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The Parklands of Floyds Fork Erosion Proposal

Tiffany Sanders

SNHU
Final Project: The Parklands of Floyds Fork Erosion Proposal 2

Introduction

Erosional processes, specifically those near a heavily populated or heavily used areas, can

be considered a devastating natural process that has the potential to destroy land, structures, and

cause a heavy monetary impact. This research project will focus primarily on the erosional

morphology of a naturally occurring stream, Floyds Fork, to address the rate and potential impact

at the current rate. The potential hypothesis of Erosional rates are considered stable within The

Parklands of Floyds Fork will be the primary focus statement.

Floyds Fork is a well-known stream to the area of Jefferson and Bullitt Counties of

Kentucky, as well as surrounding areas. This stream flows through a large park found in

southeast Jefferson County, Kentucky, The Parklands of Floyds Fork (to be referred to as The

Parklands from this point on). Primary research will be focused in this park at various data

collection points, as the research and hypothesis area are only evaluating the erosional rates

within the park. Because The Parklands is a natural park with emphasis on natural landscapes

and outdoor activities such as mountain biking, hiking, and canoeing, the influence from land

disturbances are kept to a minimum and natural processes can be better evaluated.

A number of methods will be used to evaluate the rate of erosion. According to Erosion

Control Manual, erosion can be contributed to by climate, soil characteristics, vegetative cover,

and topography (Government of Alberta, 2011). These, among others will be evaluated to

determine the potential rate in order to address the hypothesis. The geology of The Parklands

will be evaluated through the use of geological maps produced for land use by the Kentucky

Geological Survey and University of Kentucky (Davidson, Carey, Greb, & Lacy, 2004). Data in

the form of surface velocities, stream pH, temperature, gradient, and discharge will be obtained
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through field work and logged. Methodologies for each will be further discussed in the

Research Design- Research Methods section of the project. The use of GIS will be heavily

used in the methodology of this project. Interpolation methods will be used from collected data,

visual representations will be used to show progression of geomorphology, and geophysical data

such as elevation and marker visuals will be produced from this use to further discuss the

hypothesis.

This project is proposed to anyone interested in potential erosional rates of Floyds Fork

sections found within The Parklands. Ecologists, geoscientists, potential park developers, and

other science or geography based professionals that are may or may not be employed within the

park could have particular interests, as it deals directly with land alteration, potential wildlife

habitat alteration, and recreational design modifications. Park goers and common public may

find this study of particular interest due to the above mentioned, as well as additional safety

concerns by way of riparian trails, aquatic recreational activities such as canoeing and fishing,

and other land/water changes not discussed above.

Determination of the hypothesis has potential use for future, more long term, evaluation

and research projects of similar design. Erosion rate monitoring is not something that is thought

of on a frequent basis, unless a significant natural event such a flood occurs. Flooding is a

frequent concern in Floyds Fork within The Parklands. This research project will combine efforts

to monitor, predict, and forecast will only further prepare for those events. In turn, aiding in that

preparation so that monetary or financial impact is lessened during a natural event or during

slower events such as more common natural fluvial processes without the aid of such events.
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Annotated Bibliography

Addy, S. (2013, September). Geomorphology, river hydrology and natural processes. Paper

presented at The James Hutton Institute. Retrieved from

http://www.therrc.co.uk/Workshops/NonRRC/sharinggoodpractice/Geomorphology,%20

river%20hydrology%20and%20natural%20processes%20(Steve%20Addy,%20The%20J

ames%20Hutton%20Institute).pdf

This resource is in the form of a slide show. The author addresses geomorphology, river

hydrology, and the natural processes that can be seen within a river or stream system. Basic

nomenclature is described, as well as basic and advanced processes. Topics such as channel

types and classifications, general fluvial processes, deposition, bank types, and erosion are

addressed. Having this type of basic resource to address simplistic to advanced process will

prove beneficial to the Floyds Fork research project due to the scholarly resource to support any

explanation regarding fluvial processes. This resource, while being very generic, is still

important in supporting the hypothesis claim.

