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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Acknowledgements 1

Introduction and Purpose of Research 2

Literature Review 4

Data Collection Sources 6

Presentation of Data 7

Analysis of Data 15

Discussion of Findings 17

Conclusion 19

Limitations 20

Recommendations 21

Bibliography 22

Appendix 24

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to give acclamation to the following individuals for the immense support and assistance in
the successful completion of this assignment. Without further a due, I would like to give thanks to
YAHWEH for giving me health and strength, enabling me to pursue the completion and accomplishment
of this assignment. Secondly, I thank the residents of Maracas St. Joseph, for the notable completion of
this printed questionnaire. Furthermore, my parents have been a continual source of reassurance and
assistance in various day to day tasks, enabling me to complete this assignment efficiently. Finally, I
would like to give special thanks to my teacher, Mrs. Lochin, who spearheaded me throughout this
activity. I am truly grateful and thankful for the support given by the various parties and may YAHWEH
bless you and keep you in Shalom.

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INTRODUCTION
Background to the Problem
Unemployment has been a long subject of debate as it is a convincing, objectionable issue that is quite
rampant among the environs of Maracas, St. Joseph. It contests the many efforts of development that have
been attempted by some members of the community. In Trinidad, unemployment is also an issue in other
communities especially in inner city communities and the Diaspora. Despite these efforts the
Unemployment Rate in Trinidad and Tobago increased from 3.20% in the first quarter of 2015 to
3.40% in the fourth quarter of last year. In developing countries like Trinidad, unemployment is caused
by the deficiency of the stock of capital in relation to the needs of the growing labour force.

It can be said that employment affects societies, communities, social institutions and health institutions.
Therefore, as a resident of Maracas, St. Joseph I have seen first-hand, the struggles of those unemployed
individuals that live within the community and I find it rather heart breaking as a lot of human potential is
being wasted. With that in mind, I would like to make individuals aware of the rising issue by conducting
this research within Maracas, St. Joseph. Hence, by strategically approaching the rising problem, the
intention is to minimize and bring forward solutions to decrease the unemployment rate, as I have the best
interest of the Maracas St. Joseph residents at heart.

Problem Statement
An investigation into the impact of unemployment on the pattern of development in the
community of Maracas, St. Joseph during the period of September 2016 to March 2017.

Research Questions
1. What are the main causes of unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph?
2. What are the major effects of unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph?
3. How does unemployment affect the development of the community?
4. What strategies that may be used to eradicate unemployment in the community of Maracas, St.
Joseph?

Purpose of Research
Trinidad has experienced both increases and decreases in its unemployment rate over many years. The
causes and effect of unemployment is subjected to great inquiry by the citizens. Therefore, in this
research, the researcher seeks to highlight how unemployment affects the community of Maracas, St.
Joseph as well as to identify the causes and effects of unemployment. This phenomena usually affects
liberal persons, communities, families and societies. Given the increase in the unemployment rate
possibilities that ensure its successful integration into the community to eradicate unemployment should
be explored.

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Educational Value of Research
This research may be very useful to the residents of Maracas, St. Joseph as the researcher hopes to accrue
objective data which can add to the established body of information in the Central Statistical Office of
Trinidad (CEO). Deeper knowledge can be gained as the research provides information about strategies
that may be used to alleviate unemployment. This information can also be used by the Ministry of Labour
to assist and find an alternative in decreasing unemployment. Therefore, the public can be educated while
promoting development. Students within Secondary and Tertiary academia can use the information
gathered from this research as especially those business pioneers as they can see how unemployment
affects the country economically. Hence, with their financial background they can draft policies that
would aid the country for other fiscal years and find solution to deal or decrease the unemployment rate.

Definition of Terms
-
Unemployment Unemployment is a phenomenon that occurs when a person who is actively searching for
employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the
economy.

Unemployment Rate- This is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the
labour force.

Inner city- An older part of a city densely populated and usually deteriorating inhabited by poor, often
minority group.
Developed- Developed describes an economy which is advanced economically and socially.
Development- Development is an event constructing a new stage in a changing situation.
Stock of Capital- the common and preferred stock a company is authorized to issue according to the
corporate charter. Accountants define capital stock as one component of the equity section in a company's
balance sheet.

