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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Assignment 1: Professional Task


Daniel Colley 17660772
Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Contents
Part One
Assessment Task Pages 2 to 4

Unit Outline Pages 6 to 15

Pre-Lesson Pages 16 to 20

Post-Lesson Pages 21 to 24

Justification Pages 25 to 29

Part Two
Appendix A Page 30

Appendix B Page 31

Appendix C Page 32

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Classroom Ready Assessment Task

Archaeological Methods

Topic: Investigating the Past: History, Archaeology and Science

Outcomes:
P2.1 identify historical factors and explain their significance in contributing to
change and continuity in the ancient world
P3.1 locate, select and organise relevant information from a variety of sources
P3.3 comprehend sources and analyse them for their usefulness and reliability
P3.6 plan and present the findings of historical investigations analysing and
synthesising information from a range of sources.

Task: Feature Article Describing Chosen Archaeological Method


Weighting: 20% Due: Term 1, Week 6 Marks: /30
(Friday)

Description:
Archaeologists study physical material in a variety of ways using a number of
different methods to date, locate or otherwise investigate the artefact and extract
information. Students have been specifically learning about the Absolute Dating
Method of Radiocarbon dating (referred to simply as Carbon Dating) as well as
general information about archaeological and historical processes.
For this task, you are to research and collect information about ONE of the
following archaeological methods:
Stratigraphy
Thermo-luminescence Dating
Ceramic Petrography
Lithic Morphology
Anthracology
Fission Track Dating
Palynology

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Tephrochronology
From this research you are to design and construct a feature article describing
your chosen archaeological method in an informative and easy to understand
style. Within your article you must include the following features/topics:
What is it Define and describe the archaeological method and what it
tells the archaeologist
How did it start Describe the origin of the archaeological method and
any major developments or change to the method over time
How does it work Detail how the method is used to investigate the past
and what kind of artefacts it is used on. Discuss at least one of the major
findings this method was used on as an example.
Method vs Carbon Dating How it relates and/or differs from our core
studied archaeological method (Carbon Dating)
Useful and informative pictures/photographs to further or help your
descriptions
A Bibliography Containing at least 2 written sources, 2 online sources
and the sources of each picture/photograph used

Further, this task requires you use in-text citations for any quotes, pictures and
paraphrasing of information using the school referencing style. Time will be
dedicated in classes to learning how to properly cite and make bibliographies
prior to the due date.
NOTE: A complete lack of bibliography and in-text citations will result in failure
under the Plagiarism Agreement in your student diary.

Assessment Marking Criteria

You will be assessed on how well you:


Detail and describe your chosen archaeological method with connections
to an archaeological finding and core studied method
Clearly and effectively present your work in regards to grammar, spelling,
structure and selected images
Accurately reference and cite researched material in appropriate form

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Student Name: Teacher: Mark: /30

Detail and 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 13-15


Description of Demonstrates a Demonstrates a Demonstrates a Demonstrates a Demonstrates a
Archaeological limited sound developed highly comprehensive
Method with understanding understanding understanding developed understanding
connections to an of chosen of chosen of chosen understanding of chosen
archaeological method with no method with method with of chosen method with
finding and core connections to a few connections some method with effective
studied method significant to a significant connections to a useful connections to a
archaeological archaeological significant connections to a significant
15 Marks finding and the finding and the archaeological significant archaeological
core studied core studied finding and the archaeological finding and the
method method core studied finding and the core studied
method core studied method
method
Effectively uses 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10
space and images, Work lacks Work has some Work is Work is clearly Work is well-
and presents structure, does structure, does generally clear, structured, structured, clear,
work clearly in not use images not use images uses images and effectively uses skilfully uses
terms of and has and has multiple has some images and has images to
grammar, spelling frequent grammatical or grammatical or few grammatical further
and structure grammatical or spelling spelling or spelling descriptions and
spelling mistakes mistakes mistakes has few or no
10 Marks mistakes grammatical or
spelling
mistakes
Accurately 1 2 3 4 5
references and Little to no References and References and References and References and
cites researched accuracy in citations contain citations are citations are citations are
material in references and multiple used with some used used
appropriate form citations mistakes mistakes appropriately appropriately
Less than 1 Fewer than 2 Fewer than 2 with some and accurately
5 Marks written and 1 written and 2 written and 2 mistakes with few
online source online sources online sources mistakes

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Feedback:
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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Unit Outline

UNIT OUTLINE
Subject: Ancient History Course: Preliminary (Yr 11) Number of
Weeks: 10
Unit title: Investigating the Past: History, Archaeology and Science

Key Concepts/ Big Ideas The importance of this learning


Context This unit provides students with a background into
the processes and applications of history and
Continuity and Change archaeology as well as an insight into the issues and
common practices of historians and archaeologist.
Historical Inquiry Through this unit, students learn to analyse and
question sources for usefulness, reliability and the
Communicating an problems posed by reconstructions of the past.
Understanding Students further explore the ethical issues of
excavation, presentation, conservation and
Diversity and Complexity ownership, as differing perspectives of historical
events and places. Finally, students investigate how
Influence of Ancient Past on science and other disciplines have influenced history
Present and Future and archaeology and come to appreciate the changing
nature of the disciplines.
Personal Growth and
Lifelong Learning

Conservation of the Past


Unit context within Scope Syllabus Outcomes
and Sequence
Term 1: P1.1, P2.1, P3.1, P3.2, P3.3, P3.4, P3.5, P3.6
Week 1
To
Week 10
Literacy Focus Numeracy ICT Focus
Focus Differentiation
Reading, writing, Dating, Access to Classes with students having
organising, periodization laptops/devices little experience referencing (a
comprehension and scientific for research, staple of the schools history
of written and discussion google assessments since year 7) will
visual sources, classroom spend an extra half lesson on
analysing document referencing to practice.
language access, use of Simplistic and extended sources
clips and video, and materials for analysis to suit
powerpoint students with low literacy
presentations comprehension and gifted
students
Inquiry and Collaborative
models used to allow students to
move at own pace and assist one
another

