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May 12, 1932. M. B.

JACKSON 1,866,891
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH

Original Filed March 31. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet l

INVENTDE.
July 12, 1932. M. B. JACKSON 1308669891
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH

Original Filed March 51, 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 2

Mm

Vlz4fI71iv,!l INVENTUH.
I.
772 5
Patented July 12, 1932
1,866,891: v

' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE


MAUNBELL B. JACKSON, 01' TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA.
HYDRAULIC CLUTCH
Application ?led March 31, 1987, Serial F0. 179,947. Renewed November 30, 1931.
This invention relates to hydraulic clutches nism in side elevation, the clutches being
and more particularly to that is used in broken away to show the drive connection
automobiles in connection with c ange-speed between a ring and a valve body.
gearing such as disclosed in my prior Patent ' In the constructions hereinafter described
5 No. 1,523,648, issued January 20, 1925, vand the various parts for operating the di?erent w
the object of the present invention is to pl_0 mechanisms for obtaining the high, interme
vide clutch mechanism of this character in diate and low gear ratios are indicated by
which the number of parts are reduced to a letters of reference it, a and Z respectively.
minimum and in which the various clutches Similar parts in the di?'erent mechanisms
10 may be quickly thrown into and out of oper have the same reference numeral after their 50
ation. reference letter so that the letter gives the
l attain my object by providing clutch key to the speci?c gear ratio mechanism the
mechanism comprising a plurality of driving part is associated with and the numeral in
members, driven members and rings operable dicates the part. -*
MI by ?uid pressure for clutching the driven l is the crank shaft of an engine; 2 is the w
members with the driving members. The transmission shaft which is alined with the
latter are secured together by means of tubu shaft 1 and is adapted to be connected to
lar bolts in which slide valves are mounted the driving wheels of a vehicle by any suit
for controlling the passage and exit of ?uid able driving connections; 3 is a countershaft,
m to operate the rings. Drive connections be and 4 is the transmission casing in which 76
tween the bolts and the rings are provided by the transmission shaft, and oountershaft are
forming notches in the peripheries of the journalled. To the rear end of the crank
rings. The inlet and exhaust slide valves shaft 1 are secured the driving members of
are simultaneously operated by a spider. a group of clutches which also serve as a
25 The constructions are hereinafter more ?ywheel. The clutches comprise the clutch 75
fully described and illustrated in the accom members 6, in, Z1 and a, the clutch rings k2,
panying drawings in which _ Z2 and 2'2, and the clutch disks h, l3 and i3
Fig. 1- is a longitudinal section of my 1111 (see Figs. 1 tot). The clutch member 6 is
proved clutch. mechanism showmng its con provided with teeth adapted to mesh with
30 nection with the parts of, an automobile the pinion of an electric starting device (not 30
transmission drive ; _ shown). Bolts 5 secure this clutch member
Fig. 2 a cross section on the hue 22 in to a. ?ange formed on the crankshaft l, and
Fi . 1 bolts 8 and 8a passing through holes formed
Fi g. ,3 sectional details of the clutches show in the clutch members hold these parts to
35 ing the inlet and exhaust valves in position gether. The clutch members N, Z, and i1 35
for admitting ?uid to actuate the high gear are annular and at one side of each mem- "
clutch; her is formed an annular recess 9. The outer
Fig. 3"l an end elevation of a valve; and inner walls of the recesses of the mem
Fig. 4 sectional details of the clutches show bers hi, I, and i1 are adapted to engage the
40 ing the inlet and exhaust valves in position peripheries and the inner surfaces of the 90."
for admitting ?uid to actuate the interme clutch rings kg, 12 and i2 respectively,
diate gear clutch; whereby the latter may be moved longi
Fig. 5 a View similar to Fig. 4 showing the tudinally relative to the clutch mem
valves in position for admitting ?uid to the bers. The peripheries of the rings are
45 low gear clutch; provided with notches adapted to partially 95
Fig. 6 a view similar to Fig. 4 showing the receive the bolts 8 and 8a to form driving
valves in neutral position; and connections therewith and to form guides
Fig. 7 a cross section through the forward on which the rings slide (see Fig. 7).
