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A STUDY ABOUT THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF

FLEXIBLE TUBES INCLUDING INTERNAL FLOW

By
Marcio Yamamoto

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE


REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
AT
YOKOHAMA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
YOKOHAMA, KANAGAWA, JAPAN
MARCH 2011


c Copyright by Marcio Yamamoto, 2011
YOKOHAMA NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
ENVIRONMENT AND SYSTEMS SCIENCES

The undersigned hereby certify that they have read and


recommend to the Faculty of Graduate School of Environment and
Information Sciences for acceptance a thesis entitled A study about
the dynamic behavior of Flexible Tubes including internal ow
by Marcio Yamamoto in partial fulllment of the requirements for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Dated: March 2011

External Examiner:
Shotaro Uto

Research Supervisor:
Motohiko Murai

Examing Committee:
Tsugukiyo Hirayama

Seiya Ueno

Shin Morishita

iii
To my parents.

v
Table of Contents

Table of Contents vi

List of Tables viii

List of Figures x

Abstract xviii

Acknowledgements xix

1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Petroleum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 History of Modern Petroleum Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2.1 The pioneers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 The Revolution of the Internal Combustion Engines . . . . . . 6
1.2.3 The 20th Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2.4 The Last Three Decades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 Marine Risers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.4.1 Marine Drilling Riser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.4.2 Production Riser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.5 Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2 Numerical Simulation 35
2.1 Risers Analytical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.1.1 Model assuming a dynamic internal uid . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.2 Numerical Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.1 Numerical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.2.2 Inertial Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

vi
2.2.3 Elastic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.2.4 Structural Damping Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2.5 Internal Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.2.6 Coordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.2.7 Matrix Assembling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.2.8 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.3 RiserSIM : computational program for riser simulation . . . . . . . . 52
2.3.1 Validation: static displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.3.2 Validation: Natural Frequency & Modal Shape . . . . . . . . . 64
2.4 Parametric Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3 Initial Experiments 80
3.1 First Experiment: Natural Frequency & Damping Factor . . . . . . . 82
3.1.1 Pipe Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.1.2 Experimental Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.1.3 Experimental Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.1.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.1.5 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.2 Second Experiment: Top Oscillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.2.1 Pipe Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.2.2 Experimental Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.2.3 Experimental Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
3.2.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.2.5 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

4 Experiments in the Deep-Sea Basin 116


4.1 Experiment: Hanged Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.1.1 Pipe Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.1.2 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.1.3 Data Acquisition System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
4.1.4 Experimental Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.1.5 Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.1.6 Numerical Simulation: comparing results . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.1.7 Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4.2 Experiment: Jumper Conguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.2.1 Pipe Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.2.2 Apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.2.3 Data Acquisition System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4.2.4 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169

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5 Final Remarks 179

Bibliography 184

A Analytical Model for Tensioned Beam 191


A.1 Analytical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
A.2 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

B Modal Displacement & Natural Frequencies 196


B.1 Analytical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
B.2 Numerical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

C The Newmark- Algorithm 201


C.1 Numerical Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

D The Experimental Apparatuses: drawings 206


D.1 Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

viii
List of Tables

1.1 Typical chemical composition by weight for crude oil and natural gas
[27]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2.1 Material properties of the pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


2.2 Dimensionless Natural Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.3 Main properties of the pipe assumed as model for the numerical simu-
lation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

3.1 TYGON R-3603 material properties [44]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82


3.2 Geometric properties of the tubing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.3 Length of the specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.4 Prole conguration for the specimens (dimensions in mm). . . . . . 85
3.5 Geometric properties of the tubing for the top oscillation experiment. 97

4.1 Analogical acquisition channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125


4.2 Cases analyzed which the results will be featured in subsection 4.1.5. 132
4.3 Cases analyzed in this work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.4 Main properties of the pipe deployed during the experiment. . . . . . 147
4.5 Geometric properties of the pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
4.6 Analogical acquisition channels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

D.1 Experiment #1: Natural Frequency & Dampness (section 3.1). . . . . 206
D.2 Experiment #2: Top Oscillation (section 3.2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

ix
List of Figures

1.1 An example of paran molecule: butane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


1.2 Asphaltic molecule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 An example of naphthene molecule: cyclohexane. . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Benzene molecule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Annual US historic crude oil production. Source: EIA [4]. . . . . . . . 8
1.6 Global energy production by source - 2007 Data. Source: [19]. . . . . 10
1.7 Global oil use - 2007 Data. Source: [19]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.8 Petroleum consumption: USA, Japan and Europe. Source: EIA
U.S. Department of Energy [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.9 Petroleum consumption: BRICBrazil, Russia, India and China. Source:
EIAU.S. Department of Energy [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.10 Brazils Petroleum Consumption & Production. Source: EIAU.S.
Department of Energy [3]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.11 Oshore Mining schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.12 Fixed platform for shallow waters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.13 Tension Leg Platform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.14 Details of a drilling risers ange. (Source: Rogerio Martins Tavares) 20
1.15 Details of a Low Marine Riser Pack (top part of a BOP). (Source:
Rogerio Martins Tavares) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.16 Oshore drilling: (a) second phase, (b) re-entry operation, and (c)
third phase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.17 Schematic of a Marine Drilling Riser System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

x
1.18 Details of the Riser Tensioning System: sheaves & pistons. (Source:
personal archive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.19 Details of the Riser Tensioning System at the Moon Pool : Telescopic
Joint, Tension Ring & Tensioner Lines. (Source: personal archive) . 27
1.20 Semi-submersible for production with a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR). 29
1.21 An illustrative schematic of a exible riser showing the dierent layers. 30
1.22 Semi-submersible for production with a exible riser in a lazy-wave
conguration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
1.23 An schematic of a oating production unit connected to some free
standing hybrid risers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.1 Local coordinates at the discrete nodes of a single beam element. . . 46


2.2 Coordinate transformation for one single element. . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.3 Assembling two beam elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.4 Assembling the global matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.5 The three riser congurations available so far for simulation: (a) TTR,
(b) hanged pipe, and (c) jumper. Obs.: the number of elements in
the above gure is merely illustrative; actually the number of elements
used during the simulation is a parameter that shall be dened in the
input le. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.6 Flowchart of the RiserSIMs main program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.7 Flowchart of the RiserSIMs Static Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.8 Flowchart of the RiserSIMs Dynamic Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.9 Adopted model: tensioned hanged pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.10 Results comparison: analytical & numerical nonlinear solution. . . . . 63
2.11 Results comparison: analytical & numerical linear solution. . . . . . . 64
2.12 Natural frequencies: analytical solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.13 Modal shape: 1st Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.14 Modal shape: 2nd Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.15 Modal shape: 3rd Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

xi
2.16 Modal shape: 4th Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.17 The prescribed trajectory of the pipes top end. . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.18 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: inlet pressure (constant
internal ow rate 0.675 L/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.19 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: inlet pressure (constant
internal ow rate 1.013 L/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.20 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (con-
stant inlet pressure 10.0 kP a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.21 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (con-
stant inlet pressure 20.0 kP a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.22 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (con-
stant inlet pressure 40.0 kP a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.23 Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (con-
stant inlet pressure 60.0 kP a). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

3.1 Schematic of the Experimental Apparatus: natural frequency & damp-


ness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.2 Schematic of the Experimental Apparatus: natural frequency & damp-
ness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.3 Example of pipe proles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.4 Example of peak and valley (superposition). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.5 Example of raw data for 3 stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.6 Example of of raw data and ltered data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.7 Example of tting an exponential curve curve to the positive peaks. . 88
3.8 Damping factor for the pipe Specimen A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.9 Damping factor for the pipe Specimen B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.10 Damping factor for the pipe Specimen C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.11 Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
3.12 Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.13 Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

xii
3.14 Comparison of the slope among the pipe specimens for the prole con-
guration #1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.15 Schematic of the dierent tension proles for the top oscillation exper-
iments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.16 Schematic of the experimental apparatus for the top oscillation exper-
iments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.17 The experimental apparatus for the top oscillation experiments. . . . 100
3.18 Pipes Response as the summing of several modal shapes. . . . . . . . 101
3.19 Example of a time series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.20 Example of the curve tting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.21 Station As input (14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
3.22 Station C s time-series (14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.23 Spectrum of the Station C s time-series. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.24 Station C s time-series and tted curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
3.25 Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.26 Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.27 Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
3.28 Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscilla-
tion frequency 14.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.29 Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
10.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.30 Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
10.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3.31 Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 10.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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3.32 Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscilla-
tion frequency 10.5 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
3.33 Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
17.9 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.34 Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
17.9 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.35 Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 17.9 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
3.36 Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscilla-
tion frequency 17.9 rad/s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