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Week/ Syllabus Content Teaching and Resources


Sequence Learning
Strategies
including
assessment
for learning.
1 Methods of *Introduction NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA). (2005). Support material
investigating the presentation for: Ancient history. NSW State Government. Retrieved from
historical past including a https://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/
roles of history simplified syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/ancient_history_support.pdf
and archaeology timeline of the
in investigating big picture Introduction to Ancient History PPT
the past; from
complementary prehistory to Antiquity 1; Unlocking the Past; Experience Archaeology
nature of both present with
disciplines major periods Source Sheets and Questions
the unique outlined
methodologies Student Laptops/devices
of the historian *Discussion
and drawing on Virtual archaeological dig site
archaeologist; students prior (http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/sgc-cms/expositions-
the contribution understanding exhibitions/esprits-spirits/English/Dig/digdown.html)
of written and of basic
material remains differences
in providing between
evidence of the history and
past archaeology,
what are they
and what do
they use

Comparison of
physical and
written sources

Individually
exploring a
virtual
archaeological
dig site

Group task
splitting
students into
historian and
archaeologist
group.
Students have
to research
using given
sources and
sources of their
own finding to
argue which

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

profession is
more
important to
providing
evidence of the
past
2 The nature of Discussion of Student Laptops/devices
sources and what kind of
evidence materials can A Day in the Life of the Arhceological Dig at James Fort
archaeological provide (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhIa7OJ8sN4)
and written information
sources; how about the past Antiquity 1, Ch 2, The Preservation and Destruction of Evidence
evidence is lost, (both physical
preserved and and written). *Renfrew and Bahn, Archaeology, The Politics of
rediscovered Destruction 1 and 2, pp 511, 513.
the nature of Teacher
evidence exposition of
provided by different
written and uncovering
archaeological methods of
sources, physical
complementary materials
and supplemented
contradictory with youtube
clip

Jigsaw research
task where
students
research main
excavation
methods
(surveys,
gridding,
remote
sensing,
recording in
situ)

Discussion and
source reading
of why
materials need
preservation
once
uncovered and
how human
action might
destroy or
accidently
preserve
evidence using
textbook
Renfrew source

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

3 asking questions Handout of Assessment task sheet


of archaeological assessment
and written task and On board as scaffolding for source analysis:
sources discussion of Australia has promised Britain 50,000
determining the its features (http://www.ww1propaganda.com/sites/default/files/3g12172u-
reliability of 1409.jpg?1310607733)
archaeological Discussion of Come Lad, Slip Across and Help
and written what sources (http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2014/02/27/article-2569145-
sources can tell us 1BDFD9E600000578-841_964x770.jpg)
historiographical about the past
issues raised by and their Source sheet containing:
archaeological reliability and Cassius Dio, Epitome of Book LXXVII: 12,1-3
and written bias, starting Chigi Vase (http://www.angelfire.com/hi5/interactive_learning/
sources with a class Greek_Warfare/hoplitesvase.gif)
analysis of 2 Polybius, The Histories Book IX: 22, 7 to 23, 9
images then a Relievo from Forum Nervae in Rome
paired source (http://www.elizabethancostume.net/cibas/ciba9/ciba915.jpg)
analysis using
ADAMANT
structure ADAMANT Source Scaffold [VUWS, Week 5 Learning Materials]

* Students form Antiquity 1, Ch 1, The Nature of Evidence; Unlocking the Past, Ch


small groups to 1.
explore and
discuss a range Antiquity 1, Ch 5, Problems of Evidence; Experience Archaeology,
of issues Ch 1
relating to
reliability of Student Laptops/devices
source, eg
absence of
sources, gaps
in sources,
distinguishing
fact and
opinion, bias,
etc (NESA,
2005) using
textbooks and
researched
sources
4 Reconstructing the [Pre-Lesson] AnimegirlUK. (2010, September 21). King Richard III (1452-1485): Pt
past: the role of Students learn 1/3 [Video File]. Retrieved from
sources and referencing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZTRA8i1-7k
evidence and citation
reconstructing through Valentinejay. (2009, April 10). The trial of king Richard the third:
the past using explicit Introduction [Video File]. Retrieved from
archaeological instruction and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-
and written then apply it to kQoKt2Kf4&index=6&list=PLUnQFuLDlDXs4qCfL0MmQkvgLVKFp9WvG
sources; analysis research task.
of sources for Students Richard III Archaeological dig
use as evidence; individually (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wR1IjOVWI7Y&t=51s)
recognising the analysis and
provisional critique a Kennedy, M. & Foxhall, L. (2015). The bones of a king. Sussex,
perspective of

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

nature of the King Richard III England: John Wiley & Sons.
evidence then form
testing groups to
hypotheses describe his life
using types of and either
sources; persecute or
complementary defend him in a
and mock trial
contradictory against his
evidence; accused
determining murder of his
authenticity, nephews.
reliability and Students
usefulness of present
sources speeches for
mock trial and
different comment on
interpretations research
of the past process
influence of
different
perspectives on Students
interpretations further explore
of the past Richard III
through
watching an
introductory
video on the
finding of his
supposed
remains then
further
researching the
findings,
beginning at
The Bones of a
King Chapter 4
Excerpts.
5 forensic Students Gottfried, Ted. Deniers of the Holocaust: Who They Are, What They
techniques used explore the Do, Why They Do It. Brookfield, CT: Twenty-First Century Books,
to bring together authenticity 2001.
a coherent and reliability
picture of a of sources Carbon Dating Powerpoint
person, group, through an
event and site; analysis of How Does Radiocarbon Dating Work? - Instant Egghead #28
problems of holocaust (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phZeE7Att_s)
authenticity denial sources
fakes and Ancient Egypt's Pharaohs Dated Using Plants: Discovery News
forgeries Students learn (http://www.seeker.com/ancient-egypts-pharaohs-dated-using-
history of about plants-discovery-news-1766492477.html)
archaeology Radiocarbon
changing dating through
purposes, teacher
instruction and

