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EL ESTILO INDIRECTO: LAS ORACIONES ENUNCIATIVAS

A Podemos contar lo que alguien dijo de dos maneras:


1 Repitiendo sus palabras exactas, es decir, empleando el estilo directo.
"I h a v e to go n o w , " s h e s a i d .
" W e l i v e d i n P a r i s for t h r e e y e a r s , " Peter s a i d .
2 Contando la idea, pero no las palabras exactas, que es el "estilo indirecto".
S h e s a i d (that) s h e h a d to go t h e n .
Peter t o l d u s (that) t h e y h a d l i v e d i n P a r i s for t h r e e y e a r s .

B En el estilo directo se utilizan comillas y maysculas al empezar la cita, pero en


el estilo indirecto:

REPORTING STATEMENTS - 1 No hay comillas.


EL ESTILO INDIRECTO: LAS ORACIONES ENUNCIATIVAS 2 La frase se suele introducir con los verbos say y tell, o con accept, advise,
agree, announce, apologise, ask, beg, claim, complain, declare, explain,
insist, invite, offer, point out, protest, remind, remark, state, think, etc., que
C H A N G E S IN T E N S E 1 - llamamos reporting verbs.
LOS CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS 1 Nota: Despus de los verbos say, suggest, tell y think podemos omitir that, pero
'1
nunca se puede omitir con verbos como explain, complain, point out, etc.
1
3 El tiempo de la narracin da una especie de "salto atrs" si el verbo que lo
CHANGES I N T E N S E II -
introduce va en pasado.
LOS CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS II
4 Las palabras que indican lugar o tiempo, los pronombres personales y
posesivos, los demostrativos, etc., cambian lgicamente.

REPORTING COMMANDS (IMPERATIVE) - 5 Las preguntas dejan de serlo. Mira la unidad 16.
LAS RDENES INDIRECTAS (EL IMPERATIVO)

C H E C K Y O U R S E L F page 247 EXERCISE 1

Punctuate the following sentences according to the rules of direct speech.

1 . "\l paint my room next w e e k , D i a n e said-

2. Beth said I w o n ' t c o m e to the play b e c a u s e l'm II

3. She said I have to p h o n e my cousin n o w

4. W h y d o n ' t y o u visit M a r y n o w he asked

5. I have lost m y w a l l e t A n d r e w d e c l a r e d

6. Y o u c a n ' t go out tonight I insisted


C H A N G E S IN T E N S E
LOS CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS I
I -
3 L O S C A M B I O S E N L O S T I E M P O S II