4.1 The Deep-SEA Basin. Source: Dr. Shotaro Uto. . . . . . . . . . . . . 117


4.2 The model deployed in the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.3 Accelerometers positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.4 Fixing the accelerometers on the pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.5 Model set in the Deep-Sea Basin without water. . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.6 Model set in the Deep-Sea Basin with water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.7 Experimental apparatus schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.8 Picture of the experimental apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.9 Picture of the experimental apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.10 Analogical signal conditioners and pumps frequency inversor. . . . . 126
4.11 Riser models dynamic behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
4.12 Dynamic behavior of dierent stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.13 FFT results for all stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.14 Results: Case 1 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.15 Results: Case 1 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.16 Results: Case 2 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.17 Results: Case 2 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
4.18 Results: Case 3 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.19 Results: Case 3 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

xiv
4.20 Results: Case 4 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.21 Results: Case 4 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.22 Results: Case 5 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.23 Results: Case 5 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.24 Results: Case 6 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.25 Results: Case 6 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.26 Results: Case 7 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.27 Results: Case 7 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.28 Results: Case 8 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.29 Results: Case 8 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.30 Results: Case 9 IN-LINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.31 Results: Case 9 TRANSVERSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.32 Case 1: no internal @0.215 Hz. The Inlet Pressure is used as paramet-
ric input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.33 Case 2: internal ow rate 0.169L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The
Inlet Pressure is used as parametric input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.34 Case 3: internal ow rate 0.675L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The
Inlet Pressure is used as parametric input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
4.35 Case 4: internal ow rate 1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The
Inlet Pressure is used as parametric input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.36 Parametric Analysis: the Modulus of Elasticity E @ internal ow rate
1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
4.37 Parametric Analysis: the Drag Coecient CD @ internal ow rate
1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.38 Parametric Analysis: the lower Weights mass @ internal ow rate
1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
4.39 Parametric Analysis: the lower Weights drag coecient @ internal
ow rate 1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4.40 The models layers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

xv
4.41 Model deployed during the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
4.42 Detail of the distance between two measurement stations. . . . . . . . 162
4.43 Schematic of the accelerometers positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
4.44 Detail of the accelerometer attached to the model. . . . . . . . . . . . 163
4.45 The experimental apparatus schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
4.46 Picture of the experimental apparatus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
4.47 Detail of the hose that returns the water to the auxiliary tank. . . . . 165
4.48 The model in the basin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4.49 Example of average position. (Osc. Freq.= 0.866 Hz, no internal ow) 168
4.50 The reference coordinate system assumed during this experiment. . . 169
4.51 Example of average position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
4.52 Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 6 s). . . . . 170
4.53 Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 6 s). . 171
4.54 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 6 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.55 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 6 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.56 Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 9 s). . . . . 173
4.57 Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 9 s). . 174
4.58 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 9 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
4.59 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 9 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
4.60 Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 12 s). . . . 175
4.61 Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 12 s). 176
4.62 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 12 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
4.63 Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: puls-
ing ow (period 12 s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

xvi
B.1 TENSIONED CANTILEVER BEAM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

C.1 Flowchart of the subroutine Newmark-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

xvii
Abstract

The Exploration & Production of oshore petroleum elds have increased drastically
during the last 30 years. The Exploratory Frontier has advanced into deeper and
deeper waters. In order to achieve such new reservoirs, new oshore technologies
have been developed over the years.
One sub sea equipment that is essential for the development of such oshore elds
is the RISER. Riser is any tubular structure that connects the well head on the sea
bottom up to the platform at the surface. Such tubular structure can be classied
into drilling riser and production riser and can convey a variety of uids, equipments,
solids in suspension, etc. Beside the Petroleum Industry, the riser can also be applied
for the Oshore Mining and Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).
Several researches have investigated risers by the way of experimental analysis and
analytical analysis covering the structural static and dynamic behavior, hydrodynam-
ics loads, boundary conditions, and so on. But only a few researches have focused on
the eect of the internal ow on the risers dynamic behavior.
This investigation is focused on this gap. Several experiments were carried out
to clarify the eect of internal ow on the pipes dynamic behavior. Some of those
experiments were carried out in the Deep Sea Basin of the National Maritime Research
Institute using 10 m long pipes models. In addition, a computational program for
the risers numerical simulation including the internal ow eects have been fully
developed during this study.

xviii
Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Motohiko Murai for his suggestions, support
and friendship during this research. I am also thankful to Prof. Celso K. Morooka
(University of Campinas, Brazil), Prof. Seiya Ueno (Yokohama National University)
and Dr. Katsuya Maeda (JOGMEC/NMRI) who had believed and encouraged me
to pursue a PhD degree at the Yokohama National University.

I am also thankful to Dr. Shotaro Uto, Mr. Tomo Fujiwara, Mr. Shigeo Kanada
and other members of the Deep-Sea Technology Research Group of the National Mar-
itime Research Institute for their support and valuable contributions during this re-
search. I also acknowledge Mr. Ken Haneda whose support has helped immensely
the development of this research.
The acknowledgments must also be extends to the Ministry of Education, Culture,
Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) for the granted scholarship; and
the Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS) for the nancial support to this
research.
I am always thankful to my parents Lourdes and Massao who had brought me
up with loving care and always have supported me. I am also thankful to my uncle
Tadashi, aunt Shizuko and my two cousins Hideki and Tadayuki for their support
and kindness during my stay in Japan.
My acknowledgement for all members of the Murais Lab for their support. My
special thanks to Mrs. Tomoko Watanabe who always have helped me promptly; and
Tatsuhiko Aono and Osamu Nakagawa, my tutors, who helped me a lot, specially
when I just arrived in Japan.
Finally, I wish to thank the following: Yugo Fanfarrao Takimoto, Roberto
Eiji Nishitani, Andre Mitsuo Kogishi, Kelly Takano, Prof. Keiko Fujii, Hisayoshi

xix
xx

Suefuku, Yokokura-san and all friends I have met in Japan. Their friendship, support
and kindness made my stay in Japan a very pleasurable experience.

Yokohama, Japan Marcio Yamamoto


March, 2011
Chapter 1

Introduction

This chapter intends to be a brief introduction about petroleum and its use as energy

source. First, we will try to introduces the petroleum itself, its composition and

main characteristics. Next, the history of of the modern petroleum industry will be

briey reviewed. Then the main reasons for the research of marine risers and other

oshore equipments will be featured; and the riser and its applications will be briey

presented. Finally, we have review of other researches about riser.

1.1 The Petroleum

In terms of etymology, the word petroleum is composed by two latin radicals: petra,

meaning rock, and oleum, meaning oil.

However, petroleum can designate both crude oil and natural gas. In both cases,

crude oil and natural gas are composed by a mixture of organic molecules and with

traces of other components. Table 1.1 shows the main components in terms of weight

for a typical crude oil and natural gas.

We can see that the main components of petroleum are the Hydrogen and Carbon;

thus hydrocarbon became a synonymous for petroleum.

1
2

Table 1.1: Typical chemical composition by weight for crude oil and natural gas [27].

Crude Oil Natural Gas


Carbon 84 87% 65 80%
Hydrogen 11 14% 1 25%
Sulfur 0.06 2% 0 0.2%
Nitrogen 0.1 2% 1 15%
Oxygen 0.1 2% 0%

Figure 1.1: An example of paran molecule: butane.

Although the amount of mass of hydrogen and carbon in the crude oil and natural

gas has the average shown by Table 1.1; the way of such atoms bond each other in

order to form the hydrocarbon molecules can be very dierent.

Such hydrogen and carbon are gathered in four dierent series of hydrocarbons

molecules, viz., parans, asphaltics, naphthenes, and aromatics [27].

The rst group is named paran or alkane. Such molecules is composed by

straight chain of carbons bonded each other through saturated bonds. The simplest

paran molecule is the methane (CH4 ), a colorless & odorless gas at room temper-

ature 1 and standard pressure 2 . The alkane that has more than 20 and less than 40

carbons atoms is usually named wax. Figure 1.1 shows the butane (C4 H10 ), an alkane

that in room temperature and standard pressure conditions is a colorless gas.