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

excavations and powerpoint


recording
techniques Students
investigate the
use of carbon
dating by first
watching a
youtube clip
(Instant
Egghead #28)
detailing the
process and
then
researching a
major use of
the technique
(such as Plant
material in
Valley of Kings)
6 archaeological Students Higgins, James (2005). Lima: a cultural history. Oxford: Oxford
conservation discuss the University Press.
and preservation possible
preservation natural causes Abu Simbel: The campaign that revolutionized the international
techniques, the that could approach to safeguarding heritage
role of science damage or (http://en.unesco.org/70years/abu_simbel_safeguarding_heritage)
and disputation destroy
over archaeological Abu Simbel Temples: Relocation due to Aswan Dam
reconstruction sources during (http://anthropology.msu.edu/anp363-ss13/2013/02/06/abu-
of historic sites digging then simbel-temples-relocation-due-to-aswan-dam/)
problems split into
associated with groups to
reconstructing investigate one
the past through of the following
archaeological preservation
evidence techniques:
ancient customs Restoration,
and religious reconstruction,
beliefs relocation.
significance of
selectivity, * What is
emphasis and salvage
omission for the archaeology? eg
interpretation of the UNESCO
the past project to save
the temples of
Abu Simbel.
(NESA, 2005)
7 Cont. Students Debating Reconstruction: Was it a Failure or a Success
investigates the (http://eschool2.bsd7.org/pluginfile.php/15568/
debates around mod_resource/content/1/Debating%20Reconstruction.pdf)
reconstruction
by looking at John Keegan, The Face of Battle. A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo and
the case the Somme, London 1976
studies of

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Huaca Pucllana Romantic Era Composers: Beethoven, Schubert, Chopin,


and American Tchaikovsky & More
Civil War (http://study.com/academy/lesson/romantic-era-composers-
Reconstruction, beethoven-schubert-chopin-tchaikovsky-more.html)
detailing the
arguments for Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found
an against (http://www.leonarda.com/composers/comp353b.html)

Teacher details
The Face of
Battle
reconstruction
method which
uses both
archaeological
and historical
evidence to
construct an
insight into
what warfare
was like for the
common
solider.
Students
discuss the
viability of
applying this
method to
ancient sources
such as Greek
or Roman
warfare

Students
investigate the
significance of
emphasis and
omissions by
comparing
sources
discussing
prominent
Romantic
Music
composers
(Omission and
inclusion of
female
composers).
Students
discuss what
elements of
history are
frequently

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

forgotten and
which are
highlighted
8 Current concerns *Students * Ethics and Aboriginal archaeology pp 96106
relating to the examine the
ethics of the concept of Mungo Lady and Mungo Man
discipline ethics through (http://www.visitmungo.com.au/who-was-mungo-man)
Who owns the discussing the
past? Who meaning of * Antiquity 1, Ch 6 Heritage Issues, Ch 7 Lake Mungo, pp 7374
should ethics against
administer the morals and Arguments for & against the return of the Elgin Marbles
past? Who using examples (http://www.elginism.com/elgin-marbles/arguments-for-against-the-
presents the from their return-of-the-elgin-marbles/20090214/1733/)
past? personal
human remains context The Parthenon Sculptures
ethical issues (http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/news_and_press/
involved in their Students statements/parthenon_sculptures.aspx)
analysis and explore
uses different Bonnie Greer on the Parthenon sculptures at the British Museum
cultural perspectives on (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CstmE8dmeEg)
property ethics and
ownership and ethical issues
custodianship in relation to
Mungo Man

Students
discuss and
evaluate who
owns and has
right to present
the past
through
discussions of
omissions and
cultural
property

Students
investigate
debates over
Parthenon
Marble and
split into
halves of
classroom (for
and against the
return of the
marbles) to
prepare and
present a
formal debate
9 The role of science [Post-Lesson] Student marking and feedback sheet
in unlocking the Student receive Marked and annotated student assessment

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

past: contributions back their Unmarked copy of student assessment


of science and assessments
other disciplines to and feedback
the analysis and
reconstruction of Student discuss
the past and teach peers
biology; their chosen
medicine method,
physics; research styles
geography and helpful
geology; skills they
chemistry learnt through
computer the assessment
science; that may assist
mathematics each other in
sociology; future research
anthropology task (if
cartography; students are
epigraphy comfortable
numismatics; with this, they
vulcanology may use a copy
papyrology; of their
dating of assessment
evidence with no
annotations or
marks on it as
references and
possibly
receive peer
feedback).

Students chose
one of the
disciplines to
study in depth
and connect to
history and/or
archaeology
through
research,
writing a short
essay on the
connections
and one major
finding that
highlights the
use of this
other discipline
10 Cont. Revision of
previous topics
and discussion
of up coming
case studies

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

and case
studies test

Discussion of
Historical
Investigation
due in term 3
Assessment Details Assessment Outcomes
Archaeological Method Feature P2.1 identify historical factors and explain their significance in contributing to
Article
change and continuity in the ancient world
Information to be distributed
week 3 P3.1 locate, select and organise relevant information from a variety of sources
Assignment due end of week 6
P3.3 comprehend sources and analyse them for their usefulness and reliability
Submitted online in teacher
dropbox P3.6 plan and present the findings of historical investigations analysing and
synthesising information from a range of sources.
[For more information, see
Assessment Information Sheet
Above]