transmission shaft bearing showing the The clutch disks h, Z8 and i are splined
50 clutches with their valve operating. mecha on the transmission shaft 2 and sleeves Z 100
1,868,891
and s" respectively, so that the disks may piston valve 37, slidably mounted in each of
be axially moved thereon. The clutch faces the combined bolts and valve bodies 8, has its
of the disks h, I8 and 1? lie between the adopen end communicating with the ?uid sup
jacent clutch faces formed on the clutch ply passage 35 and has a plurality of pas
5 rings h, Z and i and on the clutch mem sages h, l8 and 2'8 formed in its wall. The 13
bers 6, h and l1 respectively. From the passa es h, Z8 and z" are adapted to be
above description it is evident that any one broug t into register successively with the in
of the clutch disks may be given a driving let ports h, Z and z" to supply any one of the
connection with the corres onding clutc latter, and thus its recess 9, with ?uid. The
10 member by moving the cluto ring for that passages are so arranged that when any one
disk towards its co-operating clutch member port is open the remaining ports are closed
to frictionally engage the clutch faces of the and when the valve is moved to its neutral po
disk between them. ,The means for accom sition all the ports arev closed.
plishing this will hereinafter be described. Exhaust ports 72., Z9 and i", formed in the
15 The sleeve '23 is journalled in a ?anged walls of the bolts 8, communicate with the 80
bearing 13 which is secured to a transverse chambers k6, Z6 and i respectively. The bolts
wall 14 formed in the transmission casing 4. thus form valve bodies having their open
In this sleeve is journalled the sleeve 1* in ends communicating with the exterior of the
which is journalled one end of the transmis clutch members. Each of the valves 37 a has
sion shaft 2. The other end of this shaft is a plurality of ?uid exit passages h, l and 85
journallecl in a bearing 15 carried by the in formed in its wall and adapted to be
rear end of the casing 4. On the ends of brought into register with the exhaust ports
the sleeves z" and Z, which are remote from h, Z and i. The exhaust valves 37. are
the disks 2' and Z are formed or secured the adapted to close the exhaust ports of that one
pinions a" and 1* respectively. These inions of the ?uid chambers h, l8 or i which is in 90
may drive the countershaft 3 which turn communication with the ?uid supply passage
may drive the transmission shaft 2 in any 35 and to register their exit passages hm, 11
suitable manner. or 79 with the other exhaust ports in the valve
The transmission shaft 2 may be driven at. bodies 8. When the exhaust valves are
80 different gear ratios by the operation of the moved to their neutral positions, all the ex 95
clutch disks \k, l8 and i as described, the haust ports are opened. The exhaust valves
disk h being adapted to form a direct drive are so arranged relative to the ?uid cham
for the transmission shaft, whereby the lat bers that the centrifugal action of the ?uid in
ter is driven at the same speed as the engine the latter tends to force the ?uid through the
-35 shaft 1, the disks Z8 and is being adapted to exhaust valves and creates a vacuum in the 100
form part of the drive connection between ?uid chambers and the recesses 9 which tends
the engine and the transmission shaft at a to draw the clutch rin s to their normal
low and an intermediate speed respectively, positions. The valves 3 and 37a are keyed
relative to the speed of the engine shaft. at 37b in the valve bodies 8 and 8a to prevent
40 To actuate any one of the clutch rings h, relative rotary movement between these parts 105
l and z" to frictionally engage its clutch disk (see Fig. 3) .