Estilo indirecto: He said that


Estilo directo: He said,
Si el verbo que introduce el estilo indirecto est en pasado, el tiempo que Past Simple
tenamos en el estilo directo da un salto atrs. Present Simple ^
... s h e s t u d i e d E n g l i s h .
" I have read t h e n o t e , " s h e s a i d . "She studies E n g l i s h . "
S h e s a i d t h a t s h e h a d read the note. Past Continuous
Present Continuous ^
" H e i s w o r k i n g i n t h e office n o w , " t h e y t o l d m e . ... s h e w a s s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h .
"She is studying English."
T h e y told m e t h a t h e w a s w o r k i n g i n t h e office t h e n . Past Perfect Simple
Present Perfect Simple ^
Nota: Fjate en que tell debe llevar siempre un complemento indirecto de person
... s h e h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h .
Si el verbo est compuesto de ms de un auxiliar, slo cambia el primero. "She has studied English."
Past Perfect Continuous
" M y house is being redecorated," she said. Present Perfect Continuous ^
,.. s h e h a d b e e n s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h .
S h e s a i d t h a t h e r h o u s e w a s b e i n g redecorated. " S h e has been studying E n g l i s h . "
Estos cambios no ocurren: Past Perfect Simple
Past Simple ^
1 Cuando el verbo que introduce la cita est en presente o en futuro. ... s h e h a d s t u d i e d E n g l i s h .
"She studied E n g l i s h . "
" I iove s o u p , " says M a r y . Past Perfect Continuous
M a r y says she loves s oup . Past Continuous ^
... s h e h a d b e e n s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h .
2 Cuando se narra una verdad objetiva o una situacin permanente. "She was studying English."
No cambia
" L o n d o n i s t h e c a p i t a l of G r e a t B r i t a i n , " s h e p o i n t e d out . Past Perfect Simple ^
S h e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t L o n d o n i s t h e c a p i t a l of G r e a t B r i t a i n .
"She had studied E n g l i s h . "
" P e t e r lives i n M a r k e t S t r e e t , " I t o l d t h e m . No cambia
Past Perfect Continuous ^
I t o l d t h e m t h a t P e t e r lives i n M a r k e t Street.
"She h a d been studying English."
Otros cambios necesarios al pasar una frase a estilo indirecto son estos: Conditional
Future Simple ^
1 Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos o pronombres posesivos de 1 y 2 a a
... s h e w o u l d s t u d y E n g l i s h .
persona cambian segn quien habla, pero los de 3 persona no cambian. a "She w i l l study English."
Future Past Continuous
2 Las expresiones de tiempo y de lugar. Future Continuous ^
then ... s h e w o u l d be s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h .
now " S h e w i l l be s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h . "
today / tonight that day / that night could
yesterday the day before, the previous day
... s h e c o u l d s t u d y E n g l i s h .
tomorrow the next / following day, the day after "She c a n study English."
the following w e e k / m o n t h might
iK-xt w e e k / m o n t h may ^
last week / m o n t h the previous week / m o n t h ... s h e m i g h t s t u d y E n g l i s h .
the week / m o n t h before "She m a y study English."
must / had to
a week / m o n t h ago the week / m o n t h before must / have to ^
hcrc there ... s h e m u s t / h a d to s t u d y E n g l i s h .
" S h e m u s t / h a s to s t u d y E n g l i s h . "
3 Los demostrativos. y used to no cambian.
Nota: Should, could, would, might, ought to
this t h a t these * - those
). "My s i s l c i has l i v e d m l o l c d o loi years.
EXERCISE 2
T h e m a n told us that sister lived in T o l e d o for years.
C h o o s e the correct answer.
5. "I w i l l be 17 years od next T u e s d a y . "
1. I said that I (don't, d i d n ' l , w a s n ' t ) think their plan w a s good.
B r e n d a r e m i n d e d us that she be 17 years od
2. H e said that he ( w o u l d , c a n , was) go to see that play soon.
Tuesday.
3. H e said that he ( h a d , is, w a s ) w o r k e d in B a r c e l o n a before h e m o v e d there
6. " I c a n ' t find my n e w w h i t e shirt."
4. M y teacher said that I (had to, c a n , may) d o better than that. John c o m p l a i n e d that he find n e w w h i t e shirt.
r ). I said that I ( c a n , might, w i l l ) be early for the meeting.

(>. She said that she ( w o u l d , might, was) sorry. EXERCISE 5

7. S a n d r a said that she ( d e c i d e d , w e r e d e c i d e d , h a d d e c i d e d ) to c h a n g e her Write the following sentences in reported speech. R e m e m b e r : Pronouns also

f!. I l e said that his d o c k (had rung, is ringing, rings). change. Be careful!

1. " M y c o u s i n s h a v e often visited F r a n c e , " J o a n n a pointed out.

EXERCISE 3 9 . $. f!9.i'?.\?f. P. ?. /??. .(l . . .9M . . ..b$f!. $?. . .!?/??! .TS .?/?:
n n u e r c s n s n 7

Choose the correct answer. 2. " I can't see y o u y e t , " the nurse apologised.

1. M y friend (said, told) m e that I w a s lucky.

2. T h e m a n ( e x p l a i n e d , told) that the c o m p u t e r w a s easy to use. 3. " A lot of gold is m i n e d in South A f r i c a , " the d i p l o m a t pointed out.

3. O u r teacher (advised, said) us to study for the test.

4. T h e secretary (told, c o m p l a i n e d ) her boss that her w o r k w a s too h a r d . 4. " T h e c h i l d r e n have been studying geography," he said.

5. T h e m a n o n T V ( a n n o u n c e d , told) that the n e w s w o u l d be late.

6. M y brother (told, m e n t i o n e d ) that he w o u l d j o i n m e for l u n c h . 5. " T h e minister is preparing his s p e e c h , " the journalist said.

7. Simn (told, said) T i n a that the lesson w o u l d begin at 9 . 0 0 .

8. M y f r i e n d (told, e x p l a i n e d ) m e that she w o u l d return the D V D to the shop 6. " I might go to A m s t e r d a m , " Paul said.

EXERCISE 4 7. " T h e train w i l l be leaving in 15 m i n u t e s , " she told Harry.


lili in the blanks.

1. " I like English." 8. " W e w i l l also w o r k d u r i n g the s u m m e r , " the teenagers a g r e e d .

M i c h a e l said that he (*ed English.

2. " Y o u must stop eating fried f o o d . " 9. " A l l plice officers have to report for duty at n o o n , " the c h i e f insisted.