Evaluation of the Learning and Indicators of Learning


Teaching
Teaching and learning will be Students learn to:
assessed and evaluated through comprehend and analyse a range of written and archaeological sources in
accumulated materials submitted reconstructing the past
to google classrooms describe and assess different methods used by historians, archaeologists and
Teacher observations and other
discussions with students specialists to understand the contributions of key people, groups, events,
And the formal assessment task institutions, societies, written sources and sites of the past
ask appropriate historical questions and test hypotheses about the nature of the
sources, their reliability and usefulness and the problems posed by sources in
reconstructing the past
use historical terms and concepts in appropriate historical contexts
discuss issues relating to ownership and custodianship of the past
discuss the ethical issues related to the excavation, presentation and
reconstruction of historical sites, human remains and cultural property
evaluate differing perspectives and interpretations of the past
describe and explain the contributions of science and other disciplines to the
dating of evidence and the provision of information about the past
describe and discuss the changing nature and uses of archaeology and related
disciplines
present the findings of historical investigations, and analyse and synthesise
information from a range of sources.
* marked items adapted from prescriptions document

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Pre-Lesson
Topic area: Stage of Learner: Year 11 Syllabus Pages:
Investigating the Past (Preliminary) pp. 16-18
Date: Location Booked: Classroom Lesson Number: 10/30
n/a
Time: 60 minutes Total Number of students Printing/preparation
20 Video Worksheet (online)

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


P3.1 Student group work on different comprehend and analyse a
P3.3 Richard III in google interpretations of the range of written and
P3.4 classroom past archaeological sources in
Class observations and influence of different reconstructing the past
discussions perspectives on ask appropriate historical
interpretations of the questions and test
past hypotheses about the
nature of the sources, their
reliability and usefulness
and the problems posed by
sources in reconstructing
the past
evaluate differing
perspectives and
interpretations of the past
CCP & GCs Subject specific concepts:
Change and Continuity Source Perspective, reliability and usefulness
Historical Inquiry Changing Perspectives
Communicating and Discipline specific skills:
Understanding Research and presentation of findings
Referencing
Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas
Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking
This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
substantive concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something 1.3 Problematic 1.6 Substantive
that requires active construction and requires students to engage in higher-order knowledge communication
thinking and to communicate substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students self regulation
productively in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
explicit expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students
and among students.
Significance 3.1 Background 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
students. Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students prior knowledge and 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.6 Narrative
identities, with contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all 3.3 Knowledge
cultural perspective. integration

How the quality teaching elements you have identified are achieved within
the lesson.

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
1.2 Students are required to use their research and inquiry to produce both comprehensive and
creative pieces of writing whilst incorporating their understanding of referencing and
citation, displaying a profound understanding of their chosen research and research skills
2.1 Each task is provided with explicit criteria for what the teacher is looking for from the
students products (Richard Research Tasks) as well as what students should be focusing on
(video source analysis)
3.1 Lesson builds off prior learning in previous lessons as well as gives students an opportunity
to describe different elements (referencing) from their background knowledge. Trial task
builds of prior understanding of court settings and the speeches therein
Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred
T/S
0-5 References Teacher: Taking roll and facilitating discussion T
Have students type the following into an empty
word doc whilst you take the roll, having it written Student: At desks on laptops, discussing
on the board prior to their entry:
Online Reference: Resources: Student Laptops/devices
Surname, First initial. (year). Title of document,
image or video. Retrieved from URL

Written Reference:
Surname, First initial. (year). Title of document or
book. Place published: Publisher.

Ask students how confident they feel about writing


bibliographies such as the one required for the
upcoming assignment due end of week 6? If any
students have already started, allow them to discuss
any difficulties with getting information for
references across different sources.
5-10 Inform students that for today they are going to be Teacher: At board, facilitating exercise T
incorporating referencing and in-text citations into
the activities to given them a chance to practice the Student: At desks, directing teaching in
skill that theyll not only require for this assignment constructing reference
and future assignments but a skill central to the
historical practice. Resources: BBC Monarchy Documentary: King
To begin, pull up the BBC Monarchy Documentary: Richard III pt 1
King Richard III pt 1 video on Youtube but dont play (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZTRA8i1-
it just yet. Directing students attention to the online 7k)
reference scaffold, ask students to construct the
reference as a group, going through each
component individually. [See reference in lesson
resources for what the end result should look like]
10-20 The life of King Richard III Teacher: Operating classroom computer for S
Have students access their Google Classroom in the video play
class folder to pull up the video worksheet
containing the following questions: Student: Watching video, working on worksheet
What image of King Richard III does the
documentary present? Is this image Resources: Video Worksheet (online)
positive?
What differing perspectives of Richard BBC Monarchy Documentary: King Richard III pt
does the video present? 1
Is this historical account reliable? Why? (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZTRA8i1-
What is the overall history presented of 7k)
Richard III?
Show the students the King Richard III BBC

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Monarchy Documentary, having them jotting down


notes answering the questions. Discuss these
questions with the class once the clip has finished,
mentioning that this is part one of the 30min BBC
episode on Richard III.
20-30 Students are now to make groups of 5 (joining Teacher: Moving about room, checking on S
desks) in order to investigate the life of King Richard student progress and keeping students on task
III under the question, what was the life of King
Richard III using their laptops/devices for research Student: Working in groups on activity,
and making a joint google document within google researching on laptops
classroom so they may edit and create the
document together. Once they have collected at Resources: Student laptops/devices
least 2 resources the group deems reliable, groups Google classroom
are to write a short two paragraph answer to the
question. Beneath their paragraph, they are to
include references for any sources used in the school
referencing style.
30-35 In-Text Citations Teacher: Instructing from the front T
Place the following on the board:
Richard drowned George, Duke of Clarence in a vat Student: Listening in groups
of wine (AnimegirlUK, 2010).
Ask students is this a quote or is this a paraphrase? Resources: N/A
Ask them what quotes and paraphrases are and
whats the difference, offering an answer if no
student can answer. Inform students that for the
next activity, as well as their assignment, theyre
going to be using in-text citation like this to display
where they got their information.
Give students the scaffolds below, and a description
of how to use in-text citations, using the above
citation as an example
Paraphrase:
(Surname, year)

