 4-6, 8-13, 15-20, 25-32, 38-43, 48-53, 60+. As we use Euclidean loss for the deep networks, in this work we transfer the range annotation into traditional single label by just taking the mean value, e.g., 28-32 is converted to 30.

Morph Age Database

The Morph database was also used for our network training. It is a large database containing two sections, I and II. Since Morph-I is too small, we used Morph-II that contains about 55,000 face images. The Morph is a multiethnic database. It has about 77% Black faces and 19% White, while the remaining 4% includes Hispanic, Asian,Indian, and Others. Although Morph has a great

number of faces, it is like mug-shot images, which is quite different from the faces in the wild.

FGNET Age Database

FGNET consists of 1,002 images of 82 subjects, labeled with accurate chronological age. Some of these photos were acquired under controlled conditions. One characteristic of this database is that it contains a lot of samples of young ages, i.e., from 1-13 years.

Lifespan Age Database

Lifespan is a database of 575 individual faces ranging from ages 18 to 93, and it was developed to be more representative of age groups across the lifespan, with a special emphasis on recruiting older adults. The database has faces of 218 adults age 18-29, 76 adults age 30-49, 123 adults age 50-69, and 158 adults age 70 and older.

Other Age Database

Besides the above public databases, in this work we alsoused a private age database. This database is composed of controlled face images which were captured in studio environment and in the wild. Totally, we have about 8,941 faces with age labels in this dataset.

Difference Between Neural Networks & Deep Neural Networks

Difference Between Neural Networks & Deep Neural Networks In <a href=machine learning , a convolutional neural network ( CNN , or ConvNet ) is a class of deep , feed-forward artificial neural network that have successfully been applied to analyzing visual imagery. CNNs use a variation of multilayer perceptrons designed to require minimal preprocessing . They are also known as shift invariant or space invariant artificial neural networks ( SIANN ), based on their shared-weights architecture and translation invariance characteristics . " id="pdf-obj-16-5" src="pdf-obj-16-5.jpg">

In machine learning, a convolutional neural network (CNN, or ConvNet) is a class of deep,feed-forward artificial neural network that have successfully been applied to analyzing visual imagery. CNNs use a variation of multilayer perceptrons designed to require minimal preprocessing. [1] They are also known as shift invariant or space invariant artificial neural networks (SIANN), based on their shared-weights architecture and translation invariance characteristics. [2][3]

Convolutional networks were inspired by biological processes [4] in which the connectivity pattern between neurons is inspired by the organization. Individual neurons respond to stimuli only in a restricted region of the visual field. CNNs use relatively little pre- processing compared to other image classification algorithms. This means that the network learns the filters that in traditional algorithms were hand-engineered. This independence from prior knowledge and human effort in feature design is a major advantage.They have applications in image and video recognition, recommender systems and natural language processing.

Deep learning is a class of machine learning algorithms that use a cascade of many layers of nonlinear processing units for feature extraction and transformation. Each successive layer uses the output from the previous layer as input. The algorithms may be supervised or unsupervised and applications include pattern analysis and classification are based on the learning of multiple levels of features or representations of the data, are part of the broader machine learning field of learning representations of data, learn multiple levels of representations that correspond to different levels of abstraction; the levels form a hierarchy of concepts.

These definitions have in common multiple layers of nonlinear processing units and the supervised or unsupervised learning of feature representations in each layer, with the layers forming a hierarchy from low-level to high-level features. The composition of a layer of nonlinear processing units used in a deep learning algorithm depends on the problem to be solved. Layers that have been used in deep learning include hidden layers of an artificial neural network and sets of complicated formulas.

At each layer, the signal is transformed by a processing unit, like an artificial neuron, whose parameters are iteratively adjusted through training.

