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Standard EN 50464-1

European standardisation
for transformer losses reduction

Angelo Baggini*, Franco Bua**


* Universit degli Studi di Bergamo, angelo.baggini@unibg.it
** ECD Engineering Consulting and Design, Pavia, franco.bua@ecd.it

1/31/2011 1
LEONARDO ENERGY

Standardisation evolution
1992 CENELEC: HD 428, HD 538
1998 CEI 14-13 + dry type
2001 CE mandate to CENELEC
2005 (25.1) CENELEC TC 14 WG21
2006 positive vote EN50464-1

2007 CEI EN 50464-1 (CEI 14-34)

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LEONARDO ENERGY

Evolution HD428
No load losses (W) Load losses (W)
Rated power (kVA)
A B C A B C
100 320 260 210 1.750 2.150 1.475
160 460 375 300 2.350 3.100 2.000
250 650 530 425 3.250 4.200 2.750
400 930 750 610 4.600 6.000 3.850
630 (4%) 1.300 1.030 860 6.500 8.400 5.400
630 (6%) 1.200 940 800 6.750 8.700 5.600
1000 1.700 1.400 1.100 10.500 13.000 9.500
1600 2.600 2.200 1.700 17.000 20.000 14.000
2500 3.800 3.200 2.500 26.500 32.000 22.000

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Normal CEI 14-13
approx Reduced CEI 14-13
LEONARDO ENERGY

Evolution HD428
No load losses (W)

Rated power (kVA)

NO Load losses - National standards


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LEONARDO ENERGY

No load losses (W)


Evolution HD428

Rated power (kVA)

No load losses National standards


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LEONARDO ENERGY

load losses (W)


Evolution HD428

Rated power (kVA)

load losses National standards


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LEONARDO ENERGY

Evolution HD428
load losses (W)

Rated power (kVA)

load losses National standards


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LEONARDO ENERGY

HD538
Vn(kV) Sn (kVA) Load losses (W) No load losses (W) Vcc (%)
100 2000 440
160 2700 610
250 3500 820 4
400 4900 1150
12,0 630 7300 1500
630 7600 1370
1000 10000 2000
6
1600 14000 2800
2500 21000 4300
250 3800 880
400 5500 1200
630 7800 1650
24,0 6
1000 11000 2300
1600 16000 3100
8 2500 23000 5000
LEONARDO ENERGY

HD538
German standard DIN 42523

Rated Load losses Load losses Load losses Load losses Load losses
Rated power No load
voltage (W), thermal (W), Thermal (W), Thermal (W), Thermal (W), Thermal Vcc (%)
(kVA) losses (W)
(kV) class A class E class B class F class H

100 1700 1800 1850 1950 2100 340


160 2300 2450 2500 2650 2800 460
250 3000 3200 3250 3450 3700 620 4
400 4300 4600 4650 4900 5250 880
12,0
630 6400 6800 6900 7300 7800 1150
1000 8800 9300 9500 10000 10700 1560
1600 12700 13400 13600 14300 15300 2200 6
2500 19000 20000 20200 21200 22700 3300
250 3300 3500 3550 3800 4050 670
400 4800 5100 5200 5500 5900 940
630 6900 7350 7450 7850 8400 1270
24,0 6
1000 9600 10200 10350 10900 11700 1750
1600 14000 14800 15000 15800 16900 2400
2500 20000 21000 21300 22400 24000 3800
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LEONARDO ENERGY

EN 50464-1
Loss reduction
Alignement with energy label
mobile classes
Sound levels indipendent from
no load losses

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LEONARDO ENERGY

A B No loadClosses (W)
Sn (kVA) Vcc (%)
E0 D0 C0 B0 A0
50 190 145 125 110 90
100 320 260 210 180 145
160 460 375 300 260 210
250 650 530 425 360 300
4
315 770 630 520 440 360
400 930 750 610 520 430
500 1100 880 720 610 510
630 1300 1030 860 730 600
630 1200 940 800 680 560
800 1400 1150 930 800 650

EN 50464-1
1000 1700 1400 1100 940 770
1250 2100 1750 1350 1150 950 6
1600 2600 2200 1700 1450 1200
2000 3100 2700 2100 1800 1450

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2500 3500 3200 2500 2150 1750
LEONARDO ENERGY

A B Load losses (W)


C
Sn (kVA) Vcc (%)
Dk Ck BK Ak

50 1350 1100 875 750


100 2150 1750 1475 1250
160 3100 2350 2000 1700
250 4200 3250 2750 2350
4
315 5000 3900 3250 2800
400 6000 4600 3850 3250
500 7200 5500 4600 3900
630 8400 6500 5400 4600
630 8700 6750 5600 4800
800 10500 8400 7000 6000

EN 50464-1
1000 13000 10500 9000 7600
1250 16000 13500 11000 9500 6
1600 20000 17000 14000 12000
2000 26000 21000 18000 15000
12 2500 32000 26500 22000 18500
LEONARDO ENERGY