Quote:
(Surname, year, page or time stamp)
35-60 The Trial of King Richard III Teacher: Moving about room, checking on S
Play the first three minutes of The Trial Of King student progress and keeping students on task,
Richard The Third - Introduction youtube clip to making observations about students
preface this activity. confidence in task
King Richard III is on trial after his death for the
crimes of murdering his two nephews, Prince Student: Working cooperatively in class,
Edward, Prince of Wales, and Prince Richard, Duke potentially reciting their speech
of York. Student groups are to pick a side as either
the prosecutor or defence for Richard then construct Resources: The Trial of King Richard the Third
a 3-4 minute speech to present to the class. Ask Introduction youtube clip
students which side they want to take at first and if (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-
the sides are uneven (there are 4 groups of 5 if all kQoKt2Kf4&index=6&list=PLUn
students are present), then reassign groups evenly. QFuLDlDXs4qCfL0MmQkvgLVKFp9WvG)
The following are the criteria to be displayed for the
task:
1. Use the same google doc used for your
description of Richard IIIs life
2. Make sure that the names of each group member
(including surnames) are written at the top of the
document
3. You must title your speech as either Richard
Defence or Richard Persecution
4. Your speech must use at least 3 sources to argue
its point including in-text citation and a reference list
5. Your speech must be 3-4min in length
6. You must pick a speaker out of your group to
present the speech next lesson and a speaker to

18
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

display how to you gained your evidence including


what you searched for and what you were looking
for in evidence
HW Students are to finalise their speeches for the next N/A N/A
lesson in preparation for presenting them. The
teacher will use their access to the google doc
through google classroom to give feedback on
students references and citations.

Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this
lesson?

At first, I found it difficult to incorporate a learning activity that replicated a historical


investigation without infringing on the case studies like Tutankhamen, as well as
incorporating referencing as a tool for building assessment-related skills. Eventually I
found a related topic and decided to incorporate mini reference lessons into the
overall lesson that represented more teacher-based instruction than I generally
apply to my lessons.
This lesson also relies heavily on ICT and wouldnt be suited to a classroom with little
to no ICT access for the day. It would suit to have a back-up lesson ready in case of
technology not functioning properly (eg, wifi is down).

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


P3.1 Observation of students research process during group
work, trial task
P3.3 Online Video Worksheet, discussions on answers to said
sheet
P3.4 Trial task

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply
with the standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
1.2 Collaborative and Inquiry based learning is representing in research as the
most effective form of history teaching (see justification) and is prolific
throughout this lesson.
1.5 Student work is largely self driven in terms of researching tasks with
collaborative work allowing more gifted students to assist struggling
students, explicit quality criteria allows students to easily follow the steps
of the task regardless of ability, referencing and citations receive a guided

19
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

modelling before being applied to task.


2.1 Lesson is centred around historical inquiry and researching historical
perspectives
2.2 Each increase of criteria for the level of referencing required is prefaced
with an explicit example and modelling of how to achieve that criteria
2.3 Lesson is used explicitly to teach the skills required for the upcoming
assessment and facilitates the creation of a work for early feedback on that
skill
2.6 ICT is prolific throughout this lesson with google classroom and youtube
videos

WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated
in this lesson? Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS
policy- Outline the key WHS considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?
Risk of tripping or hurting self whilst arranging furniture Students are to move their bags at
the front of the class prior to moving anything. When moving furniture the teacher should
tell students to only move one item at a time and take notice of those around them to
reduce likelihood of injury.

References (In APA)

AnimegirlUK. (2010, September 21). King Richard III (1452-1485): Pt 1/3 [Video File].
Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZTRA8i1-7k

Valentinejay. (2009, April 10). The trial of king Richard the third: Introduction [Video
File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-
kQoKt2Kf4&index=6&list=PLUnQFuLDlDXs4qCfL0MmQkvgLVKFp9WvG

Resources Attached:
Video Worksheet (online)
Whilst watching the video, make notes about the following points:
What image of King Richard III does the documentary present? Is this image
positive?

What differing perspectives of Richard does the video present?

Is this historical account reliable? Why?

What is the overall history presented of Richard III?

20
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Post-Lesson
Topic area: Stage of Learner: Year 11 Syllabus Pages:
Investigating the Past (Preliminary) pp. 16-18
Date: Location Booked: Classroom Lesson Number: 25/30
n/a
Time: 60 minutes Total Number of students Printing/preparation
20 Student marking and feedback sheet,
marked and annotated student
assessment, unmarked copy of student
assessment, lists and criteria ready for
projection

Outcomes Assessment Students learn about Students learn to


P3.3 Observations contributions of describe and explain the
contributions of science
P3.6 Discussions science and other and other disciplines to the
disciplines to the dating of evidence and the
analysis and provision of information
about the past
reconstruction of the describe and discuss the
past changing nature and uses
of archaeology and related
disciplines
present the findings of
historical investigations,
and analyse and synthesise
information from a range
of sources.
CCP & GCs Subject specific concepts
Historical Inquiry Research, evidence
Communicating an
Understanding Discipline specific skills
Value of Ancient History for Connections to broader world
personal growth and lifelong Peer Learning
learning

Quality Teaching Elements (lesson focus) Highlight the appropriate areas

21
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Intellectual Quality 1.1 Deep knowledge 1.4 Higher-order thinking