1
Room temperature denotes to the range of 20 25 o C wherein the general human comfort is
achieved
2
Standard Pressure is 100 kP a under IUPACs standard
3

Figure 1.2: Asphaltic molecule.

Figure 1.3: An example of naphthene molecule: cyclohexane.

The straight chain with more than 40 atoms of carbon is called asphaltic molecule

(Fig. 1.2). The asphalt has a high boiling point; at room temperature and standard

pressure conditions, it is solid or semi-solid; and its colors varies from brown to black.

The next group of hydrocarbon is the naphthene or cycloalkanes molecules; such

molecules are a type of alkane which has one or more rings of carbon atoms, as shown

in Fig. 1.3.

The last group is composed by the aromatic or benzene molecule. Such molecules

have a closed ring, usually with six or more carbon atoms, with some unsaturated

bonds between the carbon atoms (Fig. 1.4). The aromatic-rich crude oil has a char-

acteristic fruity odor.

One common misunderstand is the belief that the petroleum has always the same
4

Figure 1.4: Benzene molecule.

composition and characteristic. Actually, the petroleum from dierent elds have

dierent composition in terms of type hydrocarbons chain and, consequently, dierent

properties and worth.

For example, a crude oil rich in asphaltic molecules has a high viscosity and a

black color; it is often named as heavy oil. When such heavy oil is distilled, it yields

a large percentage of asphalt, which has very low commercial worth.

In the other hand, a crude oil rich with light alkanes, such as, octanes, has a

low viscosity; its colors can be yellowish as gasoline. Such light oil can yield a large

amount of gasoline, kerosene and other worthy products.

1.2 History of Modern Petroleum Industry

The Petroleum has been used by the mankind since at least 4 000 BC [19]. At

beginning, the petroleum was gathered from oil seeps, natural petroleum springs.

The rst applications for the crude oil were as an adhesive for constructions and to

waterproof boats. In China around 1 000 BC, the crude oil had been rened in small
5

quantity for lighting and heating.

1.2.1 The pioneers

The Petroleum Industry raised in the middle of the 19th Century. The overshing and

consequent decline in the whale population increased the prices of the whale oil that

was burned in lamps for light. Some entrepreneurs, such as George Bissel, realized

that a new substitute for the whale oil should be a good business opportunity. Bissel

sent a crude oil sample skimmed from a natural oil pool in Pennsylvania state-USA,

for analysis at the Yale University. Such analysis conrmed that the crude oil could

be distilled and one of its sub-products, the kerosene could be a substitute for the

whale oil.

Then Bissel and his partners rose capital and found the Pennsylvania Rock Oil

Company in 1855. The company hired Edwin Laurentine Drake, also known as

Colonel Drake 3 , who was in charge to produce the rock oil in commercial scale.

The rock oil was a well known byproduct of the salt mines in Pennsylvania. Then

Colonel Drake decided to drill a well using the same technique of the salt miners, but

instead the salt, the target was oil. The well was drilled on a salt dome formation

using the same derrick used in salt mines. Colonel Drake, for the rst time, installed a

large-diameter pipe into the open hole in order to stabilize the wellbore and prevent

the ground water to ow into the well. The same principle has been used until now

in the well construction; such large-diameter pipes are called casings [30].

3
Drake was never in the military, the company made up his title to impress the locals [19].
6

Colonel Drake achieved oil on August 27, 1859. This rst petroleum well was about

21 m deep and produced 15 bbl/d 4 . The location of this rst petroleum production

became known as Oil Creek ; it is the cradle of the modern oil industry [19].

1.2.2 The Revolution of the Internal Combustion Engines

So little oil was produced [in late 19th Century] that Henry Ford initially

designed the Model T to run on ethanol.(...) Rudolph Diesel originally

designed his engine to run on etherized vegetable oils, now known as

biodiesel. Morgan Downey [19]

The distilled products from petroleum, such as, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and so

on, have the ideal characteristics to be used as fuel for automobiles, airplanes, and

other transportation ways. For example, comparing with other energy sources, such

petroleum subproducts have a high energy density, can be stored and transported

easily, and are relatively safety and cheap.

But in the late 19th , the petroleum wells could not produce more the 50 bbl/d.

This petroleum production was sucient for the lamp oil industry, but it was not

enough to make the petroleum the worlds most important energy source.

However, in the early 20th Century, the new discoveries changed this scenario.

The iconic example is the Spindletop eld located near to Beaumont, Texas (USA).

Such eld could produce over 50 000 bbl/d [19].

Signicant large discoveries also happened in other parts of the world, such as,

Baku (today part of Azerbaijan). The Anglo-Persian Oil Company, nowadays known
4
bbl/d: barrels per day, this ow rate measurement unit has been used until now. The acronym
bbl comes from Standard Oil s Blue Barrel that is still the default standard volume in the Petroleum
Industry (1 bbl = 42 U S gallons).
7

as BP, also discovered oil reserves in Persia (currently Iran); and the Royal Dutch

Shell discovered reserves in Sumatra, now part of Indonesia.

Thus Spindletop and the other large discoveries created an oversupply of petroleums

distilled products; and such cheap fuel could be transported and sold anywhere. This

was the necessary requisite for the rise of the Automobile Age. The mass produced

automobiles created the demand for this oversupply of petroleums distillates. The

petroleum was no longer the raw-material of the kerosene for lighting5 ; it became the

most important energy source for transportation.

Petroleum became a strategic resource during the two World Wars; the oil became

the main fuel of the War Machines. War vessels, aircrafts, tanks, and all kind of

vehicles for troops and supplies transportation were running on petroleums distillates.

1.2.3 The 20th Century

At the beginning of the 20th Century, the Standard Oil Company of the legendary

John D. Rockefeller controlled over 90% of the USA oil market and literally set several

standards that have been used by the petroleum industry up to now. At that time, a

oil company that was not controlled by Rockefeller, was known as independent [19].

The term independent oil company is still widely used, but it has a dierent

connotation nowadays. The independent oil company stands for those oil & gas

companies that have only exploration and production, and none or very reduced

rening capacity nor downstream marketing in their operations. The US Internal

Revenue Code 613A(d) [1] denes the conditions to classify a oil gas company as
5
Since the beginning of the 20th Century, the kerosene lamp has been replaced by the electric
light bulb in most part of Europe and USA.
8

Figure 1.5: Annual US historic crude oil production. Source: EIA [4].

independent. Such companies also has some scal incentives in the USA.

In 1911, the Standard Oil Co. was split in 34 companies based in the Sherman An-

titrust Act of 1890. Among the Standard Oils ospring, we can cite Exxon, Chevron,

Texaco, and Conoco. Along the years, such companies have merged and/or acquired

with other oil companies. For example, Exxon is called now ExxonMobil, Chevron

acquired Texaco, and Conoco is part of ConocoPhillips.

During the early 1930s, the rampant increasing of oil production, specially the

new massive discoveries in the Texas state, dropped the oil prices. Then the US

Government required the Railroad Commission of Texas (RCT) and other smaller

regulatory agencies to impose production quotes in their respective oil producing

states, in order to stabilize the oil price.

The US production of crude oil achieved its historic peak in 1970, as shown by

Fig. 1.5. In 1971, the RCT control of the Texas production spare capacity was

revoked, there was no spare production anymore.


9

In the other parts of the world, the oil production, until the 1970s, was controlled

by a cartel of international oil companies that were called THE SEVEN SISTERS,

viz., the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey became Esso and later Exxon, Stan-

dard Oil Company of New York (SoCoNY), Standard Oil of California (SoCal) that

became Chevron, Texas Company (later renamed as Texaco), Royal Dutch Shell,

Anglo-Persian Oil Company (currently BP), and Gulf Oil. After several merges and

acquisitions, the seven sisters became 4 majors oil company, namely, ExxonMobil,

Chevron Royal Dutch Shell, and BP. Other two major companies are ConocoPhillips

and Total.

ExxonMobil, Chevron, and ConocoPhillips are USA based companies that with

other 3 European companies, namely, BP, Royal Dutch Shell, and Total, form a group

of six oil & gas companies known nowadays as THE MAJORS.

The majors do not have a control over the oil production as the seven sisters used

to have. But, together, the majors can control 14% of global crude oil production

and about 24% of worlds rening capacity [19].

1.2.4 The Last Three Decades

Since the middle of the 20th Century, the petroleum is the worlds main energy source.

