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Constitutive modeling of plain concrete subjected to cyclic uniaxial compressive loading

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/conbuildmat

compressive loading

Marco Breccolotti , Massimo Federico Bongli, Antonella DAlessandro, Annibale Luigi Materazzi

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, via G. Duranti, 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy

h i g h l i g h t s g r a p h i c a l a b s t r a c t

damage accumulation in plain

concrete is presented.

It is based on the work of Sima et al.

Several modications have been

introduced to improve the damage

accumulation strategy.

Any kind of compression stress cycles

can be investigated.

Comparison with experimental tests

allowed the validation of the

proposed method.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The paper presents a constitutive modeling for concrete in compression that takes into account the dam-

Received 28 October 2014 age increment for constant and variable amplitude stress cycles. It is based on the model proposed by

Received in revised form 6 April 2015 Sima et al. modied to improve the damage accumulation strategy. The method makes use of the envel-

Accepted 29 June 2015

ope theory and can potentially be used for fatigue analysis. The comparison with experimental tests

results available in literature and tests carried out by the Authors allowed the validation of the constitu-

tive model.

Keywords:

2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Concrete

Cyclic loading

Constitutive modeling

Compression damage

design under serviceability condition is usually a xed value

The concrete damage mechanism under compressive stresses dened as the concrete fatigue limit. Generally it is set equal to

is still not well understood and most of the provisions on 55% of the static compressive strength [1] to avoid signicant

fatigue strength adduced by codes and standards are often mechanical damage to the material.

based on experimental data without an exhaustive scientic Among the general theories today available, the envelope con-

background. cept foresees that unload and reload paths can develop only under

Appropriate damage accumulation theory is still lacking and or along the stressstrain envelope curve. According to the same

frequently a worst case scenario of repeated loads is considered. concept, the strain accumulation under constant amplitude stress

cycles produces failure when the envelope is reached. The damage

Corresponding author.

accumulation with increasing plastic deformations which occurs

cycle after cycle constraints the stressstrain path to move toward

E-mail addresses: marco.breccolotti@unipg.it (M. Breccolotti), federico.bongli@

strutture.unipg.it (M.F. Bongli), adalessandro@strutture.unipg.it (A. DAlessandro), the tail of the envelope curve. In this situation the higher brittle-

annibale.materazzi@unipg.it (A.L. Materazzi). ness of high strength concrete, characterized by a ductility smaller

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.06.067

0950-0618/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180 173

reloads have been performed by Lam [8], Imran and

Pantazopoulou [9] and Bahn and Hsu [10]. While Bahn and Hsu

investigated incomplete unloads from the envelope curve with

random amplitude cycles, Lam carried out tests in the pre-peak

region with unloads up to 0.1 and 0.2 times the concrete compres-

sive strength f c , and Imran and Pantazopoulou performed uniaxial

post-peak region for concretes with compressive strengths f c rang-

ing from 20 to 48 MPa.

Semi-empirical and thermodynamic models have been pro-

posed to reproduce the behavior of concretes subjected to cyclic

loads and damage accumulation. Semi-empirical models are based

on theoretical assumptions approximated to simplify calculation

consistently with the results of experimental observations. Bahn

Fig. 1. Cycles with constant stress amplitude (left) and cycles with variable stress and Hsu [10] proposed a model capable of predicting the response

amplitude (right).

of concrete samples subjected to random cyclic loads. Petryna et al.

[11] combined two time scales, the micro-scale of instantaneous

than that of normal strength concrete, plays a signicant role that structural dynamics (or statics) and the macro-scale of structural

should be reected by the damage accumulation theories. lifetime, developing a phenomenological fatigue damage model

Several thermodynamical models have been developed but of reinforced concrete able to assess the time-variant reliability

their hard applicability to solve structural problems and the impor- of concrete structures. Zanuy et al. [12], supposing a modication

tant computational effort required by these models leads to the from the theories for the low-cycle processes, proposed a new

necessity of simplied methods which shall be used in design model for the fatigue of concrete in compression by dividing the

and assessment works. fatigue life into ctitious cycles, each representing a constant num-