This refers to pedagogy focused on producing deep understanding of important, 1.2 Deep understanding 1.5 Metalanguage
substantive concepts, skills and ideas. Such pedagogy treats knowledge as something 1.3 Problematic 1.6 Substantive
that requires active construction and requires students to engage in higher-order knowledge communication
thinking and to communicate substantively about what they are learning.
Quality Learning Environment 2.1 Explicit quality criteria 2.4 Social Support
This refers to pedagogy that creates classrooms where students and teachers work 2.2 Engagement 2.5 Students self regulation
productively in an environment clearly focused on learning. Such pedagogy sets high and 2.3 High Expectations 2.6 Student direction
explicit expectations and develops positive relationships between teacher and students
and among students.
Significance 3.1 Background 3.4 Inclusivity
This refers to pedagogy that helps make learning more meaningful and important to knowledge 3.5 Connectedness
students. Such pedagogy draws clear connections with students prior knowledge and 3.2 Cultural knowledge 3.6 Narrative
identities, with contexts outside of the classroom, and with multiple ways of knowing all 3.3 Knowledge
cultural perspective. integration

How the quality teaching elements you have identified are achieved within
the lesson.

Teaching Indicators of presence in the lesson


element
1.6 Students communication substantially about their work and the processes used to construct
them and then discuss this with peers
2.4 Peers offer feedback to one another on assessments and research strategies, students aid in
each others learning through discussion of projects
3.1 Students utilise their background knowledge of other disciplines and the unit so far to draw
connections

Time Teaching and learning actions Organisation Centred


T/S
Prior Students in the lesson prior were informed that theyd be n/a n/a
to receiving their marks and feedback in this lesson. They were
this also asked individually if they were comfortable having an
lesson unmarked copy of their feature article used as material for
the following lesson along with everyone elses articles,
possibly receiving peer feedback. This lesson plan is based on
all (or at least most) students agreeing to having their work
used as material for the lesson.
0-10 Return of Assessments and Feedback Teacher: Addressing student questions, T
When students enter, they are to leave their bags at the handing out assessments
front for now and take a seat. Hand out student assignments
and marking sheets, urging students to look over the marks Student: at desks
on the page as they offer suggestions for improvement in
specified areas and to read through the feedback, which Resources: Student marking and
discusses strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for feedback sheet, marked and annotated
improvement which will be invaluable to them for the student assessment, unmarked copy of
Historical Investigation assessment. Allow student time to do student assessment
such as well as ask questions either publically or privately.
Whilst students are going through their work, hand them a
copy of their assignment (unmarked) and tell them to hang
onto it for the following activity.
10-15 Reorganisation of Room for Group Activity Teacher: Instructing the rearranging of T
Getting students settled again into the lesson ask students to the room
put their hands up if they did certain methods for their
assignment (such as stratigraphy or TL dating). For each Student: In groups of 5-4

22
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

method, count students 1 to 4. Instruct each number 1


through 4 to go to a particular corner of the room and
rearrange the seats and tables for group work. Once the
room is arranged for group work, students can retrieve their
bags from the front one group at a time then settle in with
pens and workbooks ready.
20-45 Peer Discussion and Assessment Teacher: Moving about room, joining S
Present the following on the smartboard as explicit criteria in on discussions and otherwise listing
for the task:
1. pick one person to present first and then move from Student: In groups either as presenter
person to person in a clockwise fashion or listener/reader (of student article)
2. Describe to the group your chosen archaeological
method without reading your article word for word Resources: Smartboard with projected
3. During your description, detail how you sort out criteria
significant points of information, describing your
research method and how you analysed sources for
usefulness and took relevant information/quotes
4. You each have two copies of your assignment, one
marked and one unmarked. Give your unmarked
feature article to your group as a reference for your
description
5. Allow group members to offer remarks and discuss the
points you put forward. As a listener to the present, be
respectful of their work and process and offer
constructive and respectful feedback that discusses
strengths and possible places for improvement (peer
assessment)
45-50 Sharing Meta-Cognitive Discoveries Teacher: In the middle of the four S
Bring students attention back to the front and open a groups facilitating discussion
discussion of what they learnt through hearing about their
peers works, how they constructed them, reading over them Student: In groups, discussing as a
and receiving/giving feedback. Did anything interesting come class
up in discussing the different types of archaeological
techniques? Are there any researching strategies you picked
up from someone that youll use in future research tasks?
50-60 Connecting History to Other Disciplines Teacher: In the middle of the four S
Project the list of different sciences and disciplines that groups facilitating discussion
contribute to analysis and reconstruction in history and
archaeology. Discuss with students how these fields Student: In groups, discussing as a
contribute to their chosen techniques then expand class
discussion to previous activities across the unit (eg, Mungo
Man, Richard III, Faces of War civil war reconstructions, Resources: List of sciences and other
plants in Valley of the Kings, etc) as well as any disciplines taken from syllabus (p. 18)
historical/archaeological discoveries or reconstructions they
know of.
At the end of the lesson, have students return the room to
normal and instruct students that the connections between
these fields and history will be the focus of the next lesson.

Reflection
What have I learned about the teaching and learning process when preparing this
lesson?

Half way through designing the unit I realised that some students may be
uncomfortable with having their work viewed, particularly after receiving marks. I
added the attainment of permission to a theoretical previous lesson to compensate

How am I measuring the outcomes of this lesson?

23
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Learning Outcome Method of measurement and recording


P3.3 Students discuss how they found and then evaluated the
usefulness and reliability of their sources for use in their
assessment
P3.6 Students recount their description of an archaeological
technique and related findings and methods, seeking to
present their information in a more conversational manner
than their article

Other considerations

Complete the table blow by inserting the AISTL graduate standards that you are
demonstrating and indicates the evidence from this lesson that should comply
with the standard.

