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FLOOD MONITORING BASED ON REMOTE

SENSING METHOD
Area of study : Jakarta, Capital City of Indonesia
Tasliman, Michael Timothy #2017730352

PREFACE
Torrential downpours have caused flooding across parts of Indonesian, including in the capital, Jakarta,
where the height of floodwaters is varied in each place.

Figure 1. Floodwaters height in one of senior high Figure 2. Floodwater in center of Jakarta
school in Jakarta (credit: thejakartapost.com) (credit: dutchwatersector.com)

The monitoring of flood become the biggest concern since Jakarta becomes the densely populated area,
which means this city has a high risk of flood. Jakarta itself has area around 662 km2 and 6.997 km2 of land
and sea respectively, yet it really takes time to monitor and manage every part of city simultaneously. Hence,
we need remote sensing method to support our mapping fastly in any spatial and temporal scale.

ESSENTIAL INFORMATIONS
To monitor the risk of flood in Jakarta, we need some informations that can be derived from satellite, such
as:
1. Satellite-derived data of rainfall. Rainfall and weather data are combined and applied in hydrology
model to derive streamflow or runoff to monitor flooding conditions. Data of rainfall alse can be
obtained from rain gauge and
2. Satellite-derived data of land-cover to detect flood water on previously dry land surface. Land cover
data can be obtained from MODIS sensor.
3. Satellite-derived data of topographic to derive and analyze streamflow and streamchannel.
Topographic data can be obtained from SRTM.

PLAN OF MONITORING AND PARAMETERS TO BE MEASURED


Plan of monitoring is divided by two main study, fieldwork and post-fieldwork. Fieldwork study associated
with collecting data including primary data and secondary data. Primary data such as land use and flood
water depth information by interviewing the people who live in vulnerable area, while secondary data
obtained from the record of rainfall and climate data from certain period. The final phase, called post-
fieldwork, associated with simulation of runoff and modeling of flood propagation in downstream area.
This plan is adapted to my area of study, different area of study may result in different plan of monitoring.
To make a better understanding, Figure 3 shows the steps of flood monitoring in flowchart. `

Data collection

Primary data Secondary data

Water depth Land use Rainfall discharge Climatic data


data

Data analysis

Modified runoff
modeling

Runoff

Acceptable result No

Hydrological data

Hydrological
DEM construction
modeling

Max. water flow


Max. water depth
velocity

Flood hazard
assessment

Conclusion and
recommendation

Figure 3. Flood monitoring plan

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Several important parameters that should be monitored such as rain rate, river level, drainage system, and
terrain are needed as inputs to reduce the risk of flooding in Jakarta. Only rain rate and terrain are parameters
that can be measured using satellite sensors, while river level and drainage system can be measured with
in-situ method. Rain rate ought to be monitored continuously, together with the weather forecast,
considering Jakarta has tropical climate which is only has wet and dry season. Different from rain rate
monitoring, terrain can be monitored once because the topography of this city is relatively flat without any
mountainous area, but it is still important to be used as an input for stream flow analysis. River level is
associated with the amount of floodwater that can be accommodated in one river and it usually measured
when rain pours. When the river is overflow, then the water will spill over onto the land. Drainage system
is a common parameter in every city in the world. Good city is judged from its drainage system to prevent
the flood, since there is no enough space for rainwater to penetrate the ground.

SENSORS
To obtain data of precipitation, we can use GPM satellite with Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR)
and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) sensors. Table 1 explains the overview of satellite and Figure 4 and
Figure 5 illustrate the work of GPM satellite. GPM satellite is chosen because of its enhanced ability to
measure light rain which is cannot be done by its predecessor, TRMM satellite, and its data of observation
are downloadable for free with reliable accuracy.