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LITERATURE REVIEW
In an article by Aleem Khan (2016) a columnist in The Daily Express, T&T Unemployment will
worsen, explained that in 2016 Trinidad and Tobagos unemployment will worsen as the countrys debt
to GDP ratio has continued to rise and the public debt burden on taxpayers is projected to grow. The
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) predicted that the countrys current surplus was forecasted to
turn into a deficit. His study further posited that under the Trinidad and Tobago heading, the IDB claimed
that Unemployment has increased slightly to 3.7% from 3.3% in the first quarter of 2015 and this trend
is expected to continue over the next few years. However, he argued that the latest figures from the
Central Bank showed their archived method of data collection as both the Ministry of Labour and other
finical firm observed that the labour force has been falling since its March 2014 peak of 664, 300 persons
to 649,100 persons at the end of the second quarter 2015. Despite the abundance of highly educated
individuals in Trinidad and Tobago, unemployment is affected by poor political and economic climate as
the government is not putting measures in place to decrease the unemployment rate. Hence, increasing
brain drain and hindering the overall development Trinidad. Aleem showed that many local employers are
not hiring employees to replace those that have left. Therefore, this is the reason why the private sector
should not expect any increase in the employment rate for the year of 2016/2017. His study while it
presented the reasons why the country experienced an increase in the unemployment rate it did not
explore how unemployment affected the development of the countrys resources. This study will also
examine the views of the respondents as some will take opposing stance to what has caused the increase
in the unemployment rate.

Camile Hunte (2016), claimed that job loss has a devastating impact on families, especially the children.
Unemployment hinders socio-economic development in the households that may contain one or
unemployed individuals, this may also lead to loss of possessions such as the home or even the car.
Workers at all levels have been affected and those in many white-collar industries have experienced
higher rates of unemployment within the first quarter of 2015. Hence, this contributes to the rise in
unemployment as many workers are displaced. Her research suggested that the economic security of that
family would be affected, as she argued that this would stifle the overall development of the individuals
family and unfortunately, the entire country. She explained that this is reflected in many households as
their food expenditures is reduced, they rely on public assistance heavily, marital relationships become at
high risk for divorce and poor parent child relationship. She stressed greatly on the point that this creates
unstable families and an unstable family creates an unstable society. Hence, this psychological stress does
not create an environment which facilitates successful development of the learning hierarchy, due to the
decline income and work hours. This examined the concept that unemployment has a rippling effect

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throughout the entire home, hence, it hinders the pattern of development within a given society. Camile
unlike Aleem explored the how unemployment in the local population has impacted its overall
development. However, like Aleem she acknowledged the reality that the unemployment rate has
experienced a visible increase within the first quarter of 2015. This study will also use the survey method
to collect and examine the impact of unemployment.

Amy Walker (2015), in her study she enlightened the impact of stress on the health of 150 men, every two
months who became unemployed after entering the study were compared with an equal number, matched
for age and race, who continued to work. Psychological and health data after unemployment were
compared between the two groups by multivariate analysis of variance and covariance. Her research
claims that after unemployment, symptoms of somatization, depression and anxiety were significantly
greater in the unemployed than employed. Amy claimed that her study proved that there were large
standard deviations on self-esteem scores in the unemployed group suggested that some men coped better
than others with job-loss stress. The study also revealed that the unemployed men were involved in
sociably unacceptable behaviour. Furthermore, unemployed men made significantly more visits to their
physicians, took more medications, and spent more days in bed sick than the employed individuals, even
though the number of diagnoses in the two groups were similar. An important part of this research will
also examine that people suffering from unemployment are likely to have lower self -worth because they
are not actively contributing to society.

Tejvan Pettinger (2014) conceptualized the term disguised unemployment in his study, this exists
where part of the labour force is either left without work or is working in a redundant manner where
worker productivity is zero. He argued that disguised unemployment exists frequently in developing
countries whose large populations create a surplus in the labour force encouraging brain drain. It can be
characterized by low productivity and frequently accompanies informal labour markets and agricultural
labour markets, which can absorb substantial quantities of labour like those in the Caribbean. Disguised, or
hidden, unemployment can refer to any segment of the population not employed at full capacity, but it is
often not counted in official unemployment statistics within the national economy. This can include those
working well below their capabilities, those whose positions provide little overall value in terms of
productivity, or any group that is not currently looking for work but is able to perform work of value. This
study will also examine if unemployment is the major cause underdevelopment in the Caribbean.