This trend is kept until now, Figure 1.6 shows the main energy sources in 2007. We

can observe the crude oil as the worlds main energy source. If we account both crude

oil and natural gas, they represent more than 60% of the global energy production.

Figure 1.7 shows that the main application of the crude oils distillates is as fuel for

the transportation system. Such distillates includes mainly gasoline, diesel, residual

fuel oil (low value oil that is used by ships), and jet fuel [19].
10

Figure 1.6: Global energy production by source - 2007 Data. Source: [19].

Figure 1.7: Global oil use - 2007 Data. Source: [19].


11

Figure 1.8: Petroleum consumption: USA, Japan and Europe. Source: EIAU.S. De-
partment of Energy [3].

In terms of consumption, we can see the worlds consumption has a growth during

the last 30 years. Figure 1.8 shows such growth, the black line represents the annual

worlds petroleum consumption. We can see also that during the period 2008 2009,

the consumption had the tendency to decrease probably due to economical turn down,

sparked by the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers.

Figure 1.8 also shows the consumption relative to the worlds consumption of the

three most powerful economic players, USA, Japan and Europe, during the last 30

years. We can observe that the relative consumption of such powers has decreased

during the period.

Otherwise emergent countries, specially China and India, have a growth in the

relative consumption. Figure 1.9 show the relative consumption of the countries

named as BRIC : Brazil, Russia, India and China. Beside the growth of China, India

and Brazil; Russia have haven a reduction of its relative consumption.

Among the BRIC, Brazil has a moderate growth in its relative consumption. But
12

Figure 1.9: Petroleum consumption: BRICBrazil, Russia, India and China. Source:
EIAU.S. Department of Energy [3].

Brazil have a substantial growth in its internal petroleum production. Figure 1.10

compares the Brazilian petroleum consumption and domestic production. We can

arm that nowadays Brazil is self-suciency in term of petroleum. In other words,

Brazil produces the enough petroleum to supply its internal market.

In Figure 1.10, we can see a rst growth in the Brazilian production during early

1980s. Such growth is because the developments of oshore elds in the shallow

waters of the Campos Basin. In addition, after 1995, the production has consistently

growth because of the new discoveries of huge reserves in the deep waters of Campos

Basin and Esprito Santos Basin. Recently, Petrobras, the Brazilian Oil Company,

announced the discovery of massive reserves in the Pre-Salt formations. Such forma-

tions extends over a vast area of the Brazilian Coast, and new discoveries are expected

for the region.


13

Figure 1.10: Brazils Petroleum Consumption & Production. Source: EIAU.S. De-
partment of Energy [3].

1.3 Motivation

Since late 1970s, the Petrobras has developed oshore elds, rst in shallow waters

(water depth up to 350 m), and more recently, elds located in deep water (water

depth between 350 m and 1500 m) and ultra-deep water (water depth over 1500 m).

In other to developed such discoveries, new technologies are required in order to

make technically and economically possible the development of such deep and ultra-

deep waters reserves. New kind of platforms, mooring system, riser system, etc. have

been researched and developed, not only in Brazil, but in the USA, Europe and West

Africa.

Such new technologies have indicated that the number of risers deployed for the

development of an oshore eld have been decreased. However the internal ow rate

of such riser must increase to compensate the reduced number of riser. For example,
14

new technologies, such as the directional and horizontal drilling have increased the

hydrocarbon production rate per well. Such new wells have a much higher ow rate

compared with the vertical well.

Another recent change in the paradigm for the development of oshore production

system is the increasing use of manifolds and subsea boosting system. The manifold

combines the production from several subsea wells into one unique riser.

About the subsea boosting system, there are a variety of systems available in

the market [43]. We can cite, as example, the subsea multi-phase pumps, subsea

separators, which separate the gaseous phase (natural gas and condensate) from the

liquid phase (oil and gas), equipped with compressors and pumps. Such system,

which were not available 10 years ago, will increase not only the internal ow rates

within the risers, but also will increase the internal pressure. According to Reznicek

et al [43], the dierential pressure due to such boosting system can be above 200 bar

(20 M pa).

Furthermore, the riser system can also be applied for Oshore Mining and the

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC).

The Oshore Mining is an important risers application with good perspectives in

the future. In this application, a Seaoor Mining Tool (SMT) dredges the seaoor

sending the dredged soils, as a slurry, within a riser up to the platform, as shown by

Fig. 1.11.

The OTEC is a new concept, under development, to generate energy using the

heat from the oceans water. This concept intends to use the hot water from the

ocean surface as a hot source, and the cold water from the ocean bottom as a cold

source. Then such heat and cold sources could be used to generate energy using a
15

Figure 1.11: Oshore Mining schematic.

conversion cycle as, for example, the Rankine Cycle. In order to bring the cold water

from the ocean bottom, a riser system system is required.

The Riser Systems have been extensively researched. Up till now, such investiga-

tions have been concerned mostly on the mechanical behavior, the external hydrody-

namic loads, interaction with the soil and coupled motion with the platform. Only a

few researches were focused on the eect of the internal ow on the risers dynamics.

We can predict that, from now on, the risers internal ow rates and pressures

for the new projects and developments have the tendency to increase. Thus we were

curious about the eects of such increasing internal ow rates and pressure have on

the risers dynamic behavior.

This research intends to investigate the eect of internal ow in the dynamic

behavior of a pipe. This researched have been done by the way of numerical and

experimental analysis.

A computational program has been developed for the numerical simulation of

the risers dynamic behavior (Chapter 2). In addition, several experiments have been
16

Figure 1.12: Fixed platform for shallow waters.

carried out. Some experiments were carried out in the Yokohama National University

(YNU); those experiments used pipe models of up to 0.6 m (Chapter 3).

This thesis is also part of a Cooperative Research between YNU and the National

Maritime Research Institute (NMRI), that was support by the Japan Society for

Promotion of Science (JSPS). Then some experiments were also carried out in the

NMRIs Deep Sea Basin using model as long as 10.0 m (Chapter 4).

1.4 Marine Risers

The Tubular Structures Since the beginning of the Exploration & Production

(E&P) of oshore elds during the late 1800s, the tubular structures have been

largely used by the Oshore Petroleum Industry.

One example of application of tubular structures is as the truss structure that

supports a platform in shallow water (Fig. 1.12); such structure is called as steel

jacket by the Industry.

The platform that is supported by a steel jacket is named xed platform. Such
17

platforms can only be deployed in shallow waters; and its vertical motion (heave) can

be neglected allowing the operation of the rigid risers. Further, several xed platforms

has both drilling and production capabilities. In most of the cases, the drilling rig6

is modular; this means that the drilling rigs can be disassembled and assembled on

another xed platform else. Until now, the deepest xed platform is the Bullwinkle

installed at a water depth of about 412 m in the US Gulf of Mexico[51].

Another important application of tubular structure is as tendons or tethers of a

Tension Leg Platform (TLP). The TLP is a oating platform equipped with a vertical

mooring system composed by the tendons that connects the piles at the sea oor to

the platforms hull, as shown by Fig. 1.13. The legs tension is induced by an excess of

buoyancy over the platforms weight [15]. Such legs tension suppresses the vertical

motions of heave, pitch and roll ; and the TLP behaves as a compliant structure

allowing the operation of rigid risers. Furthermore, the TLP can be installed in deep

and ultra-deep water; the current deepest TLP is the Magnolia that is installed at

a water depth of about 1 425 m in the US Gulf of Mexico [51].

Finally, the most important application of the tubular structures is as a pipe

connecting two points conveying the hydrocarbon and/or another work uid.

Usually, the Oshore Petroleum Industry distinguishes the pipe into pipeline

and riser. The pipeline is the laid down pipe that connects two sub sea points used

mainly during the production phase of an oshore petroleum eld.

Marine Risers are tubular structures that connects the wellhead or other sub sea

equipment at the sea oor up to the platform at the sea surface.


6
The drilling rig in this case designates all equipments necessary for the drilling, completion and
workover operations, such as, derrick, hoisting system, mud circulating system, rotary systems, and
so on.
18

Figure 1.13: Tension Leg Platform.

The riser can be classied according to its application: drilling riser or production

riser. Following, the subsection 1.4.1 has a brief description about the Marine Drilling

Riser ; and the subsection 1.4.2 about the Production Riser.