In this context the paper presents an improvement of the model ber of real load cycles. Stress redistribution has been revealed as a

proposed by Sima et al. [2] to better take into account the damage consequence of concrete stiffness degradation inside the investi-

accumulation during constant and variable amplitude stress cycles. gated concrete sections. Sima et al. [2] developed a model for the

simulation of the response of concrete subjected to cyclic loadings

both in compression and in tension. Two independent damage

2. Literature survey parameters, one for damage in compression and the other for dam-

age in tension, have been introduced to model the deterioration of

The issues of concrete damage produced by cycling compression concrete under time varying loads. The Authors also proposed a

loads and that of concrete fatigue resistance have been studied in model for the loops due to cyclic compressive loadings that

literature by means of experimental investigations, semiempirical depends on the concrete damage accumulation.

and thermodynamic modeling. Among them, the rst works with Besides semi-empirical ones, thermodynamic models, based on

experimental tests on the damage and fatigue of concrete subjected a theoretical denition of the system variables, have been devel-

to cyclic compressive stresses are dated back to the late 60s. oped. Papa and Taliercio [13] developed an anisotropic damage

Sinha et al. [3] rst termed the concept of the envelope curve, model for concrete capable of describing the material behavior

that has been dened as the limiting curve within which all both under static and cyclic loading. Lee and Fenves [14] proposed

stressstrain curves lie regardless of the load pattern, while a plastic damage model for cyclic loading of concrete based on the

Karsan and Jirsa [4] dened the concept of common point that cor- fracture energy and on the stiffness degradation in continuum

responds approximately to the point where the slope of loading damage mechanics, using two damage variables for the tensile

curves changes signicantly. Okamoto et al. [5], Tanigawa and and the compressive damage. A simple and thermodynamically

Uchida [6] and Osorio et al. [7] carried out tests with complete consistent degradation model has been introduced to simulate

unload and reload cycles in the post-peak or in the pre-peak region the effect of damage on the elastic stiffness and its recovery during

on concretes having a compressive strength f c from 37 to 63 MPa.

50 1.25 40

35

40 1

30

(N/mm2)

30 0.75 25

(N/mm2)

20

20 0.5

15

10

10 0.25

5

0 0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

x 10

3 3

x 10

Fig. 2. Stress r and damage d as a function of the strain value along the envelope Fig. 3. Example of the correspondences between points on the envelope curve and

curve. the plastic strains.

174 M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180

gent stiffness matrix as source of damage information. Indeed,

re

Maejawa and El-Kashif [20] separated time-dependent cumulative

nonlinearity from the effect of repetition of strain paths on the

overall damage evolution of concrete elements in compression.

ment of that proposed by Sima et al. [2]. The main changes imple-

un

un

to the loading ones, making also non-linear the damage accumula-

tion along the loading branches. The proposed model aims at

distant from the envelope curve (left) and stress cycles close to the envelope curve

(right).

( ) ( )

crack opening and closing. Alliche [15] introduced a new model to un,env un,env un,env re re re

increasing amplitude. It is based on damage mechanics and ther-

modynamics and uses a second-order tensor to describe the aniso-

tropic character of the microcracked material. Kra tzig and Po

lling

[16] introduced a new approach to describe the damage caused

by static and cyclic loading with increasing amplitude. The method

relies on damage mechanics and thermodynamics and adopts a

second-order tensor to describe the anisotropic character of the

microcracked material. Wu et al. [17] proposed a damage energy Ere

release rate-based plastic-damage constitutive model for the non-

(pl 0 pl )

linear analysis of plain and reinforced concrete structures. (a)

Macromechanical degradation was described by two damage sca-

lars, one for the tensile damage and the other for the shear damage.