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DATA COLLECTION SOURCES
During the course of this research primary data was collected using questionnaires. Primary data refers to
first-hand information collected by the researcher. Therefore, over a period of time variables can change
and there may be various factors which account for the causes and effects of unemployment. Using a
questionnaire as a primary source of data can be an advantage as it is cheap, not time consuming and
recent data can be collected directly from the experiences of the respondents themselves.

The survey method was used due its reliability as it promotes confidentiality among respondents. The
questionnaire consisted of twenty questions, fifteen closed-ended and five open-ended questions. Open-
ended questions allow respondents to express a view or answer, as they are unrestricted to free responses.
However, closed-ended questions are subjected to specific responses as they provide an organizational
structure to guide responses. In the community of Maracas, St. Joseph, the questionnaires were distributed
to twenty households. Random sampling was used in this research so that everyone was given a chance of
being chosen. Within this community there were approximately twenty-seven households, which the
researcher placed their surnames on a sheet of paper where a number was placed by each name from one
to twenty-seven. These numbers were then placed into a random number generator, likewise, the
generator then selected twenty different numbers. These individuals with that specific number written by
their names were then each supplied with a questionnaire.

Secondary sources were also used in the form of books, internet articles and journals. This allowed the
researcher to develop a more efficient understanding of how unemployment negatively affects
development. This also helps to build the research that others have already conducted. Research
conducted by the economist Dr. Dhanayshar Mahabir (2011) was particularly useful in clarifying the
social misconstruction of unemployment in society and the impact that unemployment has on society. His
work allowed the researcher to gather secondary data to formulate the questions for the research.

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PRESNTATION OF DATA
Fig 1: Clustered Barchart representing whether brain drain of the educated youth affects the
overall development of Trinidad.

No 33%
Respnses provided

Yes
No

Yes 67%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%


Percentages

Figure I above demonstrates that 33% of the respondents said no that unemployment does not affect the
overall development of Trinidad and 67% of the respondents said yes that unemployment does affect the
overall development of Trinidad

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Fig 2: Table representing the amount of individuals in each household that is unemployed.

Number of unemployed individuals in each Percentage of Respondents (%)


household

1 16

2 72

3 12

4 0

Figure 2 above demonstrates that 16% of the respondents said that their household contains one
unemployed individual, 72% of the respondents said that their household contains two unemployed
individuals, 12% of the respondents said that their household contains three unemployed individuals and
0% of the respondents said that their household contains four unemployed individuals.

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Fig 3: Pie representing the statement that the government is providing employment
opportunities.

Agree
8%
Disagree
44% 28% Stronly Agree
Strongly Disagree

20%

Figure 3 above demonstrates that 8% of the respondents agreed with the statement that the government is
providing employment opportunities, 28% of the respondents disagreed with the statement that the
government is providing employment opportunities, 20% of the respondents strongly agreed with the
statement that the government is providing employment opportunities and 44% of the respondents
strongly agreed with the statement that the government is providing employment opportunities.

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Fig 4: Decreasing Arrow Diagram representing if the respondents believe that unemployment
caused a surge in criminal and violent activities.

Agree 8%

Disagree 52%

Strongly Agree 16%

Strongly Disagree 24%

It can be seen from figure 4 above that 52% of respondents agreed that unemployment caused a surge
in criminal and violent activities, 24% of the respondents disagreed that unemployment caused a surge
in criminal and violent activities while 16% of the respondents strongly agreed that unemployment caused
a surge in criminal and violent activities and 8% of the respondents strongly disagreed that unemployment
caused a surge in criminal and violent activities.

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Fig 5: Textbox representing how unemployment affects economic growth.

The data indicated that 44% of respondents believed that


there can be a financial deficit, 16% indicated there can
be an increase in inflation, 24% claimed that there can
be higher tax revenues and 16% believed that there
would be a decrease or loss in disposable income.

It can be seen from figure 5 above that 44% of respondents believed that there can be a financial deficit,
16% indicated there can be an increase in inflation, 24% claimed that there can be higher tax revenues
and 16% believed that there would be a decrease or loss in disposable income.