Aher, S., Bairagi, S., Deshmukh, P., & Gaikwad, R. (2012). River change detection and bank

erosion identification using topographical and remote sensing data. International Journal

of Applied Information Systems, 2(3), 1-7. Retrieved from

http://research.ijais.org/volume2/number3/ijais12-450283.pdf

The article, River change detection and bank erosion identification using topographical

and remote sensing data, reported on an analysis of the Pravara River over a period of 35 years.

The authors placed primary focus on specific region of this river and used GIS, topography, and
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remote sensing to measure and map data collected. Attribute tables were created using precise

measuring through the GIS system to detect river banks from as early as the 1970s. The same

methodology was used to create the same attribute data for the current time. The two were then

compared and mapped using common cartographic methods and overlays. Using similar

methodologies applied to measure erosion of Floyds Fork could be of prospective value. This

would aid in supporting the hypothesis of stable erosion rates, as well as allow a supportive

visual aid to be produced.

California. State Water Resources Control Board. (2002). Dissolved oxygen fact sheet (SOP

4.1.1.3). Retrieved from State Water Resources Control Board, Division of Water Quality

website:http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/swamp/docs/cwt/guidanc

e/4113.pdf

The Dissolved oxygen fact sheet published by the State of California has designated a

portion of their SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) to field procedures. One of these

procedures provides information on how to measure stream velocity using the float method. This

is a technical document that describes a simplistic, yet effective, way of measuring using nothing

more than an orange peel, a measuring tape, a stop watch, a stadia rod, and a clipboard. A

mathematical formula is also provided within the document for measuring the stream flow.

Because funding and manpower is limited for the research project surrounding the erosional rates

of Floyds Fork, this would be an ideal method in obtaining field measurements with accuracy

and precision. Using the float method, in comparison to other field methods, field measurements

would be able to be obtained more easily.


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Davidson, B., Carey, D., Greb, S., & Lacy, P. (2004). Generalized geologic map for land-use

planning: Jefferson County, Kentucky. Retrieved from Kentucky Geological Survey

website: http://kgs.uky.edu/kgsweb/olops/pub/kgs/mc81_12.pdf

The generalized geologic map published by the Kentucky Geological Survey and

University of Kentucky is a resource that provides information regarding bedrock type and

makeup. The document also addresses the reason for production, prospective land usage,

planning, and building, however, it also informs of the type of the geology, karst. While this

resource is fairly simple in nature, the information found is of great benefit when evaluating

Floyds Fork for erosion evaluation, as it informs the area is composed of mainly limestones and

alluvial material. The evaluation of the uppermost strata is limited to Jefferson County, but

adjacent areas could be easily construed from document. Ease of further research for each 7.5

minute quadrangle can be found, as the document sections all of Jefferson County.

ESRI. (2017). Comparing interpolation methods. Retrieved from http://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-

app/tool-reference/3d-analyst/comparing-interpolation-methods.htm

The ESRI help page is widely known to be beneficial when dealing with spatial related

questions, regardless of which GIS system is being used. The Comparing interpolation methods

is no exception due to the information given on various methods for specific projects. This is a

technical based article that aids in choosing the most appropriate interpolation methods in

predicting values. When projecting erosional rates and patterns in the Floyds Fork research

project, this resource will be used as guidance on which interpolation methods will provide the
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most accurate and precise estimations given the attribute data, which is limited and spatial in

nature. It will aid in which methods will find any trending in quantitative values.

Gaige, M. (2012, June). Landscape and geology [Web log post]. Retrieved from

http://www.theparklands.org/Blog/37/LANDSCAPE-AND-GEOLOGY-MICHAEL-

GAIGE

This resource is an educational blog written specifically for The Parklands of Floyds Fork

by ecologist and educator, Michael Gaige. The author spent much of his graduate project in the

park assessing ecology and natural landscape. This resource examines the reasoning behind the

topography of The Parklands of Floyds Fork. The geology is described to include flood plains,

escarpments, and the situation on the Cincinnati Arch, which further aids in the discussion of

geology and topographic landscape contouring. M. Gaiges blog is a useful edition to the

compiled resources in the current research project regarding erosion, as the stratas of the park are

defined and the erosional pattern found within the park due to these various topography changes

and statas situated on the arch. The floodplain and meander changes are also addressed. These

directly impact erosional rates and patterns of the riparian environments.