T h e doctor e x p l a i n e d that I stop eating fried f o o d .

i. "I d o n ' t w a n t to go to s c h o o l t o d a y . " 10. " T h e boys w e r e saving up for a c a n o e , " the man e x p l a i n e d .

M y brother nsisted that h e w a n t to go to school ...


EXERCISE 6 / v o u i : tijue un evnus i II.II ii in j ( K m ii ii-. i n i lu. i M U f i i " ... ti. ..

A El primer condicional al pasarlo al estilo indirecto, tiene los mismos tiempos que si
Write the following sentences in reported speech.
se tratase del segundo condicional, es decir, el presente pasara a ser pasado y el
futuro a condicional.
" I f y o u p h o n e after 7.00, w e w o n ' t be at h o m e , " w e told h i m .
W e told h i m t h a t if he p h o n e d after 7 . 0 0 , w e w o u l d n ' t be at h o m e .
B El segundo y el tercer condicional no cambian en estilo indirecto.
" I f I w e r e y o u , I'd t e l l h e r t h e w h o l e s t o r y , " T o m s a i d .
T o m s a i d t h a t if h e w e r e m e , he'd tell h e r t h e w h o l e story.

" I f I h a d b e e n m o r e c a r e f u l , I w o u l d n ' t have h a d t h e a c c i d e n t , " S a l l y said


to h e r f r i e n d .
S a l l y told h e r f r i e n d t h a t if she h a d b e e n m o r e c a r e f u l , s h e w o u l d n ' t have
had the accident.
1. " T h e electricity bil must be paid this w e e k , " he advised us.

ti?..^yjsefj us that the electricity bil must / hadto be paid that week.
REPORTING COMMANDS (IMPERATIVE) -
2. " I had a bad cold last w e e k , " the w o r k e r said. LAS RDENES INDIRECTAS (EL IMPERATIVO)

3. " W e are painting our house t o d a y , " m y friend said. Las rdenes se suelen expresar en imperativo pero al ponerlas en estilo indirecto:

1 El imperativo pasa a infinitivo manteniendo la forma afirmativa o negativa.


H e s a i d , "Stay h e r e . " H e told u s to stay t h e r e .
4. " T h e palace w i l l be o p e n to the public t o m o r r o w , " the official d e c l a r e d .
S h e s h o u t e d , " D o n ' t move!" - S h e ordered u s n o t to move.

2 El verbo que introduce el estilo indirecto debe indicar "mandar", por eso nunca
5. " T h e boss is e x a m i n i n g our w o r k n o w , " the w o r k e r said. se usa say (decir), sino tell, order, instruct, que deben llevar un complemento
de persona, a quien se da la orden.
H e s a i d , " B e q u i e t . " *> H e told us to be quiet.
6. " S h e didn't leave w o r k early o n c e last w e e k , " T o m said. H e said, "Please don't s h o u t . " H e ordered m e n o t to s h o u t .

3 Adems de los verbos que ya hemos visto antes, hay otros que se usan para

7. "I forgot to take m y b r i e f c a s e , " Jim said. hacer peticiones como ask, beg; invitaciones como invite o advertencias como
warn, etc.
" S a y t h a t a g a i n , p l e a s e , " h e s a i d . H e a s k e d m e to s a y t h a t a g a i n .
8. " T h e shops w e r e n ' t o p e n yesterday a f t e r n o o n , " the w o m a n said. Nota: Fjate en que al traducir las rdenes en estilo indirecto usamos el
subjuntivo.
H e said, "Be quiet."
9. " E r i c w a s studying all d a y T h u r s d a y , " John said.
H e t o l d m e to be quiet. (Me dijo que me callara.)

10. " I w a n t you to take the car to the garage next F r i d a y , " he told his w i f e .
VVrite the following senlcix e s in reported speec h.

1. " I w o u l d like to visit m y p a r e n t s , " L i n d a said to D a v i d .

_Linda to/d David that she yvoy/d Mee_to,yisit herjparents ;

2. O u r teacher said, " T r y a n d read this t e x t . "

3. " Y o u shouldn't e a t in t h e living-room," the mother told her son.

4. " T h e i r c a r might have broken d o w n , " m y husband told m e .

1 " P l e a s e don't l e a v e , " h e begged her.

5. " I have to d o m y h o m e w o r k n o w , " P e n n y said to her f r i e n d .

2. " D o n ' t s m o k e n m y office, p l e a s e , " the boss said.

6. " T h e G o v e r n m e n t w i l l have to m a k e n e w l a w s , " the politician d e c l a r e d .

3- " K e e p q u i e t ! " the nurse said to the visitors.