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Fig 6: Textbox representing the other effects that unemployment had on the community of
Maracas, St. Joseph.

The other effects given were an increase in delinquency among


the children of the unemployed 16%, 28% said that there were
also school dropouts, 20% said that there was an increase in
dead beat fathers, 4% believed that there was an occurrence of
social displacement and 32% claimed that there was also the use
of various drugs.

It can be seen from figure 6 above that the other effects given were an increase in delinquency among
the children of the unemployed 16%, 28% said that there were also school dropouts, 20% said that there
was an increase in dead beat fathers, 4% believed that there was an occurrence of social
displacement, and 32% claimed that there was also the use of various drugs.

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Fig7: Flow Diagram representing the respondents opinion whether unemployment affects the
socio-economic status of a family and causes stigmatisation.

Agree: 36%

Disagree: 12%

Strongly Agree: 48%

Strongly Disagree: 4%

Figure 7 above demonstrates that 36% of the respondents agreed that unemployment affects the socio-
economic status of a family and causes stigmatisation, 12% of the respondents disagreed that
unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a family and causes stigmatisation, 48% of the
respondents strongly agreed that unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a family and causes
stigmatisation and 4% strongly disagreed that unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a
family and causes stigmatisation.

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Figure 8: Column Barchart representing the statement is the government responsible for the
high unemployment rate among the educated youth in Maracas, St. Joseph.

80%

70%

60%

50%
Percentages

40% Responsible
Very Responsible
30%
No they are not responsible

20%

10%

0%
Responsible Very Responsible No they are not responsible
Respondents' responses

Figure 8 above demonstrates that 68% of the respondents agreed with the statement that the government
is responsible for the high unemployment rate among the educated youth in Maracas, St. Joseph, 16% of
the respondents agreed with the statement that the government is very responsible for the high
unemployment rate among the educated youth in Maracas, St. Joseph and 16% of the respondents agreed
with the statement that the government is not responsible for the high unemployment rate among the
educated youth in Maracas, St. Joseph.

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ANALYSIS OF DATA
The residents that were surveyed consisted of 56% male and 44% females. The majority of respondents
36% were between the ages 18yrs-28yrs, with 28% being between 29yrs-39yrs. 32% of residents were
unemployed, with the major occupation for most of the residents was teaching. Majority of residents 56%
attained a tertiary education while 31% achieved a secondary education.

Figure 1 reflected that 67% of the respondents believed that the brain drain of the educated unemployed
hinders the development of Trinidad, 33% of the respondents indicated that the brain drain of the
educated unemployed is not hindering development of Trinidad. Therefore, it is clearly evident that
although there is viable amount of educated individuals in Trinidads population, brain drain is hindering
the overall development of country to a first world status.

Figure 2 revealed that 16% of the respondents had one unemployed individual in their household. Two
and three individuals were unemployed in each household, 72% and 12% respectively. There was not any
respondents that had four unemployed individuals in their household. Therefore, the data showed that
there is high levels of unemployment especially in the residence of Maracas, St. Joseph. Therefore,
though there may be 1-4 unemployed individuals, the most frequent number of unemployed individuals in
each house hold was two.

An analysis of figure 3 revealed that 8% of the respondents agreed that the government is providing
employment opportunities, 28% of the respondents disagreed that the government does not provide
unemployment opportunities. 20% of the respondents strongly agree that the government is providing
employment opportunities while 44% strongly disagree that the government is providing employment
opportunities. The respondents believed that the government is not providing employment opportunities
which may account for the continued high degree of brain drain occurring, hence, hindering the pattern of
development in the community of Maracas, St. Joseph.

Figure 4 revealed that 8% agreed that unemployment caused the surge in criminal and violent activities in
Maracas, St. Joseph, 52% disagreed that with the statement while 16% of respondents strongly agreed that
unemployment caused the surge in criminal and violent activities in Maracas St. Joseph. 24% of the
respondents strongly disagreed with statement. The majority of the respondents have the perception that
the increased level of criminal and violent activities spurned from some other reason though there is a
high rate of unemployment in the community of Maracas, St. Joseph.