Government of Alberta. (2011). Government of Alberta Ministry of Transportation: erosion and

sediment control manual - June 2011. Retrieved from

http://www.transportation.alberta.ca/4626.htm

The Government of Alberta Ministry of Transportation published a control manual to aid

and inform regarding the issue of erosion and sediment deposition. This manual provides useful

information by way of processes, types, and prospective mitigation types of erosion related to
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water. It provides multiple visual aids to address grain/silt size, surface rock type, and deposition

guides. The document identifies uniform causes of erosion that can be applicable to any

landscape, however, the document does primarily focus on areas in Canada. This resource could

be considered of significant use in determining the erosional rate of Floyds Fork due to the fact

that these causes are so uniform in nature. There are parts of the document that, however, will

not be applicable to the Floyds Fork research project, as they do not pertain specifically to stream

erosion, but to overall soil loss.

Letsinger, S. (2017). Evaluation of riparian buffer zones using GIS and remote sensing.

Retrieved from Indiana Geological & Water Survey website:

https://igs.indiana.edu/WatershedHydrology/RiparianBuffers.cfm

In Evaluation of riparian buffer zones using GIS and remote sensing, the author explains

how using field research and GIS modeling systems can evaluate riparian buffer zones for

potential erosional features, patterns, and rates, but more so for significant events such as

flooding or mass wasting of these zones. The article focuses primarily on the Youngs Creek

watershed in Johnson County, Indiana, but explains that this situation is not unique to this area.

This evaluation was completed in a series of two phases, first being examination of the

geomorphology, current buffer zones, current vegetation, and meander widths and patterns. The

second phase being more GIS based with information gathered from the field and U.S.

Geological Survey National Land Cover Database. The soil quality and type were evaluated and

factored into the attributes of the GIS program. This resource is from a reputable, scholarly

group that provides correct and concise information, and would be of great benefit to the Floyds

Fork research project by providing potential methodologies for erosion rate analysis.
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Stroosnijder, L. (2005). Measurement of erosion: Is it possible? CATENA, 64(2-3), 162-173.

doi:10.1016/j.catena.2005.08.004

The author of this article addresses the possibility of accurately measuring the rate of

erosion. While the abstract was the only available portion of the article, it brings the discussion

of the variations of rates associated with accurately calculating the rate of erosion within a fluvial

environment. The author describes some of the main causes in varying measurements as costs,

personnel, equipment, and techniques in measuring. This resource could be considered as value

to any deviations found during field work in compared to other measurements found previously

in regards to the Floyds Fork erosion research project.

USGS. (2017). USGS water data for the nation. Retrieved from https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis

The USGS has published and continue to publish technical reports at varying intervals

that directly relate to stream data for various streams found throughout the United States. Data

can vary from gauged height to pH, and can be measured in increments of days to years, varying

for each data point. For some streams and waterways, multiple measurements are taken at

multiple points. This is a notable resource for collecting stream data for the Floyds Fork erosion

project, and will provide to be useful, as many measurements are needed for comparing and

contrasting to support the hypothesis. This type of quantitative data available at multiple

intervals and data points will allow for trends to be tracked and recorded, once again aiding in

the hypothesis support.


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Research Design and Methodologies

This section will further address the hypothesis of Erosional rates of Floyds Fork with

The Parklands are considered stable and of low risk. Data sources such primary versus

secondary and qualitative versus quantitative will be discussed. The data sources will then be

evaluated, describing both strengths and weaknesses of each. In addition to data sources,

methodologies will be discussed, as well as any visual aids to support the hypothesis.

A variety of data sources are anticipated to be used to in this project. These types of data

will include both primary data that has been collected in the field, as well as secondary data that

has been collected via research and resources. Primary data will primarily be in the form of

quantitative data, and will include measurements taken over the course of two to three months

(August to October). This data will be collected by field work. Secondary data will primarily

focus on both qualitative and quantitative data. This data will be collected from a secondary

resource. The secondary data will come from primarily online research. DEM, satellite imagery,

and LiDAR images will be used for the secondary qualitative data, and measurements gathered

from USGS data collected over a greater amount of time will serve as the secondary quantitative

data.