Graduate Evidence within this lesson


Standards
1.2 Feedback and peer assessment are used to have students meta-cognitively
analyse their research processes
3.5 The teacher in the lesson organised a personalised activity and then, whilst
moving about the room and randomly sitting in on groups, largely non-
verbally directs students to the task and will use verbal means to extend
discussions
4.2 The primary peer task is clearly organised with explicit criteria
5.2 Feedback is given to students on the students assessments by the teacher
and then the teacher facilitates an activity for peers to also provide
feedback

WHS
What are the key risk issues that may appear for and need to be reduced/eliminated
in this lesson? Using your syllabus and support documents as well as other WHS
policy- Outline the key WHS considerations that are to be applied in this lesson?
Risk of tripping or hurting self whilst arranging furniture Students are to move their bags at
the front of the class prior to moving anything. When moving furniture the teacher should
tell students to only move one item at a time and take notice of those around them to
reduce likelihood of injury.

Harm from particularly aggressive criticism students must be respectful and purposeful in
their feedback to peers

References (In APA)


NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA). (2010). Ancient history: Stage 6 syllabus.
NSW State Government. Retrieved from
https://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/ancient-history-st6-
syl-from2010.pdf

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Justification

The two lesson plans above, located separately within the first unit of the
preliminary course, were designed to effectively compliment the assessment at
the beginning of this document and also support student learning and
development in the course alongside the unit as a whole. In terms of assessment
and the related pre- and post-lesson, the primary pedagogy utilised was
Assessment for Learning (AfL) and designed closely around developing skills
then analysing the meta-cognitive processes involved in those skills. The unit as
a whole (and the pre-lesson as well) is centred around the Inquire-Based
Learning (IBL) model to engage students and build autonomy within their
studies but the unit and both lesson also pull strongly from Collaborative
Learning (CL) to provide a positive learning environment and allow students to
support one another in their learning and elevate content problems in a class
that contains both gifted and low literacy students.

In discussing assessment there are two primary purposes for assessment:


Assessment for Learning (AfL) and Assessment of Learning (AoL) with each
championing formative and summative assessment forms respectively, although
occasionally making use of both (Swaffield, 2011). This said, in regards to this
document, the assessments used are overwhelmingly AfL and formative. Simply
put, AfL is the practice of utilizing assessments as tools for learning or to inform
learning and usually entails the use of formative assessments, which base
themselves in a new concept or topic the student has to learn in order to
complete the task (Baas et al, 2015). Learning is central to this process and
according to Swaffield (2011) offers particular opportunities for students to
develop new and more substantial understandings within their particular
discipline, particularly if they have reasonable support from the teacher (p. 435).
Whilst this applies closely to formal assessment at the top of this document, it
also applies to the informal assessments and task filtered throughout the unit.
For instance, in the pre-lesson the students construct an argument to a mock
trial of Richard III, an otherwise unmentioned historical person, and have to
research his life and differing perspectives of his personality to argue for against

25
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

his guilt as well as apply new referencing skills. Activities such as this are
generally uploaded to google classroom by students and this provides data that
is helpful for teachers to see how particular students learn and then differentiate
activities to best suit each student and improve their learning (Baas et al, 2015),
using the assessment for the programing of learning as well as opportunities for
feedback.
It is in feedback where this unit particularly represents AfL and this is exemplary
in the post-lesson. The primary tools a teacher can use in either formative or
summative assessment to have students interrogate their metacognitive
processes and how they structure their thoughts, are constructive feedback and
reflection. According to Baas et al (2015) good AfL feedback should [identify]
strengths and [make] suggestions for improvements (p. 440) and this is a clear
criteria for both the teacher and peer feedback. Further, students are asked to
reflect on their research methods and how they analyzed and accrued sources
whilst gaining insight into how others did this themselves. This assures the
feedback is not passively received (Baas et al, 2015, p. 440) but rather used as
an entry point into a metacognitive analysis of how the student came to their
answer and how to best apply their cognitive energies to a task (Swaffield, 2011;
Trimmers & Veldkamp, 2011), encouraging reflexivity (Calder, 2015) and self-
regulation (Trauth-Nare & Buck, 2011). In so, through Assessment for Learning
is used throughout this unit and its assessment to be a vehicle for learning,
improve student achievement, reflexivity and self-regulation.

Love et al. (2015) loosely defines Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) as a method of


teaching that engages students in sense-making activities. Rather than showing
facts or a clear, smooth path to a solution, the instructor guides students via
well-crafted problems through an adventure in concept discovery and
application (Love et al, 2015, 746), meaning that students largely construct the
meaning themselves while the teacher merely facilitates questions to aid in
sense-making. This is prolific throughout the unit but most distinct in the Pre-
Lessons research tasks. Students are given criteria for their inquiry but how
they go about finding information and presenting it is entirely up to them,
making the student central to meaning making (Maab & Artigue, 2013) and

26
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

stimulating higher-order thinking in critically evaluating each source they


discover (Madhuri, Kantamreddi & Goteti, 2012).
This task is also indicative of the last theoretical teaching framework that is
championed throughout the unit; Collaborative Learning (CL). CL is broadly
described as involving collecting students into groups to problem-solve, achieve
tasks, create and/or discuss concepts/content (Tilwaldi et al, 2012). Considered
an essential teaching strategy to apply to the classroom (Gershon, 2014), CL has
also been heavily researched although regularly misused according to
Papanikolaou and Gouli (2013). They propose that collaborative activities should
not be used thoughtlessly but rather in ways that promote peer-peer teaching,
problem solving, and allows all students to participate (2013). In terms of
problem solving and participation, the trial task requires students to approach a
problem together, taking roles for function but also to provide support for one
another in their learning, particularly if some students are gifted and others are
challenged in some way such as low literacy (Ross, 2015). Peer-peer teaching is
most represented through the Post-Lessons group task, where students teach
one another about their archaeological technique, as well as their particular
research method; and Ross (2015) argues that teaches both social responsibility
and engages them more closely in the content. In so, IBL and CL are used
throughout the unit and its assessments to promote a positive and supporting
collaborative environment, self-regulation, criticality and social responsibility.