Figure 4. Diagram of swath coverage by GPM Figure 5. Scan geometry of GMI


sensors (credit: pmm.nasa.gov) (credit: NASA)
Table 1. GPM satellite overview (credit: pmm.nasa.gov)
GPM Core Observatory Characteristics
Altitude 407 kilometers (253 miles)
Inclination 65o
Speed 7 kilometers per second (~4.3 miles per second)
Orbit Circular, non-sun-synchronous
Orbit
93 minutes
duration

3
Orbits per
About 16
day
Design life 3 years
Fuel life 5 years
Sensor GMI DPR
Channels: 13 Ku-band Ka-band
Frequency: 10-183 GHz Swath: 245 Swath: 120 kilometers
Swath: 885 km (550 mi) kilometers Range resolution:
Channel Central Polarization Range resolution: 250/500 meters
No. Freq. 250 meters Spatial resolution: 5 km
(GHz) Spatial resolution: 5 (nadir)
1 10.65 V km (nadir) Beam width: 0.71
2 10.65 H Beam width: 0.71 degrees
3 18.70 V degrees Transmitter: 128 Solid
4 18.70 H Transmitter: 128 State Amplifiers
5 23.80 V
Solid State Peak transmit power:
Amplifiers 146 Watts (W)
6 36.50 V
Peak transmit Pulse repetition freq.
7 36.5 H
power: 1013 Watts (In nominal operations
8 89.00 V
(W) mode): 4100 to 4400
9 89.00 H
Pulse repetition freq. Hz
10 166.0 V
(In nominal Pulse width: two 1.667
11 166.0 H
operations mode): microseconds pulses in
12 183.313 V 4100 to 4400 Hz matched beams two
13 183.313 V Pulse width: two 3.234 microseconds
(credit: star.nesdis.noaa.gov) 1.667 microseconds pulses in interlaced
pulses scans
Beam number: 49 Beam number: 49

To obtain data of terrain or elevation, we can use SRTM observation data which are downloadable for free.
SRTM employed two synthetic aperture radars, a C-band system (5.6 cm; C-RADAR) and an X-band
system (3.1 cm; X-RADAR). Radar is chosen because of its ability to operate day or night and can penetrate
cloud cover. Table 2 contains the overview of SRTM mission.
Table 2. Overview of SRTM mission (credit: directory.eoportal.org)
Launch February 11th, 2000
Orbit Circular exact repeat orbit
Altitude 233 kilometers
Inclination 57o
Sensor C-Band Radar X-Band Radar
Frequency 5.3 GHz 9.6 GHz
Incidence angle 30o-60o 54o
Wavelength 5.6 cm 3.1 cm
Swath width 225 kilometers 50 kilometers
Polarization 4 subswaths transmit/receive VV inboard antenna, V outboard
H,V,V,H, inboard antenna
4 subswaths receive only
H,V,V,H, outboard

4
Figure 6. Schematic overview of the SRTM/X-SAR payload with deployed boom (credit: NASA)

REFERENCES
NASA. Global Precipitation Measurement: Core Observatory. Retrieved from
https://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/GPM_Mission_Brochure.pdf
NASA, Remote Sensing Observations for Flood Monitoring and Socioeconomic Data for Flood
Management [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site:
https://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/users/S4_P1_FloodOverview_Final.pdf
Prachansri, S., 2007. Analysis of Soil and Land cover parameters for Flood hazard assessment-A Case
Study of the Nam Chun Watershed, Phetchabun, Thailand. M.S. thesis, International Institute For Geo-
information Science And Earth Observation Enschede, The Netherlands, 92 pp.
Wong, Wilson V.C., Tsuyuki, S., Ioki, K., Phua, M.H., 2014. Accuracy assesment of global topographic
data (SRTM & ASTER GDEM) in comparison with lidar for tropical montane forest. Asian Association
on Remote Sensing. 6pp.
Precipitation Measurement Missions : https://pmm.nasa.gov/GPM
NOAA STAR Center for Satellite Application And Research :
https://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/mirs/gpmgmi.php
Canada Centre for Remote Sensing: Fundamental of Remote Sensing [PDF document]