71.,18 and 2' respectively, I provide means for It is desirable to provide means for soften
supplying ?uid under pressure to actuate ing the clutching engagement of the low
these rings, which pressure ?uid is controlled speed clutch disk Z3 so that the vehicle will
45 by means of manually operated valves. start smoothly from rest. This is accom
In the clutch member 6 are formed the plished by forming a minute relief opening
radially disposed ?uid passages 35, the outer Z11 in each exhaust piston valve 371 which
ends of which communicate with an annular openings are registered with the exhaust
groove 36 also formed in the member 6 (see ports Z9 when the inlet passages Z8 are in r'eg
50 Figs. 1 to 7). The bolts 8 and 8a are tubular ister with the inlet ports Z7. From this de 116
and each has a shoulder at one end for en scription it is obvious that a small ?ow of
gaging the bottom of the groove 36, the other ?uid escapes from the ?uid chamber Zt3 while
end being provided with a lock washer and the latter is being supplied with ?uid which
nut for engaging the member 2'. The shoul retards the building up of pressure in the
55 ders are of less thickness than the depth said chamber and in the recess in communi 123
of the groove so that the interiors of the tubu cation therewith.
lar bolts communicate with the groove and It will be noted that the ?uid under pres-.
thus with the ?uid passages 35. In the walls sure in the valve bodies 8 and 8" tends to
of the bolts 8 are formed a plurality of inlet move the piston valves 37 and 371 towards
60 ports k", Z and i which communicate with their position for admitting ?uid to the 123
?uid chambers 72., l and 2'. These ?uid chamber h and for closing the exhaust ?uid
chambers areformed in the clutch members therefrom. This position is indicated at H
h, l1 and i1, and communicate, behind the in Figs. 1 and 3. The valves are simultane
clutch rings h, Z2 and z", with the recesses 9 ously moved, by means of a spider 38, to their
05 formed in the clutch members. A hollow intermediate, low and neutral positions as
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indicated at I, L and respectively in Figs. ' A click device including a sprin pressed
1, 4, 5 and 6. The spider is provided with ball 71 carried b the gear 52 andg adapted
?uid outlet openings 38' which are in aline to engage two in entations in the hub 38" of
ment with the bores of the exhaust piston the spider determines the correct intermedi
valves 37". The method of carrying this ate and low gear positions for the spider (see
spider will be hereinafter described. Fig. 1). This click device is felt by the foot
The ends of the ?uid passages 35 that are when the shaft 64 is rocked to move the lever
remote from the groove 36 communicate with 65; neutral and high gear positions are re
a conduit 39 formed axially of the transmis spectively determined b rocking the lever to
10
sion shaft 2 (see Figs. 1 and 7). The con its downward limit ofy movement, and by "
duit communicates, by means of radially di permitting the spring means to move the
rected passages 40, with an annular groove lever to its limit of movement in the opposite
41 formed in the bearing 15. ~ direction.
To supply the passages with ?uid I pro Assuming the engine is running and the
vide rotary gear pumps (not shown), one lever 65 is in neutral position with the valve
of the pumps being driven from the engine plungers 37, 37 at N in Figs. 1 and 6 and
shaft by a helical gear 52 which meshes with it is desired to drive the high gear clutch, the
a helical gear 53 on the pump shaft, the other mode of operation is as follows. The inlet
pump being driven by helical gearing 54, one and exhaust ports in the clutches are now
gear ot which is secured to the transmission closed and opened respectively as shown in
shaft 2 and the other to the pump shaft 51. Fig. 6. The lever 65 is gently released until
this arrangement a supply of liquid the entrance of the ball 71 into its ?rst de
will be provided to operate the clutches when pression is felt. The above valve plungers
the engine is started and the supply will be are now positioned as indicated at L in Figs.
increased when the transmission shaft is ro 1. and 5 with the small leakage openings 1 in 90
tated. Tn the rear end of the transmission register with the exhaust ports Z", and the
casing is termed a sump or liquid chamber passages Z? in register with the inlet ports Z.
a screened opening communicating The foot pedal and thus the shaft 64; and
with the composite clutch member which is lever 65 are in low gear position and the next
located in trout or the transverse wall it. step is to turther release the pedal to permit 95
The inlet openings of the pumps communi the spring means to rock the lever 65 into in
cate by means of a passage 56 with the bot termediate gear position which is indicated
tom ot the sump and the outlet or exhaust by the ball 71 entering its second depression.