This unit uses IBL to promote autonomous learners through replicating the
processes of real historians and at the same time incorporates CL to allow
students to supplement and support one another in their learning. Further, AfL is
spread throughout the unit in both formal and informal assessments that
promote self-regulation and, through feedback and metacognitive reflection,
create reflexive learners. In so, the classroom designed by this unit is supportive,
self-sustained and consistently re-designing itself.

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

References

Baas, D., Castelijns, J., Vermeulen, M., Martens, R., & Segers, M. (2011). The
relation between Assessment for Learning and elementary students
cognitive and metacognitive strategy use. British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 85(1), 33-46.
Calder, N. (2015). Student wonderings: Scaffolding student understanding within
student-centred inquiry learning. ZMD Mathematics Education, 47(7),
1121-1131.
Gershon, M. (2014). Teach Now! History: Becoming a great history teacher. New
York, NY: Routledge.
Love, B., et al. (2015). Inquiry-based learning and the flipped classroom model.
PRIMUS, 25(8), 745-762.
Maab, K. & Artigue, M. (2013). Implementation of inquiry-based learning in day-
to-day teaching: A synthesis. ZDM Mathematics Educations, 45(6), 779-
795.
Madhuri, G., Kantamreddi, V. & Goteti, L. (2012). Promoting higher order
thinking skills using inquiry-based learning. European Journal of
Engineering Education, 37(2), 117-123.
Papanikolaou, K., & Gouli, E. (2013). Investigating influences among individuals
and groups in a collaborative learning setting. International Journal of e-
Collaboration, 9(1), 9-25.
Ross, M. (2015). Leveraging change by learning to work with the wisdom in the
room: Educating for responsibility as a collaborative learning model.
Journal of Business Ethics, 131(3), 511-518.
Swaffield, S. (2011). Getting to the heart of authentic assessment for learning.
Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 18(4), 433-449. doi:
10.1080/0969594X.2011.582838
Tilwaldi, D., et al. (2012). A method for cooperation support between discussion
space and activity space in collaborative learning and its experimental
evaluation. Electronics and Communication, 95(2), 744-754.

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Trauth-Nare, A., & Buck, G. (2011). Assessment for learning: Using formative
assessment in problem- and project-based learning. The Science Teacher,
78(1), 34-39.
Trimmers, C., & Veldkamp, B. (2011). Attention paid to feedback provided by a
computer-based assessment for learning on information literacy.
Computers and Education, 56(3), 923-930.

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Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Appendix A Scope and Sequence

Course Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4


Preliminary Topic: Topic: Topic: Students start
Investigating Case Studies: Ancient the HSC
the Past: (i) Societies, Sites course in this
History, Tutankhamuns and Sources: term.
Archaeology Tomb Greek society
and Science (ii) Homer and in the Archaic
the Trojan War Period
Syllabus
outcomes: Syllabus Syllabus
P1.1, P2.1, outcomes: outcomes:
P3.1, P3.2, P1.1, P2.1, P3.1, P1.1, P2.1,
P3.3, P3.4, P3.2, P3.3, P3.4, P3.1, P3.2,
P3.5, P3.6 P3.5, P3.6 P3.3, P3.4,
P3.5, P3.6
Duration in Duration in
weeks weeks: Duration in
10 (i) 6 weeks:
(ii) 4 10

Course Term 4 (year Term 1 Term 2 Term 3


11)
HSC Topic: Topic: Topic: Topic:
Ancient Historical Personalities Core Study:
Societies: Periods: Greece: in Their Times: Cities of
Spartan Fourth-century Alexander the Vesuvius
society to the Greece to the Great Pompeii and
Battle of death of Philip II Herculaneum
Leuctra 371 BC of Macedon Syllabus
outcomes: Syllabus
Syllabus Syllabus H 1.1, H2.1, outcomes:
outcomes: outcomes: H3.1, H3.2, H 1.1, H2.1,
H 1.1, H2.1, H 1.1, H2.1, H3.1, H3.3, H3.4, H3.1, H3.2,
H3.1, H3.2, H3.2, H3.3, H3.4, H3.5, H3.6, H3.3, H3.4,
H3.3, H3.4, H3.5, H3.6, H4.1, H4.1, H4.2 H3.5, H3.6,
H3.5, H3.6, H4.2 H4.1, H4.2
H4.1, H4.2 Duration in
Duration in weeks: Duration in
Duration in weeks: 10 weeks:
weeks: 10 10
10

30
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Appendix B Concept Map

31
Daniel Colley 17660772 Secondary Curriculum 2 Ancient History

Appendix C Assessment Schedule

Assessment Assessment Assessment Assessment


Task 1: Task 2: Task 3: Task 4:
Archaeological Source Historical Examination
Methods Analysis Test Investigation
Feature Article Essay &
Presentation
Areas of Research 20 Source Research & Examination/Test
Assessment Analysis 15 Analysis 25 Items 30
Oral 10
Appropriate Term 1, Week Term 2, Week Term 3, Term 3, Week 9
Date 6 7 Week 2
Outcomes of P2.1, P3.1, P1.1, P3.1, P1.1, P2.1, P1.1, P2.1, P3.2,
Assessment P3.2, P3.3, P3.1, P3.3, P3.4, P3.5.
P3.3, P3.6
P3.5 P3.4, P3.6

Topic Focus Archaeological Tutankhamens Students Homer and the


methods and Tomb choice Trojan War
strategies
Greek society in
the Archaic
Period
Syllabus Introduction I: Introduction I: Part III: Part I case
Components Investigating Case Studies Historical studies & II
the Past: Investigation (emphasis on
History, part II)
Archaeology
and Science
Weighting 20 15 35 30

32