The research study in figure 5 indicated that majority of the respondents 44% indicated there would be an
increase in finical deficit, 24% of the respondents claimed that there would be higher tax revenues while

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the minority 16% claimed that there would be an increase inflation and a decrease in disposable income
respectively. Therefore the data identifies that unemployment has many effects on the growth of an
economy hence impacting the pattern of development overall.

The response to question 18 in figure 6 indicated that majority of respondents 32% claimed that the usage
of drugs was another effect that unemployment caused in the community of Maracas St. Joseph, 16% of
the respondents said delinquency was another effect that unemployment had on Maracas St. Joseph. 28%
and 20% respondents believe that school dropouts and an increased quantity of fatherless children was
another effect that unemployment had on Maracas, St. Joseph. 4% of respondents claimed that they notice
social displacement in the community as well. The data clearly indicates that while there is a surge in
criminal and violent activities, there are other effects like the usage of drugs and school dropouts that can
be classified as other effects of unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph.

The data revealed in figure 7 that 36% agreed that unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a
family and cause stigmatisation. 12% disagreed with the statement while 48% and 4% of the respondents
strongly agreed and disagreed with the statement respectively. It is clear that unemployment coincides
with low socio-economic earnings and hence this leads to the family being stigmatised by society.

The research data in figure 8 showed 68% of respondents agreed that that the government is responsible
for the high levels of unemployment rate in Maracas St. Joseph, while a standardized amount of 16%
claimed that they were very responsible and on the other hand they found that the government is not
responsible for the high levels on unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph. The data reflects that while
majority of the respondents 68% believe that the government is responsible for the high levels of
unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph, there are some respondents that suggest in results obtained 16%,
that there may be other unknown reasons for the high levels unemployment in Maracas, St. Joseph.

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DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Figure 1 indicated that 67% of the respondents believed that the brain drain of the educated unemployed
hinders the development of Trinidad. This is supported by Aleem Khan (2016) who clearly indicated that
inspite of the abundance of highly educated individuals in Trinidad and Tobago, unemployment is
affected by poor political and economic climate as the government is not putting measures in place to
decrease the unemployment rate. Hence, increasing brain drain and hindering the overall development
Trinidad. It becomes imperative therefore for the government to develop policies to encourage
development within Trinidad.

Figure 2 revealed that majority (72%) of the respondents expressed that their household had two
unemployed individuals. This is supported by Camile Hunte (2016), who claimed that the loss of a job
has devastating effects on families, especially the children. In her view, see documented that in a
household there may be one or more unemployed individuals which in any case hinders socio-economic
development. Unemployment is clearly a stumbling block to the development of those to which it has
crossed path with.

An analysis of figure 3 revealed that 44% of the respondents agreed that the government is not providing
employment opportunities. Aleem (2016) argued that there is no evidence of the government providing
employment to satisfy the needs of the nation. This findings are indicative of this research as the minority
8% claimed that the government is providing employment opportunities. The idea of whether or not the
government is providing employment opportunities is based on the point of view and experience of each
respondent.

Amy Walker (2015) argued in her research the impact of unemployment on the health of men. These
findings indicate a marked variation from the research as the minority believed that unemployment caused
a surge in criminal and violent activities in Maracas, St. Joseph. Amy walker highlighted that
unemployed men experience many emotional and physical stress, Hence, to satisfy their manly instinct to
provide they become involved in sociably unacceptable behaviour. Given the data, projects to ensure the
integration of these men back into societys labour force should be explored.

The research study in figure 5 indicated that majority of the respondents 44% indicated there would be an
increase in finical deficit. These findings were supported by Aleem Walkers (2016) who explained in his
article that as unemployment continues to worsen in Trinidad and Tobago, the countrys economy will

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continue regress as there would be a heavy burden on tax payers. Hence, the Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB) predicted that the countrys current surplus was forecasted to turn into a deficit.
Further research is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of an economical plan to redirect the countrys
economy as this research by the IDB awoken the eyes of the country to this economic crisis.

The response to question 18 in figure 6 the minority of the respondents indicated that they noticed social
displacement. Camile Hunte (2016) claimed that job loss has devastating effects on families.
Unemployment hinders socio-economic development in the households that may contain one or
unemployed individuals, this may also lead to loss of possessions such as the home or even the car. It is
clearly evident that unemployment has a significant negative impact on social mobility.