openings oi the pumps communicate by The valve pluugers are now positioned as in
means of a passage 57& with the annular dicated at l in Figs. 1 and fl. The inlet ports 105]
groove Zll. 5' are now in communication with the ?uid
The plunger valves 37 and 37 in the clutch supply passage 35, the exhaust ports 59 are
members are simultaneously actuated in the closed and the fluid exit passage hm forms a
following manner by a manually operated communication between the exhaust port 7E9
device such as a foot pedal (not shown). and Z9 and the interior of the plunger 37a 105
The gear 52 is formed on a. sleeve provided which communicates with the exterior of the
with lugs which are secured, by means of clutch. The foot pedal shaft 64 and lever
bolts 52a, to the clutch member 61. In the 65 are then fully released to permit them to
sleeve is slidably mounted the hub 38b of the move into high gear position. The plung
spider 38, the arms thereof being passed ers 37 and 37 are actuated by the ?uid in M0
through slots formed in the sleeve between the valve bodies 8 and 8a to their high gear
adjacent lugs of the gear 52. The slots per position as indicated at H in Fig. 3 whereby
mit the spider to be moved axially of the gearthe inlet ports .5. are opened, the exhaust
50
and the walls of the slots form a driving ports 71.9 are closed, and the exhaust ports Z9
connection with the spider arms. On the and c' communicate, by means of the pets 1.15
hearing 13 is slidably mounted a thrust col sages it and 21 respectively, and the open
lar 63 which is adapted to pass freely ings 381 in the spider with the exterior of
through the bore of the gear 52 and to engage the clutches. '
the hub 38). The collar is keyed at 63a to What I claim is:
55
prevent it from rotating on the bearing. On 1. A clutch including a driving member log
a transverse shaft 64. journalled in the casing provided with an annular recess; a dish; a
are secured the legs of a U shaped lever 65. ring having a driving connectionwith the
The free ends of the legs are adapted to en member and slidably mounted in the recess;
gage the thrust collar 63 on opposite sides a ?uid supply passage communicating with
60
of the bearing 13, see Figs. 1 and 7. The the recess; an exhaust passage communicat 1251.
shaft 64 may be connected in any suitable ing with the recess and with the exterior of
manner with the above mentioned foot pedal the clutch; a manually operable valve in the
and may be provided with suitable spring ?uid supply passage carried by the driving
means tending to move the lever 65 to its high member for controlling the ?ow of ?uid into
65 gear position. the recess; and a manually operable valve in 130
4 1,866,891
the exhaust passage carried by the driving site direction or to permit them to be moved
member for controlling the exit of the ?uid by the ?uid.
from the recess. _ 0
6. A clutch including a driving member
2. A clutch including a driving member provided with an annular recess; a disk; 9.
~ provided with an annular recess; a disk; a ?uid supply passage; a slide valve having a
ring having a driving connection with the body carried by the driving member for con
member and slidably mounted in the recess; trolling the passage of ?uid to the recess; and
a ?uid supply passage communicating with a ring slidably mounted in the recess for fric
the recess; an exhaust passage communicat tional engagement with the disk and engag
ing with the recess and with the exterior of ing the slide valve body to form a rotary
the clutch; a valve in the ?uid supply pas drive connection with the member.
sage carried by the driving member for con 7. A clutch includin a driving member
trolling the ?ow of ?uid into the recess; a rovided with an annu ar recess; a disk; a
valve in the exhaust passage carried by the uid supply passage; a slide valve for con
' driving member for controlling the exit of trolling the passage of ?uid to the recess 80
the ?uid from the recess; and manually op and including a body carried by the driv
erable means for simultaneously operating ing member; a slide valve for controlling
the said valves. . the exit of ?uid from the recess and includ
3. A clutch including a driving member ing a body carried by the driving member; 85
I' provided with an annular recess; a disk; a a ring slidably mounted for axial movement
ring havin a driving connection with the in the recess and engaging the slide valve
member an slidably mounted in the recess; a bodies for forming a rotar_ drive connec
?uid supply passage communicating with the tion with the driving mem er; and means
recess; an exhaust passage communicating for controlling the valves to cause the ring 90
with the recess and with the exterior of the to be axially moved into frictional engage
clutch; a valve in the ?uid supply passage ment with the disk and to permit the ring
for controlling the ?ow of ?uid into the re to be moved out of engagement therewith.