Cicekli et al. [18] introduced in the plastic-damage constitutive

model an anisotropic damage with new plasticity yield and dam- ( )

re re re

( )

re re re

age criterion, in order to better describe the plastic and damage ( )

un,env un,env un,env

behavior of plain concrete. The Authors used two different damage

criteria for modeling different effects under tensile and compres-

sive loadings and took also into account the stiffness recovery

models, there are in literature interesting examples of their appli-

cations to reinforced concrete elements. Kra tzig et al. [19]

observed the interaction between damage-induced local stress

redistribution, load history and global response. In their opinion (rel rel rel)

or reliability can only be drawn for the entire structure under the ( 0 )

complete spectrum of degradation mechanisms. Such degradation (b) pl pl

80

fc

(envenv ) (re re re)

70 un

( )

f c =

un un un

60

75 M

P

50

a

f c

40

=5

0M

Pa

30

20 f = 25

c MPa

10 Epl

( 0 )

0 (c) pl un

0 1 2 c 3 4 5 6

3

x 10 Fig. 6. (a) Cycle with complete unload and reload, (b) Cycle with incomplete unload

and complete reload up to the envelope curve, (c) Cycle with incomplete unload and

Fig. 5. Stressstrain relationships for concrete with different strengths [21]. reload.

M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180 175

8 out in recent time by Lim and Ozbakkaloglu [22]. The Authors also

Buyukuzturk and Tseng (1984) performed some evaluations on the existing models to assess their

7 Spooner and Dogill (1975)

Karsan and Jirsa (1969) performances in predicting the concrete behavior comparing their

Bahn and Hsu (1998) predictions with results from experimental tests. Among the avail-

6 Sinha et al. (1964) able models, the stressstrain relationship proposed by Collins

Okamoto (1976)

Tanigawa (1979)

et al. [21] for unconned concrete has been chosen as envelope

5

Proposed model curve for its small error in predicting the axial strain at peak com-

r

4

Sima et al. pressive stress and for its ease of use:

0

fc ne

3 r 1

e0c n 1 e nk

e0c

2

where

1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0

un,env n 0:8 f c =17 2

n

Fig. 7. Experimental tting of the relationship between dun and r. e0c f 0c 3

E0 n 1

carefully predicting the damage and the plastic strain accumula- q

tion under general stressstrain cycles, ranging from those having E0 3320

0

f c 6900 4

constant stress amplitude to cycles with variable stress amplitude

(Fig. 1).

1 if e 6 e0c

The model is based on the following assumptions: k 0 5

0:67 f c =62 if e > e0c

1. a mutual correspondence exists between the envelope curve The stress and the elastic modulus are expressed in terms of the

points and the damage index as shown for instance in Fig. 2 derived SI unit MPa. This formulation allows to properly take into

0

for a concrete having a compressive strength f c equal to account the lower ductility of high strength concrete, as shown in

36 MPa; Fig. 5. Consequently, the greater damage caused by load cycles in a

2. the damage function is a non-decreasing function; more brittle concrete is also reected.

3. there is no damage increase in the unloading branches; Assuming that the concrete stress r can be expressed as a func-

4. an univocal correspondence exists between the envelope curve tion of the strain and of the damage index d:

points and the plastic strain values as shown for example in

Fig. 3 for the same concrete mentioned at point 1;

r 1 dE0 e 6

5. the damage increase in the reloading branches is not linear. The the damage index d turn out to have the following denition along

damage increases slightly up to the proximity of the envelope the envelope curve:

curve where it begins to grow faster, as shown, for instance,

in Fig. 4. r n1

d1 1 nk 7

E0 e

n 1 ee0

c

The comparison with experimental results taken from the litera-

ture and from tests made for the purpose allowed the calibration An example of damage accumulation along the envelope curve

of the parameters used in the constitutive model. is shown in Fig. 2.

4. Analytical formulation of the concrete damage model 4.2. Complete unload and reload path from the envelope curve

4.1. Concrete stressstrain envelope curve Based on the extensive work carried out by Sima et al. [2] the

following relationship has been established between the strain of

A wide literature exists on the stressstrain models for uncon- a point on the envelope curve and the corresponding plastic strain

ned and conned concretes. A detailed review has been carried

1 1.4

Spooner and Dogill (1975) Buyukuzturk and Tseng (1984)

Karsan and Jirsa (1969) 1.2 Spooner and Dogill (1975)

Bahn and Hsu (1998) Karsan and Jirsa (1969)

0.8

Sinha et al. (1964) Bahn and Hsu (1998)

1 Sinha et al. (1964)

Okamoto (1976)

Tanigawa (1979) Okamoto (1976)

0.6 Proposed model 0.8 Tanigawa (1979)

Proposed model

re

Sima et al.