The data revealed in figure 7 that 36% agreed that unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a
family and cause stigmatisation. Camile Hunte (2016), Amy Walker (2015) and Tejan Pettinger (2014)
claimed in their research that unemployment decreases productivity and hence, strategically hinder the
socio-economic status of a family. Hence, it is suggested that job-loss affects the economic security of the
family that it has affected.

The research data in figure 8 showed 68% of respondents agreed that that the government is responsible
for the high levels of unemployment rate in Maracas St. Joseph. Aleem Khan (2016) argued that
unemployment is affected by poor political and economic climate as the government is not putting
measures in place to decrease the unemployment rate. Hence, increasing brain drain and hindering the
overall development Trinidad. Improvements in the government politics along with advance research to
reduce unemployment can establish a decrease in the rate of unemployment.

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CONCLUSION
The research indicated the idea that unemployment is a major issue in Maracas, St. Joseph. Therefore, the
research provided information such as the causes of unemployment and how it affected the development
of those dwelling in the community of Maracas, St. Joseph. Unfortunately, unemployment had several
negative effects on the community of Maracas, St Joseph, including reducing the availability of housing,
increasing the quantity of social displacement, encouraging an influx in drugs and highlighting the
concerning amount of school dropouts. However, despite the availability of educational institutions in the
community of Maracas St. Joseph, the high rate of unemployment reduced the quality of schooling due to
trickling flow of income. Consequently, this underdeveloped the skills and potential of those within the
community. The study showed that unemployment limited the variety of jobs offered for those that
completed their academic tenure. However, though there is a resourceful quantity of educated youth, the
lack of employment opportunity lead to brain drain, hindering the overall development of individuals
residing in Maracas, St. Joseph. A dysfunctional social institution lead to high rates of poverty and crime
in the community of Maracas St. Joseph. Additionally, unemployment though it affected many residents
of Maracas, St. Joseph, it diffused throughout large segments of Trinidad, some respondents suggested
that there can be issues of national poverty and economic recession that can become either temporary or
long term if the unemployment rate continues to rise. In conclusion, unemployment is an enigma which
has negatively impacted the overall growth of the residents of Maracas, St. Joseph. The world is changing
fast with the rise of industries, evolving technology and the widespread ideology of globalization,
however, unemployment hinders the new generation from overall development. Fortunately, this grave
issue can be controlled by employing the strategies put forward in this research.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
There were several important limitations within this research that must be deliberated. Firstly the study
was limited by a small sample size, which constrained the overall simplification of the study. Hence, the
study should been available to residents within other communities. Collecting the data on the research
immediately after the individual had completed the survey would have increased the time needed to
survey more individuals, increasing the sample size. Consequently, the small sample size decreased the
ability of deducing any relationship from the data, as statistical test usually require a large sample. This
ensures that there is a representative scatter of the population so it can be considered a characteristic of
other communities.

The lack of homogeneity within the sample caused a narrow representation of ethnicity. A larger sample
would have ensured diversity of the participants which would have benefited the data. Moreover, the
respondents may have had a better understanding of the survey item if a definition of Unemployment had
been provide in the questionnaire. The use focus groups may have provided a greater depth of
information. This would have allowed the research to provide recommendations as the respondents
perspective would have been assessed.

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RECOMMENDATIONS
The topic of unemployment has maintained its popularity in the media for the last five which has caused
grave concern among the local population. Hence, there should be measures put in place that may
decrease the high rate of unemployment in Trinidad, especially in the community of Maracas, St. Joseph.
Therefore, an important measure is the establishment of a mentorship program which should be spear
headed by the Ministry of Labour. This is resourceful as it may assist in the guidance and education of the
unemployed population by those individuals that are part of the labour force as these individuals are
equipped with a high level of work experience. The Ministry of Education should take into consideration
ways to motivate those unemployed individuals with the assistance of a motivational speaker as one
success story has the potential to encourage another. Also a coordinated volunteerism program should
be promoted among the unemployed, especially the youth, as this would provide on the job training that
would become useful when they become employed as they would easily integrate into the labour system.