Architecture of Age Estimation

At each layer, the signal is transformed by a processing unit, like an artificial neuron, whose

Given the image data, we first applied face detection and landmark localization. Images are rotated every 10 degrees for further detection if no face is detected in the original image. The rest of images that are still not detected by rotation are not used in our approach. During the final submission, all the undetected images are set to the average age from the overall predictions as their age label. All the detected face images are cropped and aligned by the eye locations. The face images from the age estimation challenge are collected in the wild and the number of training images is very limited. There are various poses, illumination, and image quality issues in the dataset. To handle this issue, we apply data augmentation to create new

training samples from the given training data before fine-tuning the deep network. Recently, deep learning methods especially the convolutional neural networks (CNN) have shown promising performance in age estimation.

The first step is to pre-train the network using a large number of face images e.g., from the dataset. In order to learn more robust and representative features by deep neural networks, in our method we expect to utilize a much deeper neural network rather than previous work for real age estimation. Particularly, we chose the FGNet, which is 22-layer deep neural network, to train our deep models. We hope that through this pre-training step, the deep network is able to capture general facial representations. The second step for training our deep model is fine tuning the network parameters using a large number of data with biological age labels. We merged multiple age databases into one training dataset. In this fine-tuning process,we consider the age estimation as a regression problem, therefore we change the loss function from softmax to Euclidean loss for this real-valued regression task. Euclidean loss function E computes the sum of squares of differences of its two inputs. Based on the pre-trained deep face model, now we are aiming at fine-tuning the deep model for age estimation. Since this is a different task and the loss function is also changed to Euclidean loss, we initialize a relatively large value for the learning rate. After the above steps, the learned deep network is expected to have the capability to predict real age given input facial image. However, such deep model may not perform well for apparent age estimation since the real age usually differs from the apparent age. Therefore, the third step to train our deep age model is a further fine-tuning step, which utilizes the apparent age data. In this fine-tuning, the learning rate is set to a relatively small number for better convergence. We boost the learning rate for the feature layers, so that most of the age models change slowly but let the feature

layers learn fast. After this fine-tuning the deep model is considered to have more capability to estimate the apparent age.

Previous Works

A Cascaded Convolutional Neural Network for Age Estimation of Unconstrained Faces---Jun-Cheng Chen1_, Amit Kumar1_

Most of the earlier age estimation methods have focused on using shape or textural features. These features are then fed to a regression method or a classifier to estimate the apparent age. Holistic approaches usually adopt subspace-based methods, while feature-based approaches typically extract different facial regions and compute anthropometric distances. Geometry-based methods are inspired by studies in neuroscience, which suggest that facial geometry strongly influences age perception. As such, these methods address the age estimation problem by capturing the face geometry, which refers to the location of 2D facial landmarks on images. Recently, Wu et al proposed an age estimation method that presents the facial geometry.

To solve the regression problem on the Grassmann manifold, then used the differential geometry of the manifold. However, the Grassmannian manifold-based geometry method suffers from a

number of drawbacks. First, it heavily relies on the accuracy of landmark detection step, which might be difficult to obtain in practice. For instance, if an image is taken from a bearded person, then detecting landmarks would become a very challenging task. In addition, different ethnic-groups usually have slightly different face geometry, and to appropriately learn the age model, a large number of samples from different ethnic groups is required.

Unlike the traditional methods discussed, the proposed method is based on DCNN to encode the age information from a given image. Recent advances in deep learning methods have shown that compact and discriminative image representation can be learned using DCNN from very large datasets. There are various neural-network-based methods, which have been developed for facial age estimation. However, as the number of samples for estimating the apparent age task is limited, the traditional neural network methods often fail to learn an appropriate model. Thukral et. al. proposed a cascaded approach for apparent age estimation based on classifiers using the naive-Bayes approach and a support vector machine (SVM) and regressors using the relevance vector machine (RVM).However, the difference between and the proposed approach is that we leverage the rich information contained in the DCNN model pretrained using a large-scale face dataset for age estimation. Also, the proposed error correction module mitigates the influences of the errors made at initial classification stage.