When evaluating the sources to be used, there are a number of both limitations and

strengths to each. Primary data for this particular project will be used to only support the

secondary data collected due to the amount of limitations. Because the primary data is only being

collected for two to three months, the measured time is not enough to show accurate erosion

rates and patterns for an extended period of time, but rather acute erosional events. However,

collecting data over this amount of time will support the hypothesis by showing measurements
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stay consistent. Given the limitation of technology, equipment, and man power available could

also be considered a limitation. The secondary data in this project has strengths and weaknesses,

as well. The quantitative secondary data collected (more than likely in the form of USGS stream

data tables) could be considered more accurate. The data available will extend beyond that two to

three-month period so that consistencies and trends can be established. Limitations for this type

of data is the amount available. Some readings and measurements may be absent due to lack of

collection in certain points, while some readings may be absent altogether for specific needed

collection points. Secondary data in the form of qualitative has excellent strengths, as it will

allow the reader to visually see any physical changes taking place (to be further discussed in

methodologies and visual aids). A large limitation to this would be the availability to these

resources. Finding specifically dated satellite data of a particular place can sometimes be a

challenge, and would constitute as a limitation.

After data is collected, it will be analyzed using methods in GIS (further discussion on

methodologies to follow). ESRI and GRASS GIS are the anticipated programs that will be used

for this task. In addition to the DEM, satellite imagery, and LiDAR data the will be input into the

programs, the quantitative data will be input. Following this, specific interpolation methods will

be used to produce maps, graphs, and other visual aids that will support the hypothesis.

There will be a variety of methodologies used to evaluate the hypothesis. All following

research methods are not specific to geoscience, but are commonly used to evaluate various

hypothesiss found in the geoscience community. Some of the following are used more

frequently in the geosciences as opposed other fields of science. All methodologies will follow

the ethical guidelines found within the geosciences. No environmental or personal harm will be

done, ecosystems will not be affected by data collected, and all data collections will be done in
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an environmentally conscious manner. To further elaborate on the ethical portion, the research

being done could be considered necessary to maintain a healthy environment within The

Parklands for both ecosystems and human population alike.

Raw data will be in the form of temperature, surface velocity, pH, stream gradient,

coordinate points, and elevation. There will be two data collection points for each park within

The Parklands (Beckley Creek Park, Pope Lick Park, The Strand, Turkey Run Park, and Broad

Run Park). Pope Lick Park will only include one data collection point due to park size and

environmental hazards. The Strand will not have any collection points due to the above

mentioned hazards. These hazards include unsafe data collection points due to escarpment sizes,

bank instability, etc. Temperature and pH will be measured using a thermometer and pH meter.

Surface velocity will be measured using the orange peel method (California State Water

Resources Control Board, 2002). Stream gradient will be obtained using elevation data and DEM

data, using the rise over run equation, and coordinate points will be obtained via GPS.

After data is collected both in the field and through secondary research, it will be

formatted into usable tables. Excel files, or .csv files, will be the primary table format for

attribute information. This information will then be placed into a GIS program for spatial

analysis. Interpolation methods (or predictive spatial analysis tool) will then be used to determine

future erosional rates and patterns for both the collection points and areas that fall within the

riparian environment. Simple kriging (a specific type of interpolation method) will be used with

global trends removed. These trends will be removed because evaluation is specific to Floyds

Fork within The Parklands, and will not be compared to any other stream data found outside of

the park. This will allow for a lower standard of deviation and error rate (ESRI, 2017).
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Evaluation of the geology will then be considered after all data is complete. The effects

geology has on erosional rates and patterns of both the stream itself and the flood plain would be

discussed, as certain rock types erode at different rates and could significantly impact the

predicted erosional rate and pattern. Data supporting this discussion will be obtained through

information published by The Parklands, itself, as well as The Kentucky Geological Survey

(Davidson, Carey, Greb, & Lacy, 2004), (Gaige, 2012).

From these measurements and attribute data, bar graphs, semivariograms, and

histograms can be produced for a supportive visual aid. In addition to the graphs, satellite

imagery, DEM grids, and LiDAR data will also be used to show the progression of erosion over

a longer period to time via photos and maps. These visual aids will show past, present, and

current erosional patterns, riparian vegetation, and escarpments found along the banks of Floyds

Fork. This will allow for any reader to visually see the erosional pattern of the stream itself,

identify any change in vegetative support, visualize evidence of mass wasting, as well as note

any change in the flood plain.