R

Sima et al.

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

un,env

un,env

Fig. 8. Experimental tting of the relationship between dun and R. Fig. 9. Experimental tting of the relationship between dre and dun;env .

176 M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180

that would be obtained after a complete unload starting from that Table 1

point (Fig. 6(a)): Compressive strengths of the concretes used for comparisons.

0

eun;env Researcher Compressive strength f c (MPa)

r 0:46 d2un;env 5:43 dun;env 5:98 8

epl Sinha et al. [3] 26.5

Tanigawa and Uchida [6] 40

with dun;env the damage index at the unloading point on the envel- Osorio et al. [7] 37, 46 and 63

ope curve. The previous empirical relation, shown in Fig. 7, is based Okamoto et al. [5] 30 and 40

Bahn and Hsu [10] 36

on the same experimental data collected by Sima but it has been

slightly modied to better represent the behavior of concrete for

high values of dun;env . In particular it has been imposed the passage xc 1 c 2 xc 3

d dpl dre dpl 16

through the point with coordinates (dun;env ,r) equal to (1, 1). The 1 c2

rational behind this assumption is that for a heavily damaged mate-

where

rial with dun;env very close to 1 the plastic strain epl should coincide

with eun;env . r

x 17

It is assumed that the damage does not increase along the rre

unloading path since no external energy is supplied to the system, The coefcients that govern the damage increase rate c1 ; c2 ; c3

thus: have been calibrated by comparison with the strain development

dpl dun;env 9 observed during experimental tests found in the literature and

with several cyclic tests made by the Authors. The tted values

The stressstrain relationship along the unloading branches can turned out to be equal to 33, 0.002 and 0.1, respectively.

be modeled as: It is assumed that the reloading path is linear. Thus:

eepl

D2 1eun;env e e e

r D1 e pl

E0 e epl 10 e epl re pl r 18

rre

with:

r1 dun;env 4.3. Complete reload after an incomplete unload

D1 11

r1

In the case of an incomplete unload (see Fig. 6(b)) the stress

Epl strain path interrupts the unloading branch at the point (erel ; rrel ).

D2 ln 12 The coordinates can be calculated via Eq. (10). Since no damage

D1 E0

increase is foreseen in the unloading branches, it will be:

After a complete unloading the ratio between the concrete tan-

gent modulus of elasticity Epl and the undamaged modulus of elas- drel dun;env 19

ticity E0 can be calculated as: Also in this case it is assumed that the reloading to the envelope

Epl curve is linear. It is directed towards a point that is located

R 0:0146dun;env 13 between eun;env and ere . The idea behind this assumption is that if

E0

the unload is incomplete, part of the damage of the complete

The proposed relation, shown in Fig. 8, is based on experimental reload cannot be developed, so the damage d0re corresponding to

data found in literature and keeps into account that for values of the point (e0re ; r0re ) where the reloading path meets the envelope

dun;env close to 0 there should be no differences between E0 and curve should be smaller than dre but greater than dun;env drel . In

Epl since no signicant damage has been produced in the material. order to nd that point on the envelope curve the following itera-

Thus, the passage through the point having coordinates (dun;env ,R) tive procedure is proposed:

equal to (0, 1) has been forced.

After a complete unload and a complete reload up to the envel- 1. Choose a guess value eg for e0re between eun;env and ere .

ope curve, the damage index assumes the following value: 2. Compute the damage dg which corresponds to eg by using Eq.

dre 1:2428 dun;env 0:2428 d2un;env 14 (7).

1.2

cation of that proposed by Sima et al. [2] to allow proper damage Proposed model

accumulation for small stress cycles carried out on the undamaged Sinha et al.

material. This has been achieved imposing the passage of the curve 1

through the point with coordinates (dun;env ; dre ) equal to (0, 0).