1.4.1 Marine Drilling Riser

In this thesis, we will assume as marine drilling riser, the risers deployed by a Mo-

bile Oshore Drilling Units, or MODU s, with a sub-sea BlowOut Preventer (BOP)

attached to the risers lower end. The drilling riser is a rigid top tensioned riser that

is deployed during the drilling, well test, well completion or workover operations. It

is usually made of steel, in a few cases made of an aluminum alloy [2]. Further, new

materials, such as composites, have been researched for the drilling application [2, 14].

According to the American Petroleum InstituteAPI [6], the primary functions a

marine drilling riser are:

1. Convey drilling mud or another working uid between the drilling platform and
the BOP/well:
through the main pipe during drilling operations;
19

through choke and kill lines when the BOP is being used during a well-
control operation;
through auxiliary lines such as the conduit line or boost line.
2. Guide drillstring and other tools into the well;
3. Serve as a running and retrieving string for the BOP.

One common misunderstand is the believe that exible risers, which will be dis-

cussed in the subsection 1.4.2, and/or other riser conguration could also be used for

the drilling operations. Indeed, the drilling riser has only one conguration/geometry:

the vertical straight riser (Fig. 1.16c).

The drilling riser is temporary, it means that such riser is assembled and connected

to well; after the well drilling, completion and/or other operation is nished, the riser

is disassembled and stored on the platforms deck. The risers sections are connected

each other through anges (Fig. 1.14).

In addition, the marine drilling riser is composed by a main pipe wherein the

drillstring passes through. Beside the main pipe, the drilling riser also has at least 2

auxiliary lines, namely choke line and kill line (C&K Lines), that stands parallel to

the main pipe. Such auxiliary lines are used during the well control operation [30].

The drilling risers designed for deep and ultra-deep waters are equipped, beside

the C&K lines, with booster line and conduit line. In some cases, the riser can have

more than one of such auxiliary lines for redundance. The booster line injects more

drilling mud into the riser base7 (above the Low Marine Riser Pack) to boost the mud

return ow velocity [30]. The conduit lines pressurizes the Accumulators located in
7
When the drilling mud returning from the borehole reaches the drilling riser, the muds velocity
decreases due to the increase of the annular area inside the drilling riser. In deep waters, this reduced
uid velocity is not enough to lift the rock cuttings up to the surface. Thus more mud is injected
into the risers lower portion through the booster line to increase the mud return velocity avoiding
that the riser becomes obstructed by the rock cuttings.
20

Figure 1.14: Details of a drilling risers ange. (Source: Rogerio Martins Tavares)

the BOP; such accumulators deliver the necessary hydraulic energy to drive the BOPs

valves, rams, and the Annular BOP.

Figure 1.14 shows the drilling risers anges; we can observe the main pipe where

the drillstring passes through at the middle. In addition, the Choke line, Kill line,

boost line and conduit lines are indicated; in this example, there are two conduit

lines.

Further, Figure 1.15 shows the Low Marine Riser Pack (LMRP), which is the

top part of a BOP. During some emergency conditions, a oating drilling platform

must disconnect from the well. The Emergency Disconnect System (EDS), which is
21

responsible for the disconnection, is designed to close the programmed BOPs rams;

if the drillstring is in the well, the shear ram will shear the drill pipe8 ; and the

LMRP will be disconnected from the rest of the BOP stack. In Fig. 1.15, we can see

the rst risers ange type connector. In addition, choke/kill line, conduit line and

accumulators are indicated.

The Oshore Drilling in deep-water is, actually, carried out in several phases.

The rst and second phases are riserless drilling operations; only the drillstring 9

connects the platform to the well (Fig. 1.16a). There is no return of drilling mud nor

rock cuttings to the platform. In addition, since the risk of formation containing high

pressure uid is reduced at the shallow depths10 , the BlowOut Preventer (BOP) and

the drilling risers are NOT deployed during the rst and second phases.

After the installation and cementing of the second casing 11 , the BOP is lowered

down attached to the drilling riser and installed on the wellhead [53], as shown by

Fig. 1.16b. Then the rotary drilling operation is resumed.

During the rotational drilling, the drilling mud is injected into the top of the

drillstring. Then the mud ows down within the drillstring; passes through the nozzles

of the drill bit, cools and lubricates the drilling bit, and, nally, returns to the platform
8
The shear ram does not have capability to shear a drill collar nor the drill pipes tool joint.
9
Drillstring is the rotary drilling column composed by the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) at the
lower part and drill pipes at the uppr part. The BHA has the drill bit at its lower end, followed by
drill collars and other equipments, such as, mud motor, Logging While Drilling (LWD), etc. Drill
collars are very heavy pipes that put weight on the drill bit and keep the drill pipes tensioned.
10
The shallow gas hazard is one exception; some formations a few hundreds meters underneath
the mudline can contain pressured gas. The use of BOP to control and to circulate out a kick in
such situation can fracture the formation [29]; if the fracture achieves the surface of mudline, the
blowout seeps from the mudline; it results in a tremendous risk for the drilling platform and well
integrity. The well control of a shallow gas blowout is a tough task [31].
11
Casing is a pipe, which the diameter is close to the openhole diameter, lowered down into the
borehole and cemented in place for the borehole stabilization [30].
22

Figure 1.15: Details of a Low Marine Riser Pack (top part of a BOP). (Source:
Rogerio Martins Tavares)
23

Figure 1.16: Oshore drilling: (a) second phase, (b) re-entry operation, and (c) third
phase.

through the annular space between the drillstring and the drilling riser carrying up

the rock cuts. Thus the drilling riser has an upward internal ow with solids in

suspension. If a water-based mud is used, the internal uid is heavier than the fresh

water; a typical muds density is equal to 11 lb/gal ( 1320 kg/m3 ) [30].

Below the rig oor, a piece of equipment named Diverter 12 deviates the drilling

mud steam into the shale shakers. The shale shakers separates the rock cuttings from

the drilling mud. The geologist in charge of the Mud Logging takes samples of the

rock cuttings. Such samples are used for well correlation; the rock cuttings also can

have vestiges of hydrocarbon indicating that formation can be a reservoir. The rest of

the rock cuttings are disposed and the drilling mud is stored in tanks to be re-injected

in the drillstring.
12
The Diverter is also the last defense in case of a blowout. If an uncontrolled kick achieves the
rig oor (blowout), the drilling crew can close the diverter deviating the blowout for both port and
starboard away from the crew and platform.
24

Figure 1.17: Schematic of a Marine Drilling Riser System.

Then when the drilling, completion, or other operation is nished, the drilling riser

and BOP are retrieved and stored on the platforms deck; and the drilling platform

can be moved to the next location.

The Riser Tensioning System is responsible to keep the marine drilling riser

tensioned. In addition, such system also has a feedback control system that compen-

sates the platforms heave allowing the platform to operate even with wave conditions.

Without such active heave compensation, when the platform moves upward and

downward due to the wave, such vertical motion could damage the riser.

The connection between the riser and the oating platform is made by a telescopic
25

joint and a ex-joint/ball-joint, as shown by Fig. 1.17. The telescopic joint allows

the vertical motion between the oating platform13 and the top of the drilling riser.

Further, the ex-joints/ball-joints are installed at the both top and bottom ends

(Fig. 1.15 shows a lower ex-joint). Such joints are responsible to reduce the stress

concentration at the risers ends when it deects.

The riser tensioning system is composed by a Tension Ring that is installed at the

top section of the riser (Figs. 1.17 & 1.19) that receives the necessary forces from the

platform to keep the riser tensioned. There are two dierent ways to transfer such

forces: the most common is using cables named tensioner lines that are tensioned by

a set of hydraulic piston and sheave; and the second way is to connect the hydraulic

pistons directly to the tension ring [24]. For example, the direct tensioning system

has been used by the scientic research drillship Chikyu 14 [55].

Figure 1.18 shows part of the derrick and the rig oor of semi-submersible drilling

platform. In this gure, the hydraulic piston with a sheave attached to its top is

indicated. Each set of piston-sheave tensions one tensioner line; one lines end is xed

to the platform and the other end is xed to the risers tension ring as shown in

Figs. 1.17 & 1.19.

As mentioned before, beside to keep the riser tensioned, the riser tensioning system

has a feedback control system that compensates the platforms heave motion. For

example, if the platform move upward due to a wave crest, the control drives the

piston to a lower position making the lines distance between tension ring and sheave

longer. If the platform moves downward,the sheave is driven for an upper position

reducing the distance until the tension ring.