The government as well as the private sector should invest a greater amount of capital into education and
the development of countrys human resources. The development of these important two aspects would
benefit tremendously the residents of Maracas, St. Joseph as they would be more prepared members of the
labour force. This can be encouraged with the availability of a substantial value of scholarships that
should be provided to persons that are in the educational institution. Providing physical resources that
include books and electronic devices may harness the inner potential trapped within the brilliant mind of
the population. The idea of entrepreneurship should be encouraged and supported as this would result in
the population becoming more financially stable and become employers as they may break the ground for
more employment, decreasing brain drain.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Haugen, D. M., & Musser, S. (2011). Unemployment. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
2009 labour overview: Latin America and the Caribbean. (2009). Lima: ILO.
Conard, E. (2012). Unintended consequences: why everything you've been told about the
economy is wrong. New York: Portfolio/Penguin.
Cox, T. F., & Cox, M. A. (2001). Multidimensional scaling. Boca Raton: Chapman &
Hall/CRC.
Haugen, D. M., & Musser, S. (2011). Unemployment. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Jevons, H. S. (2013). The causes of unemployment. Place of publication not identified:
Hardpress Ltd.
Khan, A. (2016). Trinidad express newspapers. Port of Spain: Aleem Khan.
Koppelman, K. L., & Goodhart, R. L. (2011). Understanding human differences:
multicultural education for a diverse America. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
McFarland, R. (2009). African Caribbean peoples' experience of mental health services and
factors moderating length of hospital stay. Sheffield: University of Sheffield.
Poverty Rate Increase. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Subcommittee on
Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means.
House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (October 18 November 3,
1983). Serial 98-55. (n.d.).
Tolson, J. (1981). The Social Effects of Unemployment. Place of publication not identified:
Greater London Council.
Walker, A. (2016). Amy Wallker.
Weiland, M., & Wilsey, S. (2006). The thinking fan's guide to the World Cup. New York:
Harper Perennial.

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APPENDEX
Dear Respondents,

I am a student of Bishops Anesty and Trinity College East sixth form conducting an assignment as an
area of research in Caribbean Studies for the CAPE examinations; an investigation into the impact of
unemployment on the pattern of development in the community of Maracas, St. Joseph during the period
of September 2016 to March 2017. It would be greatly appreciated if you would assist in the successful
completion of the following questionnaire. Likewise, one is not required to note ones identity (name) as
this is absolutely confidential. Honesty in its truest sense will be noble and greatly appreciated while
answering the questions provided. Personally, I am humble and eternally grateful for your co-operation on
this assignment as it would be solely used for the purpose of academic research.

Yours Sincerely,

-------------------------------------------

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QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Gender?
Male ( ) Female ( )

2. To which age group do you belong?


18-28 ( ) 29-39 ( ) 40-49 ( ) 50-59 ( ) 60-over ( )
3. Occupation_____________________
4. If unemployed, are you seeking a job?
Yes ( ) No ( )
5. How long have you been a resident of Maracas, St. Joseph?
1-5 years ( ) 6-10years ( ) 11-16years ( ) 17 or more ( )

6. Which family type do you belong?


Nuclear family ( ) Single parent family ( )

Extended family ( ) Sibling family ( )

7. How many persons in your household is part of the labour force?


1() 2() 3() 4()
8. How many persons are unemployed in your household?
1() 2() 3() 4()

9. What is your highest level of education?


Primary ( ) Secondary ( ) Tertiary ( )
10. Is the government responsible for the high unemployment rate among the educated youth in
Maracas, St. Joseph?
Responsible ( ) Very responsible ( ) No they are not responsible ( )

11. Do you receive assistance from the government?


Yes ( ) No ( )
12. If you said yes, how often do you receive this assistance?
Weekly ( ) Monthly ( ) Yearly ( )

13. Is the brain drain of educated unemployed individuals hindering the overall growth of
Trinidad?

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Yes ( ) No ( )

14. The government is providing employment opportunities?


Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly agree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
15. Unemployment affects the socio-economic status of a family and hence causes
stigmatisation?
Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly agree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
16. Unemployment leads to poor mental, emotional and physical health?
Very Frequently ( ) Frequently ( ) Rarely ( ) Never ( )
17. Unemployment has caused a surge in criminal and violent activities among the residents of
Maracas, St. Joseph?
Agree ( ) Disagree ( ) Strongly agree ( ) Strongly disagree ( )
18. What other effect has unemployment had on the community of Maracas, St. Joseph?

19. How does unemployment affect economic growth?


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