Normalized Stress

Moreover, it has been imposed the passage of the curve through 0.8

the point (1, 1) to avoid values of dre greater than 1 for values of

dun very close to 1. 0.6

The strain of the rst point of the stressstrain path on the

envelope curve after a complete unload and reload cycle can be 0.4

determined from Eq. (7) as:

1 0.2

dre n 1 nk

ere e0c 15

1 dre

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Reasonably, it is assumed that the damage index increases

Normalized Strain

slowly at the beginning of the reload path while greater damage

accumulation is foreseen for higher stress level (Fig. 4). This Fig. 10. Comparison between the provisions of the present model and the

hypothesis is expressed by the following rule: experimental data from Sinha et al. [3].

M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180 177

Knowing the values of e0re ; r0re and d0re , the damage development

during the reloading phase has the same form of Eq. (16):

xc 1 c 2 xc 3

d dg;pl d0re dg;pl 21

1 c2

where

Time

r

x 22

r0re

Since the reloading path is linear we have:

r rrel

e erel e0re erel ; 23

r0re rrel

1.2 1.2

Proposed model Proposed model

Sima et al. Osorio 37MPa

1 1

TanigawaUchida

Normalized Stress

Normalized Stress

0.8 0.8

0.6 0.6

0.4 0.4

0.2 0.2

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

1 (a) Normalized Strain

0.9

0.8 1.2

Compression damage

Proposed model

0.7

Osorio 46MPa

1

0.6

Normalized Stress

0.5

0.8

0.4

0.3 0.6

0.2

0.4

0.1

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0.2

Normalized Strain

Fig. 11. Comparison between the provisions of the present model, the model by 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Sima et al. and the experimental data from Tanigawa and Uchida [6]. (b) Normalized Strain

1.2

3. Compute the damage dg;pl at zero stress to which corresponds Proposed model

after a complete reload the damage dg on the envelope curve Osorio 63MPa

1

by inverting Eq. (14).

4. Compute the damage dg;rel at r rrel by using Eq. (16) and

Normalized Stress

0.8

assuming that rre rg ; dre dg and dun dg;pl .

5. Evaluate the difference D between the actual damage drel and

0.6

the damage dg;rel calculated at the previous step.

6. If the absolute value of D is less than a certain tolerance Dmin the

process is over and e0re eg . Otherwise choose another guess 0.4

value between eg and ere if D > 0 or between eun;env and eg if

D < 0 and then go back to step 2. 0.2

The stress at the point where the linear reloading path reaches 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

the envelope curve can then be evaluated as: (c) Normalized Strain

0

fc n e0re

r0env 0 nk 20 Fig. 12. Comparison between the provisions of the present model and the

e 0

c n 1 ere0

e 0

experimental data from Osorio [7]: (a) concrete with f c 37 MPa; (b) concrete

c 0 0

with f c 46 MPa; (c) concrete with f c 63 MPa.

178 M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180

1.2 run

B1 27

Proposed model E0 eun epl

Sima et al.

1 Okamoto 30MPa

R

A1 ln 28

Normalized Stress

0.8 B1

It is assumed that the rst derivative of the unloading branch

0.6 computed at zero stress is equal to Epl , as in the case of the unload-

ing from the envelope curve. This behavior is based on the assump-

0.4 tion of the existence of not only a duality between the damage

index d and the plastic strain, but also of a mutual correspondence

0.2 between the damage index and the slope of the unloading branch

at zero stress regardless of the previous loading history.

(a) 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Normalized Strain 5. Comparison with experimental tests

Proposed model ison with several experimental data found in literature. These data

Sima et al.

1 Okamoto 40MPa

Normalized Stress

0.8

0.6

0.4 Time

0.2

(b)

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

Normalized Strain

Fig. 13. Comparison between the provisions of the present model, the model by

Sima et al. and the experimental data from Okamoto [5]: (a) concrete with

0 0

f c 30 MPa; (b) concrete with f c 40 MPa. 1.2

Present model

Bahn

1

Normalized Stress

0.8

At the end of an incomplete reload path (i.e. at the beginning of

the unload path, see Fig. 6(c)), the point has coordinates run ; eun 0.6

and the damage index dun can be evaluated by means of Eq. (21).