7. " W e c a n save a lot of trees by recycling p a p e r , " the ecologist e x p l a i n e d .

4- " C i v e m e your p a p e r s ! " the p o l i c e m a n instructed m e .


8. " B e sure that e v e r y t h i n g is ready o n t i m e , " I advised t h e c h i l d r e n .

5- " D o n ' t forget to p h o n e m e ! " the father said to his son.

EXERCISE 9

6- " S t a n d up straight!" the teacher said to the p u p i l . Complete the following sentences using your own words and deas.

1. M y parents a l w a y s tell m e to M?S.?^\.^PJJ.V^ :

7- " P l e a s e c o m e over for supper next F r i d a y , " m y neighbour a s k e d 2. O u r English teacher told us that

3. M y favourite T V star said in t h e last p r o g r a m m e

8- " D o n ' t m a k e a n o i s e ! " the libraran said to the readers. 4. T h e p r i m e minister recently stated that

5. O n e of m y friends has just asked m e to

6. Last w e e k I said to my best friend that


EXERCISE 1O TRANSLAT I O N

Write the following sentences in direct speech. hanslate the sentences below Into your native language.

1. T h e teacher told us to read t h e w h o l e book in English. 1. H e said that w e w e r e leaving s o o n .

T h e teacher said, " ??3S.1P.feRR/?.fi9ffl-. 2. M y friend asked m e not to tell a n y o n e about the letter.

2. T h e y a s k e d us not to s m o k e in the patient's r o o m .


3. T h e plice e x p l a i n e d that the a c c i d e n t h a d been c a u s e d by a d r u n k driver.
T h e y said, " P l e a s e
4. T h e meteorologist said it w o u l d rain that a f t e r n o o n .
3. I a n n o u n c e d to m y parents that I w o u l d n ' t be late.
5. S h e said that if T o m h a d b e e n there, it w o u l d n ' t have h a p p e n e d .
"' ," I a n n o u n c e d to my
parents.
6. I c o m p l a i n e d to t h e secretary that I h a d b e e n w a i t i n g for over t w o hours.
4. S h e told us that she h a d been to t h e C a n a r y Islands m a n y t i m e s .
7. T h e y d e c l a r e d that they w o u l d be putting their house u p for sale t h e f o l l o w i n
She said, "
month.
5. T h e pensioner said that h e h a d retired t w o years before.
8. T h e y told us that if their plan w o r k e d , they c o u l d b e c o m e rich overnight.
T h e pensioner said, "

(>. S h e told us that she w a s t h i n k i n g of changing jobs t h e f o l l o w i n g year.


SPOT THE ERROR X
She said, "
Can you correct the mistakes?
7. M y parents advised m e t o tell t h e truth at all times.
1. S h e said m e to go a n d get t h e n e w s p a p e r .
M y parents said, "

8. T h e y invited us to c o m e a n d see their n e w house. 2. M y m u m told m e I c o u l d bought n e w shoes.

"Please / ' t h e y said. 3. T h e t e a c h e r told us that w e w i l l finish t h e unit t h e f o l l o w i n g lesson.

4. S h e told us to not w o r r y .
EXERCISE 1 1

) C h o o s e the correct answer. 5. T h e pupil told he h a d d o n e his h o m e w o r k .

6. S h e e x p l a i n e d that she m a y be late.


I lelen w e n t to t h e U S A last m o n t h . W h e n she r e t u r n e d , Steve carne to visit. H e
wanted to k n o w w h e t h e r H e l e n (1 h a d , has, h a v e , did) e n j o y e d her visit to the U S A 7. T h e y told to us that t h e letter w a s being t y p e d .
the (2 next, before, previous, ago) m o n t h . H e a s k e d her w h e t h e r she (3 is, w a s , will,
8. Eric insisted that h e w i l l have to think about it.
may) p l a n n i n g to go again t h e (4 following, future, previous, last) s u m m e r . H e l e n
(od h i m that t h e U S A (5 is, w i l l b e , has, w e r e ) s u c h a big country that it w a s
mpossible to see it all in o n e trip. Steve (6 told, s a i d , r e p o r t e d , asked) if H e l e n
had (7 being, b e e n , b e , go) to W a s h i n g t o n , D C , a n d she a n s w e r e d that s h e
(8 w a s , is, has, had). W h i l e trying to tell Steve a b o u t her trip, H e l e n got a n n o y e d
w i t h his questions. S h e (9 told, s a i d , let, e x p l a i n e d ) Steve ( 1 0 not, b e , w i l l , to)
stop interrupting her w h i l e s h e w a s talking.