13
Here, the oating platform concerns mainly to semi-submersibles and drillships.
14
It is not scope of this thesis to advocate about the advantages of each tensioning system.
26

Figure 1.18: Details of the Riser Tensioning System: sheaves & pistons. (Source:
personal archive)

The second way to keep the riser tensioned is to connect the hydraulic pistons

from the platform directly to the tension ring. Such system also has an active heave

compensation control. In addition, the pistons of direct tensioning system can have

a stroke up to a 65 f t ( 19.8 m) [24].

1.4.2 Production Riser

Although that the name riser can connote that such tubular structures convey the

internal uid only upward. Actually, the risers can convey uid in both directions
27

Figure 1.19: Details of the Riser Tensioning System at the Moon Pool : Telescopic
Joint, Tension Ring & Tensioner Lines. (Source: personal archive)
28

upward or downward. In the production riser, either multiphase and single phase

ow can be conveyed.

The most common ow direction within the production riser is upward when a

multiphase uid (a mixture of water, oil and gas) ows from the sub sea petroleum

well upward to the platform at the sea surface.

However the production riser also can be used for the downward ow as, for

example, to inject water into the reservoir; to pump the gas used in the articial

elevation method called gas-lift, or even to export gas or oil to the shore.

Furthermore, the production riser can be classied into rigid riser or exible

riser [8]. Following, a brief explanation about each type of the production riser.

Rigid Riser

The production rigid riser is a common pipe usually made of steel. The rigid riser can

be deployed as a Top Tensioned Riser (TTR) or as a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR).

The Top Tensioned Riser can be deployed for production only at the xed plat-

forms (Fig. 1.12) or platforms with very reduced heave motion such as, the Tension

Leg Platforms, TLP, (Fig. 1.13) and Spars platforms.

Dierent from the marine drilling riser, the production riser tensioner system of

the production TTR has a reduced capability to compensate the platforms heave

motion. Further, the production TTR usually does not have a slip-joint that allows

the vertical motion between the oating platform and riser.

For example, the platform Matterhorn TLP is installed in the Gulf of Mexico

with a nominal water depth of 2 820 f t ( 860 m). This platform is equipped with 7
29

Figure 1.20: Semi-submersible for production with a Steel Catenary Riser (SCR).

production top tensioned risers; the Production Riser Tensioner has an operational

stroke of 4 f t ( 1.2 m) [28]. In the case of the Matterhorn TLP, the whole riser

including a Dry Christmas Tree at the top end is kept tensioned by four hydraulic

cylinders.

In addition, a large vertical motion (heave) of conventional Floating Production

Units (FPU) such as the Floating Production Storage and Ooading (FPSO) and

Semi-Submersibles (SS) could induce an alternate axial loads of compression and

tension. Consequently, such alternate loads also could damage the risers by fatigue.

Thus the TTR usually is not applied with FPSOs and SSs.

The Steel Catenary Riser is a rigid riser that the lower portion is laid on the

sea bottom and the other part of the riser is suspended by the platform in a catenary

conguration as shown by Fig. 1.20.

The rst Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) was installed in a TLP named Auger in the

Gulf of Mexico [41].

The Brazilian oil company Petrobras designed and installed a SCR to operate

in the semi-submersible P-XVIII [45]. Because this was the rst SCR installed in a
30

Figure 1.21: An illustrative schematic of a exible riser showing the dierent layers.

SS, the riser was instrumented to gather Meteo-Oceanographic, platform position &

motion, top loads, TDP loads, and SCR position & motion [22, 23].

Flexible Riser

The production exible risers are composed by several concentric layers of helical

metallic armors and polymeric material as shown schematically by Fig. 1.21. The

metallic armors give mechanical strength to the pipe and the polymer layers are

responsible for the pipes sealing and insulation [8].

The reason of such riser is called exible is because the layers that compose this

pipe can slide among each other when the riser is bent, reducing the exible risers

bend stiness.

Such exible risers are widely deployed for hydrocarbon production or water in-

jection with conventionally moored oating production platforms, e.g., Floating Pro-

duction Storage and Ooading (FPSO) and semi-submersibles. Figure 1.22 has a
31

Figure 1.22: Semi-submersible for production with a exible riser in a lazy-wave


conguration.

schematic of a semi-submersible with a production exible riser in a Lazy-Wave con-

guration. The exible riser can be used in a variety of congurations; further infor-

mation about exible riser congurations can be found in Bai & Bai [8].

However, we must remember that the exible riser is deployed only during the

production phase of an oshore eld development. It can be used for hydrocarbon

production from well up to the platform, or to inject water from the platform into

the reservoir, etc. In addition, the exible riser is NOT used during the drilling.

Hybrid Riser Systems

In order to develop the new discoveries, especially in ultra-deep water (deeper than

1 500 m of water depth), new risers congurations have been developed. One of such

new risers congurations is the Free Standing Hybrid Riser 15 (FSHR). Such riser

system is composed by a vertical rigid riser or a bundle of rigid pipes, that are kept

tensioned by a subsea buoyancy tank or can; and there is a exible jumper that is a
15
The term hybrid is used here because such riser system is composed by both rigid riser and
exible riser.
32

Figure 1.23: An schematic of a oating production unit connected to some free stand-
ing hybrid risers.

piece of exible riser used to connect the FPU to the riser systems main structure.

Figure 1.23 shows an illustration of an FPSO connected to FSHRs.

For example, for the development of the Girassol eld, located o Angola, three

Riser Towers had been installed in a water depth about 1 400 m. The riser tower

is a FSHR which the main components are (a) the main vertical straight structure

named bundle (external diameter of 1.45 m) that comprises several internal rigid

pipes (for production, injection, gas-lift, etc.), the bundles core is a 22 steel pipe;

(b) a buoyancy tank ; and (c) several exible jumpers [5].

Some benets of the FSHR are that the main submerged structure is tensioned by a

buoyancy tank what reduces the weight supported by the FPU. Further, the buoyancy

tank and rigid pipe are located hundreds of meters below the sea surface what reduces

the eects of the waves on the main structure; and the exible jumper that connects

the risers main structure to the FPU reduces the eects of the platforms motion on
33

the rigid riser [9].

1.5 Literature Review

Several researches have been carried out concerning the dynamics of the riser under

hydrodynamic loads by the way of experimental analysis and numerical analysis [35].

However, only a few of these works have been focused on the eect of the internal

ow on the riser dynamics. Among the studies that include the internal ow in their

analysis.

Seyed & Patel [46] deduced an analytical model for riser including a internal steady

ow.

Wu & Lou [52] calculated the eect of an inviscid steady ow on the dynamic

behavior of a top tensioned riser (TTR). Their results show that the eect of the

internal ow is reduced, especially on the risers with high top tension ratios. The

authors also concluded that the natural frequency increases with the top tension and

decreases with the internal ow velocity.

Olunloyo et al. [36] investigated the eect of an inviscid ow on the dynamic

behavior of a buried pipeline. Their mathematical model also includes the eects of

an elastic foundation, rigid and deformable porous bed. In this study, the internal

ow velocity has a signicant eect on the results.

These divergent results about the eect of the internal ow on the pipe behavior

concern mainly due to eect of the axial tension presented in the top tensioned riser

[52] and neglected in the pipeline [36].

Another contribution is the experimental study that was carried out by Bordalo
34

et al. [13]. In this study, the eect of a two-phase internal ow on the dynamic

of reduced scale Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) model was investigated. Their results

show that the two-phase internal ow patterns have a signicant eect on the dynamic

response of the catenary shaped pipe.

Gou & Lou [25] investigated experimentally the eect of the internal ow on the

risers Vortex-Induced Vibration VIV. The model was a straight vertical pipe with

70 cm long. They observed that the increase of the internal ow rate reduces the

pipes natural frequency. And the strains amplitudes in both in-line and transverse

direction has the tendency to increase when the internal ow rate increases.

In a recent article, Chatjigeorgiou [17] has an extensive revision about the internal

ow eects on the riser and features a detailed analytical and numerical model for

the simulation of a catenary riser including the eects of internal ow.