cess; a valve in the exhaust passage for con 8. Clutch mechanism including a plurality
trolling the exit of the ?uid from the recess; of driving members, one being provided with
' and means including a spider adapted to ac an annular recess; a disk; a ring slidably
tuate both valves. mounted in the recess and having a driving
4. A clutch including a driving member connection with one of the members; a ?uid
provided with an annular recess; a disk; a supply passage; a tubular bolt for securing
ring having a driving connection with the the members together, the interior of the 100
member and slidably mounted in the recess; a bolt communicating with the passage and
?uid supply passage communicating with the with the recess; and a plunger mounted in
recess; an exhaust passage communicating the bolt for controlling the communication
with the recess and with the exterior of the with the recess.
clutch, the exhaust passage also having a com 9. Clutch mechanism including a plurality
(O munication with the ?uid supply passage; a of driving members, one being provided with
valve in the ?uid supply passage for control an annular recess; a disk; a ?uid supply
ling the ?ow of ?uid into the recess; a valve passage; a plurality of tubular bolts for se
in the exhaust passage for controlling the curing the members together, the bolts hav
exit of ?uid from the recess, the ?uid tend ing ports communicating with the recess; a 110
ing to move the valves in one direction; and mug slidably mounted in the recess and pro
means for controlling the operation of the vided with peripheral notches for engage
valves and for moving them in the opposite ment with the bolts; an inlet valve slidably
direction. mounted in one of the bolts for forming a
5. A clutch including a driving member communication between the port therein and
provided with an annular recess; a disk; a the ?uid supply passage; and an exhaust 1
ring having a driving connection with the valve slidably mounted in the other bolt for
member and slidably mounted in the recess; forming a communication between the port
a ?uid supply passage communicating with therein and the exterior of the clutch.
' the recess: an exhaust passage communicat
10. The combination of a group of
ing with the recess and with the exterior of clutches; means for applying ?uid under
the clutch, the exhaust passage also having a pressure to actuate the different clutches in
communication with the ?uid supply pas cluding a slide valve for controlling the ad
sage; a valve in the ?uid supply passage for mission of ?uid to the di?erent clutches; and
80 controlling the ?ow of ?uid into the recess; a slide valve for controlling the exit of ?uid _
a valve in the exhaust passage for controlling from the different clutches.
the exit of ?uid from the recess, the ?uid 11. Clutch mechanism including a plural
tending to move the valves in one direction; ity of driving members having recesses
and means including a spider adapted to en formed therein; a ring slidably mounted in
gage both valves to move them in the oppo each recess and having a rotary drive con 130
1,886,891 5
nection with a drivin member; disks adapt 14. Clutch mechanism including a plu
ed to be engaged by t e rings; a ?uid supply rality of driving members having recesses
passage; a manually operable slide valve formed therein; a, ring slidably mounted in
carried. by the drivin members for control each recess and having a rotary drive con
ling the passage of uid to any one of the nection with a driving member; disks adapt
recesses " and a manually operab e slide valve ed to be engaged by the rings; ?uid pressure
carried by the drivino' members for control means adapted, to supply any one of the
ling the exit of ?uid Ilrom the recesses. recesses with ?uid to actuate its ring into
1%. Clutch mechanism including a plural frictional engagement with the co-operating
ity of driving members having recesses disk; exhaust ports for forming a communi
formed therein; a ring slidably mounted in cation between the recesses and the exterior
each recess and having a rotary drive con ofthe members; and means including a valve
nection with a driving member; disks adapt for closing any desired exhaust port and
ed to be engaged by the rings; a ?uid supply opening the remaining ports, the valve being
15 passage; a slide valve carried by the driving provided with a minute relief opening adapt 80
members including a body having a plural;
oi inlet ports communicating with the ed
retard
to bethe__huilding
registered with
up of
one pressure
of the ports
in the
recesses; a plunger slidably mounted in the recesscommunicating with the last men
valve body and provided with a plurality tioned port.