Energy optimisation: selection criteria

2 strategies:
Minimum total losses
Working point with best efficiency *

xPr
( xPr P0 x 2Pk )
1
2
x Pk P0 r Pk / P0 x
r
13 * Usually load factor equal to 4050%
LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum
Present cost of:
the installed transformer (transformer cost and
installation costs)
No load and load losses

Cl CT A P0 B Pk

EN 50464-1
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LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum
A 12 Cd 8760 Ce Fc
2
SL
B Ce h Fc
Sr
where:
Cd is the pu cost of demanded power (/kW)

Ce is the energy cost (/kWh)

Fc actualization factor

SL is the apparent power of load (kVA)

Sr is the rated power of the transformer (kVA)

h are the equivalent hours at the power SL

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LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum
Standard industrial users - Eurostat

Cod. Annual consumption Maximum power Number of hours


(kWh) (kW) per year
Ic 160.000 100 1.600
Id 1.250.000 500 2.500
Ie 2.000.000 500 4.000
If 10.000.000 2.500 4.000
Ig 24.000.000 4.000 6.000
Ih 50.000.000 10.000 5.000
Ii 70.000.000 10.000 7.000

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LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum - Hypotesis


Standard Maximum N of Rated power
consumer demand (kW) transformers (kVA)
Ic 100 1,00 160
Id 500 1,00 630
Ie 500 1,00 630
If 2500 3,00 1000
Ig 4000 2,00 2500
Ih 10000 5,00 2500
Ii 10000 5,00 2500
NOTES:
cos cost:0EUROSTAT
- Energy ,9 at maximum
excluding VAT
demand
demanded power according with the Italian tarif
- oversized by 20%
Foreseen life 10 years
PF = 0,9
oversizing 20%

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LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum
AeB
For different industrial users

Eurostat code A (/kW) B (/kW)


Ic 9113,56 785,43
Id 8452,79 1832,27
Ie 8182,79 2835,76
If 7515,78 2873,30
Ig 6684,48 3522,17
Ih 6350,54 2784,54
Ii 6030,81 3696,49

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LEONARDO ENERGY

Economic optimum - Hypothesis


Ref. case:
E0DK (ex Normal Losses CEI 14-13 - AA HD 428)

Alterantives:
Oversized E0DK

D0BK (approx. ex Reduced losses CEI 14-13 - BC HD 428)

Oversized D0BK

C0BK (ex CC HD 428)

B0AK

A0AK

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LEONARDO ENERGY

E0DK (ex perdite normali AA)


120%

100%

80%

60%

40%

20%

0%
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii

Purchasing cost Capitalised cost of losses


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LEONARDO ENERGY

oversized E0DK *
50.000,00
22 E0DK base Savings
40.000,00
TOC ()

30.000,00

(* ex perdite normali oversized AA)


20.000,00

10.000,00

0,00
Ic Id Ie If
-10.000,00

Total Ow ning Cost normal losses Total Ow ning Cost oversized


TOC ()

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E0DK base
D0BK *
Savings

*circa ex perdite ridotte CEI 14-13 - BC HD 428


LEONARDO ENERGY
LEONARDO ENERGY

D0BK *
5000,00

*approx. ex perdite ridotte CEI 14-13 - BC HD 428


0,00
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii
-5000,00

-10000,00

-15000,00

-20000,00

-25000,00

Purchase cost increase Capitalised cost of losses savings TOC savings


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LEONARDO ENERGY

oversized D0BK *

*approx ex perdite ridotte CEI 14-13 - BC HD 428 oversized


60.000,00
40.000,00
TOC ()

20.000,00

0,00
-20.000,00
Ic Id Ie If
25 E0DK base Savings
Total Owning Cost "normal lo sses"
LEONARDO ENERGY

C0BK *
150.000,00

100.000,00
TOC ()

50.000,00

0,00
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii

*ex CC HD 428
-50.000,00
26 E0DK base Savings
Total Owning Cost "normal losses" Total Owning Cost C-C' Savings
LEONARDO ENERGY

B0AK
150.000,00

100.000,00

50.000,00
TOC ()

0,00
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii

-50.000,00

E0DK base Savings


-100.000,00

Total Owning Cost "normal losses" Total Owning Cost D-D' Savings
LEONARDO ENERGY

A0AK
150.000,00

100.000,00

50.000,00
TOC ()

0,00
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii

-50.000,00

E0DK base Savings


-100.000,00
LEONARDO ENERGY

TOC saving comparison


20,0%

15,0%

10,0%

5,0%

0,0%

-5,0%

-10,0% Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii
-15,0%

-20,0%

-25,0%

-30,0%

E0DK base
TOC savings using a "reduced losses transformer
D0BK
TOC savings using a C0-Bk transformer
C0BK
TOC savings using a B0-Ak transformer
B0TOC
AKsavings using a Ao-AkAtransformer
0AK
LEONARDO ENERGY

Payback comparisons
Ic Id Ie If Ig Ih Ii
16,0
14,0
12,0
10,0
years

8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
0,0

D0BK C0BK B0AK A0AK


Reduced losses Co-Bk Bo-Ak Ao-Ak