The problem of pipe conveying high-speed uid with axial ow around pipe is

one research topic in the nuclear industry. Several investigations have been carried

out that can be used as inspiration for the riser issue in the oshore industry. A

distinguished person in this area is Prof. Padoussis who has an extensive list of

publication [38]. Another investigation aimed in the nuclear industry that we must

cite is Beguin et al. [10] who investigated the eects of a multiphase internal ow on

a vertical pipe.
Chapter 2

Numerical Simulation

In this chapter we give a description about the risers analytical model including the

eect of internal ow. Furthermore, an explanation about the numerical solution of

the riser mechanical behavior is included. Discussion about numerical simulation,

boundary conditions are also included

2.1 Risers Analytical Model

The risers static behavior can be modeled as slender beam-column [39], viz,

 
d2 d 2 xR d 2 xR dxR
EI T (z) w =f (2.1.1)
dz 2 dz 2 dz 2 dz
where xR is the riser deection in the x-direction; z is the vertical coordinate along the

unbent beam; EI is the riser bending stiness (E is the Youngs modulus or modulus

of elasticity in [P a = N/m2 ]of the risers material; and I is the second moment of

area1 in [m4 ]); T is the axial tension in [N ] that varies along the pipe; w is risers

weight per unit of length in [N/m]; f are the external forces per unit length in [N/m].
1
The second moment of area for a pipe is given as I = 4 (OD4 ID4 ), where OD is the pipes
external diameter and ID is the inner diameter [11]

35
36

Equation (2.1.1) is the simplest mathematical model for a riser; it does not take in

account the hydrostatic and hydrodynamics eects along and across the pipe. Adding

the force due to the hydrostatic external and internal pressures acting on the riser,

the equations becomes,

 
d2 d2 x R d 2 xR
EI [T (z) + A0 P0 + AI PI ]
dz 2 dz 2 dz 2
dxR
(R (A0 AI ) FZR A0 0 + AI I ) = f (2.1.2)
dz

where xR is the riser deection in the x-direction; z is the vertical coordinate along

the unbent beam; EI is the riser bending stiness; T is the axial tension in [N ] that

varies along the pipe; A0 (AI ) is the external (internal) cross sectional area in [m2 ];

P0 (PI ) is the external (internal) pressure in [P a] acting on the pipes wall; R is

the specic weight of the risers material in [N/m3 ]; FZR is the resulting force per

unit length in the z-direction; 0 is the specic weight in [N/m3 ] of the uid that

externally surrounds the riser; I is the specic weight in [N/m3 ] of the internal uid;

f are the external forces per unit length in [N/m].

Next, it is necessary to add the dynamics components, namely, the inertial force

component and the hydrodynamics.

 
2 2 xR 2 xR
EI [T (z) + A0 P0 + AI PI ]
z 2 z 2 z 2
xR 2 xR
(R (A0 AI ) FZR A0 0 + AI I ) +m
z t2
1
= 0 CD D |u + UC xR | (u + UC xR ) (2.1.3)
2
37

where xR is the riser deection in the x-direction, the dot above means the time

derivative; z is the vertical coordinate along the unbent beam; EI is the riser bending

stiness; T is the axial tension in [N ] that varies along the pipe; A0 (AI ) is the external

(internal) cross sectional area in [m2 ]; P0 (PI ) is the external (internal) pressure in

[P a] acting on the pipes wall; R is the specic weight of the risers material in

[N/m3 ]; FZR is the resulting force per unit length in the z-direction; 0 is the specic

weight in [N/m3 ] of the uid that externally surrounds the riser; I is the specic

weight in [N/m3 ] of the internal uid; m is the mass per unit length dened by

Eq. (2.1.4); 0 is the external uid density; Cd is the drag coecient; D is the risers

hydrodynamic external diameter (in normal conditions D = OD); u is the velocity

of the external uid particle due to the surface waves; and UC is the velocity of the

external uid particle around the pipe due to current.

m = R (A0 AI ) + AI I + a (2.1.4)

where m mass per unit length; R is the specic weight of the risers material in

[N/m3 ]; I is the specic weight in [N/m3 ] of the internal uid; A0 (AI ) is the

external (internal) cross sectional area in [m2 ]; and a is the hydrodynamic added

mass. In the right side of Eq. (2.1.4), the rst term is risers mass per unit length;

the second term corresponds to the internal uids mass per unit of length.

Equation (2.1.3) is widely applied as mathematical model for the risers dynamic

behavior [21, 16, 33, 53]. We can see the inertial force component represented by the

term m xR . In addition, the hydrodynamics eects are represented by the added mass

that is included in the term m, as shown by Eq. (2.1.4); and the viscous damping and

drag force due current and waves are represented in the right side of Eq. (2.1.3).
38

But we can see in Eq. (2.1.3) that the internal uid eect is represented by the

internal pressure PI and the term AI I that corresponds to the internal uids mass

per unit length. In such model, the fact the internal uid is conveyed along the pipe

is neglected; it is assumed a static uid.

2.1.1 Model assuming a dynamic internal uid

Wu & Lou [52] and Olunloyo et al. [36]2 proposed similar models for the problem of

a submersed pipe conveying internal uid, viz.

 
2 2 xR 2 xR   2 xR
EI + 2 I U T + A0 P0 AI PI I AI U 2
z 2 z 2 t z z 2
xR 2 xR
[R (A0 AI ) FZR A0 0 + AI I ] +m
z t2
1
= 0 CD D |u + UC xR | (u + UC xR ) (2.1.5)
2

where EI is the beam stiness; xR is the riser deection; z is the coordinate along

the unbent beam; 0 (I ) is the density of the external (internal) uid; U is the

internal uid velocity; A0 (AI ) is the external (internal) cross sectional area of the

pipe; P0 (PI ) is the external (internal) pressure acting on the riser pipe wall; R is

the specic weight of the riser material; FZR is the resulting forces per unit length in

the z-direction; 0 (I ) specic weight of the external (internal) uid; m is the mass

per unit length (including the internal uid mass and added mass); 0 is the external

uid density; CD is the drag coecient; D is the riser external diameter; u is the
2
Actually, this work proposed a model for pipeline, it means a horizontal, conveying internal
uid; but the mathematical model is similar to the risers model.
39

velocity of the external particle due to surface waves; and UC is the velocity of the

external uid particle around the pipe.

Equation (2.1.5) includes the eect of a inviscid ow represented by the terms that

contain the internal ow velocity U . According to Wu & Lou [52], the internal ow

introduces an additional coriolis force that is represented by the mixed derivative of

the second term of Eq. (2.1.5), and despite this term has a derivative with respect to

time, it does not dissipate energy from the system.

2.2 Numerical Simulation

During this work, a computational program have been developed in order to simulate,

in the time domain, the dynamic behavior of a riser including the eects of the internal

ow. This program is coded in Fortran 90 and uses the Finite Element Method

(FEM). Following, the analytical and numerical equations for the risers mechanical

behavior are featured.

2.2.1 Numerical Model

A computational program has been developed for the numerical simulation of the

risers dynamic behavior in the time domain.

Instead to solve the dynamic equation (Eq. 2.1.5) with continuous distributed

properties and innite number of degrees of freedom, the riser is discretized in a

nite number of elements; it is assumed that each element has 2 discrete nodes 3 (one

node at each elements end) with 3 degrees of freedom (2 translational DOFs and 1
3
In this thesis, we will use discrete node to refers to the nodes of a nite element.
40

rotational DOF),summing 6 DOFs per element. Then the risers dynamic properties

are lumped into such discrete nodes. Thus a discrete approximate dynamic equation

is obtained , namely,

M xs + B xs + K xs = fs (2.2.1)

where xs is vector containing the displacement of each discrete node in time domain,

and the dot above represents its time derivative; M is the global consistent mass

matrix; B is the global damping matrix; K is the global stiness matrix; fs is the

vector of external loads that are concentrated on the discrete nodes.

2.2.2 Inertial Properties.

The inertia properties are lumped together into the discrete nodes using an approx-

imate method called Consistent Mass Method [40]. The system mass matrix for one

single element is dened as,



140 0 0 70 0
0 z n






156 22 L 0 54 13 L
xn





2


mL 4L 2
0 13 L 3 L n
FMass =
420 (2.2.2)
140 0 0 z n+1






156 22 L xn+1
SY M







2
4L n+1

where FMass is the nodal inertial forces for a single element in the local coordinates

as shown by Fig. 2.2 ; m is the distributed mass per unit of length in [kg/m]; L is

the elements length in [m]; xn , z n and n are the n-th nodal displacement in the

local coordinate as shown by Fig. 2.2, and the two dots represents the second time

derivative.
41

In order to achieve the global mass matrix M (Eq. 2.2.1), it is necessary to compute

the proper coordinate transformation for each elements mass matrix (see) and to

carry out the matrix assembly operation [40].