cl passages, each passage communicating 15. The combination of a group of clutches $5
with the ?uid supply passage and adapted having a common axis; means for applying
to be brought into communication with a ?uid under pressure to actuate the di?erent
port; exhaust ports communicating with the clutches including a slide valve carried there
recesses and with the exterior of the clutch; by for controlling the admission oi" ?uid to
means "for closing the exhaust port of the di?erent clutches; a slide valve carried
the recess in communication with the ?uid by the clutches parallel to the axis and adja
supply passage and for opening the remain cent the periphery thereof :lor controlling
ing exhaust ports the exit of ?uid from the di?lerent clutches;
13. Clutch mechanism including a plu and manually operable means for simulta
rality oi driving members having recesses neously actuating the valves.
formed therein; a ring slidably mounted in ' 16. The combination of a group oil clutches
each recess and having a rotary drive con having a common axis; means for applying
nection with a driving member; disks ?uid under pressure to actuate the di?erent
adapted to be engaged by the rings; a ?uid clutches including a slide valve carried there
35 supply passage; a slide valve carried by the by
driving members including a body having the for controlling the admission of ?uid to
di?'erent clutches; a slide valve carried by
a plurality oil inlet ports communicating with the clutches parallel to the axis and adjacent
the recesses; a hollow piston valve slidably the periphery thereof for controlling the
mounted in the valve body and having an exit of ?uid from the di?erent clutches, the
ill open end communicating with the ?uid sup ?uid pressure tending to move the valves in 1015
ply passage9 the walls of the valve being one direction; and means for controlling the
provided with passages communicating with valves and for actuating them in the opposite
the interior of the valve, each passage being direction.
adapted to be brought into register with a
port to supply its recess with ?uid, the re a 17 . The combination oi a group of clutches;
source of ?uid supply; tubular bolts for
maining ports being closed by the valve; a securing the clutches together; and valves
second slide valve carried by the driving
members including a body communicating mounted in the bolts for controlling the ad
mission of ?uid to the different clutches and
with the ?uid supply passage and having a the exhaust of ?uid therefrom.
plurality of exhaust ports communicating
18. The combination of a group of clutches; 115
with the recesses; a hollow piston valve slid
ably mounted in the second valve body and means for applying ?uid under pressure to
having an open end communicating with the actuate the di?erent clutches including a
exterior of the clutch, and walls of the last slide valve for controlling the admission of
mentioned valve being provided with spaced ?uid thereto; and a slide valve for controlling 120
passages communicating with the interior the exit of ?uid from the different clutches,
of the valve, the last mentioneduvalve being the last mentioned valve being provided with
adapted to close the exhaust port of the-re a minutejrelief opening adapted to retard the
ce'ss in communication with the ?uid Suppl buildingiup of pressure'in one of the clutches.
passage and to register its passages with the 19. A clutch including a driving member; 125
, remaining exhaust ports, the ?uid tending means for supplying ?uid under pressure to
to move the piston valves in one direction; actuate the clutch; a slide valve carried by
and manually operable means for controlling the driving member for controlling the ad
the operation of the valves and for moving mission of ?uid to the clutch; a sleeve secured
we UI them in the opposite direction.
to the driving member and provided with a 130
6 1,886,891
slot; a, spider provided with a hub slidahly
mounted in the sleeve and an arm passing
through the slot to actuate the .slide valve;
and means for operating the spider axially.
Si ed at Toronto, Canada, this 24th day
of arch, 1927.
MAUNSELL B. JACKSON.
10

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