Facial Age Estimation with Age

Difference--- Zhenzhen Hu, Yonggang Wen

In the past few years, much research has been conducted

in human facial age estimation. The earliest paper published in the area of age classification from facial images was the work by Kwon and Lobo. They proposed a human age classification method based on the cranio facial development theory and skin wrinkle analysis, where the human faces are classified into three groups, namely, babies, young and senior adults. Lanitis et al. adopted the statistical face model, Active Appearance Models (AAMs) ,to extract the shape and texture information of facial images. In their work, the aging pattern is represented by a quadratic function called the aging function. Later, Geng et al. proposed the AGING PATTERN SUBSPACE (AGES) algorithm based on the subspace trained on a data structure called aging pattern vector Yan et al regarded age estimation as a regression problem with nonnegative label intervals and solved the problem through semidefinite programming. They also proposed an EM algorithm to solve the regression problem and speed up the optimization process. Instead of learning a specific aging pattern for each individual, a common aging trend or pattern can be learned from many individuals at different ages. One possible way to learn the common aging pattern is the age manifold , which utilizes a manifold embedding technique to learn the low-dimensional aging trend from many face images at each age. After that, various aging features were developed for facial age estimation. Aging-related facial feature extraction is more focused by the appearance model. Hayashi et al. considered both texture (wrinkle) and skin color. Another similar research topic in recent years is apparent age estimation. In the competition organized by ChaLearn [35], age is labeled by different volunteers given only the images containing the single individuals. Compared with real age, the annotated apparent age could be mutable, but the mean of labels from different annotators are highly stable and thus can be defined as the apparent age. Liu et al. and Yang et al. both adopted the deep learning framework and label distribution learning for

apparent age estimation. In the work, they combined age classifier and age regression models based on GoogLeNet. For the age regressor, the Euclidean loss was used to measure the 1- dimensional real value encoding. Although these two problems may be similar with each other, there are still some differences. First, there is no ground truth age of apparent age dataset and the age annotation is very subjective. Second, in the challenge of ChaLearn, the measurement of apparent age estimation is mean normalized error, while for the real age estimation is mean absolute error. The age estimator proposed by and is not suit for standard aging dataset, such as FGNET and MORPH.

Conclusion

Face analysis is an active research topic in computer vision with applications in surveillance, human-computer interaction, access control, and security. In this work, we focus on apparent age estimation. Traditionally, the problem is tackled through pure classification or regression approaches. Given an input image, we first apply the age group classification algorithm to obtain a rough estimate and then perform age group specific regression to obtain an accurate age estimate. Age and gender play fundamental roles in social interactions. Despite the basic roles these attributes play in our day-to-day lives, the ability to automatically estimate them accurately and reliably from face images is still far from meeting the needs of commercial applications. This is particularly perplexing when considering recent claims to super-human capabilities in the related task of face recognition. Past approaches to estimating or classifying these attributes from face images have relied on differences in facial feature dimensions or “tailored” face descriptors. Most have employed classification schemes designed particularly for age or

gender estimation tasks, including and others. Few of these past methods were designed to handle the many challenges of unconstrained imaging conditions. These images represent some of the challenges of age and gender estimation from real-world, unconstrained images.

REFFERENCES

FUTURE SCOPE

In this report recent works in the field of age estimation was discussed. Many researchers had contributed and are still working in this field. Though there is number of problems in existing systems that need to be addressed such as occlusion created by spectacles, cap or facial hairs, uneven illumination However some of the problems like non frontal pose, collection of images along with their age on large scale have already been solved but still have room for improvement. Researchers are working hard to use automatic age estimation in other research fields as well one of its example is Age Invariant Face Recognition. Automated systems can be installed in vehicles to restrict under age drivers to drive a vehicle. In general, different facial age estimation approaches and algorithms can be used to get effective results in different real life scenarios.