The point of the envelope curve which possesses the same damage 0.4

index can be obtained from the following relationship:

1 0.2

dun n 1 nk 0

e0env ec 24

1 dun 0

branch, both unloading paths from the reversal point after the 0.9

incomplete reload and from the point having the same damage

0.8

Compression damage

plastic strain equal to: 0.7

0.6

e0env

epl 25 0.5

1:462 d2un 6:3445 dun 6:1093

0.4

This is also due to the assumption of uniqueness between the 0.3

damage index d and the plastic strain epl i.e. there exist only a value

0.2

of the plastic strain for a specied damage index. The unloading

path after an incomplete reload can be described by the following 0.1

equation: 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

eepl Normalized strain

A1 1eun e

r B1 e pl

E0 e epl 26

Fig. 14. Comparison between the provisions of the present model and the

where experimental data from Bahn [10].

M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180 179

0.9

0.8

Normalized Stress

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

Exp. envelope curve

0.3 Model envelope curve

500th cyc.Exp.

0.2 500th cyc.Model

0.1 1500th cyc.Exp.

1500th cyc.Model

0

(a) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Normalized Strain

0.9

0.8

Normalized Stress

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

Fig. 15. Experimental setup used for the cyclic tests. Exp. envelope curve

0.3 Model envelope curve

50th cyc.Exp.

0.2 50th cyc.Model

have been selected in such a way that the creep component of 200th cyc.Exp.

0.1

the strain can be judged negligible. The mechanical properties 200th cyc.Model

of the concretes used in the comparisons are summed up in the 0

(b) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Table 1. Normalized Strain

Fig. 16. Comparison between the strain development during experimental cyclic

5.1. Complete unloads and complete reloads stress cycles 0

tests and the present model predictions: (a) concrete with f c 30 MPa; (b) concrete

0

with f c 50 MPa.

To validate the effectiveness of the model in predicting com-

plete unload and reload paths to and from the envelope curve,

the data provided by Sinha et al. [3], Tanigawa and Uchida [6], 5.2. Incomplete unloads and complete reloads stress cycles

Osorio et al. [7] and Okamoto et al. [5] have been used.

The rst comparison has been done with the well known data Experimental tests with incomplete unloads and complete

provided by Sinha et al. From Fig. 10 it can be observed that a good reloads stress cycles have also been found in literature carried

matching has been obtained for the envelope curve and the out by Bahn and Hsu (see Fig. 14). Also in this case a very good

unloading branches while a worse correspondence has been matching was obtained between the numerical end the experi-

obtained in the reloading branches. mental results. In the same gure is also shown the imposed strain

The comparison between the experimental data provided by time history and the resulting damage accumulation. Based on the

Tanigawa and Uchida and the theoretical stressstrain path, shown assumptions made in Section 3 the damage function is

in Fig. 11, is quite satisfactory. In the same gure is also shown the non-decreasing and it has constant value along the unloading

imposed strain time history and the resulting damage accumula- branches.

tion. In the same gure the comparison with the results obtained

by Sima et al. evidences the improvement achieved with the pro- 5.3. Constant amplitude stress cycles

posed model.

Also for the data provided by Osorio et al. the comparison is sat- In order to validate the proposed model with respect to con-

isfactory, especially for concretes with lower strengths (see stant amplitude stress cycles, the Authors have performed a series

Fig. 12). of cyclic compression tests on concrete cylinders with nominal

Very good matching was obtained for the tests carried out by strengths of 30 MPa and 50 MPa (see Fig. 15). The mix designs

Okamoto et al. (see Fig. 13). Also in this case it can be observed that are given in Table 2.

the results obtained with the proposed model are better than those The specimens had a diameter of 100 mm and a height of

obtained with the model established by Sima et al. 200 mm. For each mix design 2 cylinders were realized. The rst

Table 2

Concrete mix designs used for the tested specimens.

Strength (MPa) Samples n. Cement kg=m3 Water l=m3 Fly Ash kg=m3 Hyperplasticizer l=m3 Sand kg=m3 Gravel kg=m3

30 2 280 165 50 2.9 1008 889

50 2 380 175 0 2.7 990 740

180 M. Breccolotti et al. / Construction and Building Materials 94 (2015) 172180

specimen was used to determine the envelope curve and the com- References

0

pressive strength f c by means of displacement controlled compres-

[1] ACI. Committee 215. Considerations for Design of Concrete Structures

sive tests performed with a constant speed of 26.4 lm/s.

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