Similar methodologies in regards to satellite imagery and bank monitoring with spatial

analysis has been executed in the past with positive outcomes. The study of The Pravara River

and Youngs Creek Watershed in Johnson County, Indiana are two studies in which

methodologies for evaluating erosion will be modeled after (Aher, Bairagi, Deshmukh, &

Gaikwad, 2012), (Letsinger, 2017).


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Conclusion

When evaluating the erosional rates and patterns within The Parklands of Floyds Fork,

this will not only address the hypothesis of whether rates and patterns are stable and of low risk,

but it will also address the much larger issues of development and sustainment. Sustainment has

obviously been addressed with the use of retainer walls and other methods of periodic evaluation

and maintenance (which can be seen while visiting), and the potential for development still

exists, as new construction can be seen in riparian and flood plain environments in the park at

any time. Both sustainability and potential developments could both be considered concerns. A

plausible solution derived from the research, methodology types, and conclusions could include

to continue the use of current sustainment techniques such as retainer walls, vegetation

placement, etc. if the rates and patterns of erosion are considered stable and of low risk, however,

in the event that the hypothesis is proven false, plausible solutions could include more aggressive

sustainment techniques such as major rerouting of the stream itself, reconstruction of banks, etc.

Depending on the results of the research, development within and near to the riparian and flood

plain areas may be considered advisable, or discouraged.

Due to the specific nature of the research project, not all persons from varying

backgrounds may find the result of the hypothesis conclusion useful, however, when showing the

much broader situation that includes the future of developments and landscapes in the park,

many may show interest. There are a large group of people from varying backgrounds the utilize

The Parklands for not only recreational events, but research projects, and individual agendas.

When discussing the future of the riparian and flood plain environments, and the potential
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changing landscapes and future developments, not one specific type of person can be

determined. Because of this wide variety of people interested in the future of the parks

landscape, communication could be considered difficult. When thinking logically, public

placement of highlights, a shortened version of the study, or, more specifically, posted on The

Parklands website could be considered options. Because of the vast amount of blog posts that

can be easily accessed with the use of filters, the website may be the best communication tool for

posting the results of this project.


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Appendices

Appendix A: Map Creation of The Parklands of Floyds Fork location


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Appendix B: The Parklands of Floyds Fork Park Map

(Blue Moon Canoes, 2017)


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References

Aher, S., Bairagi, S., Deshmukh, P., & Gaikwad, R. (2012). River change detection and bank

erosion identification using topographical and remote sensing data. International Journal

of Applied Information Systems, 2(3), 1-7. Retrieved from

http://research.ijais.org/volume2/number3/ijais12-450283.pdf

Blue Moon Canoes. (2017). [Paddling access routes]. Retrieved from

http://www.bluemooncanoeky.com/parklands/

California. State Water Resources Control Board. (2002). Dissolved oxygen fact sheet (SOP

4.1.1.3). Retrieved from State Water Resources Control Board, Division of Water Quality

website:http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/water_issues/programs/swamp/docs/cwt/guidanc

e/4113.pdf

Davidson, B., Carey, D., Greb, S., & Lacy, P. (2004). Generalized geologic map for land-use

planning: Jefferson County, Kentucky. Retrieved from Kentucky Geological Survey

website: http://kgs.uky.edu/kgsweb/olops/pub/kgs/mc81_12.pdf

ESRI. (2017). Comparing interpolation methods. Retrieved from http://pro.arcgis.com/en/pro-

app/tool-reference/3d-analyst/comparing-interpolation-methods.htm

Gaige, M. (2012, June). Landscape and geology [Web log post]. Retrieved from

http://www.theparklands.org/Blog/37/LANDSCAPE-AND-GEOLOGY-MICHAEL-

GAIGE

Government of Alberta. (2011). Government of Alberta Ministry of Transportation: erosion and

sediment control manual - June 2011. Retrieved from

http://www.transportation.alberta.ca/4626.htm
Final Project: The Parklands of Floyds Fork Erosion Proposal 19

Letsinger, S. (2017). Evaluation of riparian buffer zones using GIS and remote sensing.

Retrieved from Indiana Geological & Water Survey website:

https://igs.indiana.edu/WatershedHydrology/RiparianBuffers.cfm