2.2.3 Elastic Properties

The elastic properties is composed by two dierent terms as shown by Eq. (2.2.3).

The rst term KEla is named elastic stiness and corresponds to a bending beam

including the axial deformation. The next term KGeo , which is called geometric

stiness, corresponds to the eect of the axial tension on the bending properties.

Both stiness matrices can be obtained using Finite Element Method [40].



zn








xn





n
FEla = (KEla + KGeo ) (2.2.3)

z n+1








xn+1





n+1

The above equation represents the system stiness matrix for a single element in

the local coordinates. The term FEla is the nodal stiness forces; KEla is the elastic

stiness dened by Eq. (2.2.4); KGeo is the geometric stiness matrix as shown by

Eq. (2.2.5); xn , z n and n are the n-th nodal displacement in the local coordinate as

shown by Fig. 2.2.


42


A L2 /I 0 0 A L2 /I 0 0

12 6L 0 12 6L


EI 4 L2 0 2
6 L 2 L
KEla = 3 (2.2.4)
L A L2 /I 0 0


12 6 L
SY M
2
4L


0 0 0 0 0 0

36 3L 0 363L


TEf 4 L2 2
0 3 L L
KGeo = (2.2.5)
30 L
0 0 0


36 3 L
SY M
2
4L

where KEla is the elastic stiness matrix for one single element in local coordinates;

KGeo is the geometric stiness matrix for one single element in local coordinates; E

is the Modulus of Elasticity for the riser material in [P a]; I is Second Moment of Area

of the pipes cross section in [m4 ]; L is the element length in [m]; A is the pipes cross

sectional area in [m2 ]; and TEf is the Eective Tension dened by Eq. (2.2.6).

 
TEf = T + A0 P0 AI PI I AI U 2 (2.2.6)

In the Eq. (2.2.6), TEf is the Eective Tension; T is the axial tension in [N ]; A0

(AI ) is the external (internal) cross sectional area of the pipe; P0 (PI ) is the external

(internal) pressure acting on the riser pipe wall; and U is the internal uid velocity.
43

2.2.4 Structural Damping Properties

The structural damping (the hydrodynamic viscous damping is NOT included in this

term) is a property that is dicult to be deduced. Thus the global damping system

is estimated using the Rayleighs Coecients [18], viz.,

B = a1 M + a2 K (2.2.7)

In the above equation, B is the global damping matrix; M is the global consistent

mass matrix; K is the global stiness matrix; the Rayleighs Coecients a1 and a2 are

dened by Eqs. (2.2.8) & (2.2.9), respectively. The matrices M and K are obtained by

the assembly of the respective single elements matrices and their proper coordinate

transformation.
1
1
2
2
a1 = 2 1 1 (2.2.8)
1
2
(1 1 ) (2 2 )
a2 = 2 (2.2.9)
12 22
where 1 and 2 are the angular frequencies of the rst and second risers predom-

inant vibration modes, respectively; 1 and 2 are the damping rate for 1 and 2 ,

respectively.

2.2.5 Internal Pressure

The pipes internal pressure is an important simulation parameter used, for example,

during the calculation of the Eective Tension (Eq. 2.2.6). In this work, beside the

hydrostatic internal pressure, it is also assumed the eect of frictional pressure drop

due to internal ow.

The internal pressure is calculated for each discrete node of the discrete riser.

For the Eective Tension (Eq. 2.2.6) calculation, the elements internal pressure is
44

assumed as the pressure average of the elements discrete nodes. The pressure of

the rst discrete node is an input parameter, then the pressure of the next discrete

node is calculated as shown by Eq. (2.2.10). After, the calculation is repeated for all

discrete nodes.

Pn+1 = Pn P (2.2.10)

In above equation, Pn is the pressure of the n-th discrete node (the pressure of the

top discrete node P1 is an input parameter); P is the pressure drop due to internal

ow.

In According to Economides et al. [20], the internal pressure drop can be estimated

summing three dierent terms, namely,

P = PP E + PKE + PP F (2.2.11)

where P is the pressure drop along the pipe; PP E is the pressure drop due to

potential energy change dened by Eq. (2.2.12); PKE is the pressure drop due to ki-

netic energy change; and PP F is the frictional pressure drop dened by Eq. (2.2.13).

The pressure drop related to kinetic energy is vanished because, in this work, it is

assumed that the uid is incompressible and the internal diameter is constant all

along the pipe, then there is no variation of the kinetic energy of the uid.

PP E = g I z (2.2.12)

2 ff I U 2 L
PP F = (2.2.13)
DI
Where g is the gravitational acceleration; I is the density of the internal uid; z

is the variation of the height; ff is the Fanning Friction Factor ; U is the internal uid
45

velocity; L is the variation of the length of the pipes element; DI is the internal

diameter.

The Fanning friction factor is dened, in laminar ow, as,

16
ff = (2.2.14)
Re

where Re is the Reynolds Number.

The Fanning friction factor, in turbulent ow, can be estimated using the Chen

Equation [20], viz.


   0.8981 
1 5.0452 1.1098 7.149
 = 4 log log + (2.2.15)
ff 3.7065 Re 2.8257 Re

where is the Relative Roughness of the pipes internal surface, which can be found

in the literature [20]; Re is the Reynolds Number.

2.2.6 Coordinate Transformation

The matrices dened previously, viz., mass matrix (Eq. 2.2.2), stiness matrices

(Eqs. 2.2.4 & 2.2.5), and damping matrix (Eq. 2.2.7) corresponds to the properties

of a standing single beam element as shown by Fig. 2.1.

In Figure 2.1, we can observe that each elements node has 3 degree of freedom

(DOF): two translational DOFs xn and z n , and a rotational DOF n .

The problem is when the whole riser is bent; the element becomes inclined by an

angle , for example, as shown by Fig. 2.2a. We can observe that the directions of

the element or local coordinate axes and the direction of the Global Reference System

X 0Z are dierent. In other words, the discrete nodes translational DOFs are in the

Local Coordinates, what it is dierent of the Global Coordinates given by the reference

system X 0Z.
46

Figure 2.1: Local coordinates at the discrete nodes of a single beam element.

The Coordinate Transformation xes the direction of the translational DOFs

aligning the discrete nodes reference system with the Global Reference System as

shown by Fig. 2.2b. We must observe that the rotational DOF n keeps its rotational

direction in both local coordinates and global coordinates (Fig. 2.2).

Assuming a generic stiness matrix K for a beam element in local coordinate

(Fig. 2.2a) that is supposed to be transformed into a stiness matrix K in the global

coordinate (Fig. 2.2b). According to Paz & Leigh [40], the coordinate transformation

is given by Eq. (2.2.16).

K = TT K T (2.2.16)

In the above equation, T is the Transformation Matrix given by Eq. 2.2.17; TT

is the transpose matrix of T; K represents a generic stiness matrix in the local

coordinate and K is the corresponded matrix in the global coordinate.


47

Figure 2.2: Coordinate transformation for one single element.


cos sin 0 0 0 0

sin cos 0 0 0 0


0 0 1 0 0 0
T=


(2.2.17)
0 0 0 cos sin 0

0 sin cos 0
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1

In Equation (2.2.17), is the inclination angle of the element as shown by Fig. 2.2.

The same calculation shall be applied for the mass & damping matrices, namely,

M = TT M T (2.2.18)

B = TT B T (2.2.19)

where M (B) represents a generic mass (damping) matrix in the local coordinate; M

(B) is the corresponded mass (damping) matrix in the global coordinate; T is the

Transformation Matrix (Eq. 2.2.17); and TT is the transpose matrix of T.


48

Figure 2.3: Assembling two beam elements.

2.2.7 Matrix Assembling

In order to calculate numerically the riser dynamics using Eq. (2.2.1), it is necessary

to divide the riser into a nite number of elements. But all matrices dened previously

correspond to the properties of a single element. Thus it is necessary to assembly

those single element matrices into a global matrix. Figure 2.3 shows graphically such

elements assembly.

For example, lets assume two generic beam elements (Fig. 2.3), which the stiness

matrix K1 and K2 were already transformed into the proper coordinate system and

dened as following:


a1,1 a1,2 a1,3 a1,4 a1,5 a1,6

a2,1 a2,2 a2,3 a2,4 a2,5 a2,6


a3,1 a3,2 a3,3 a3,4 a3,5 a3,6
K1 =


(2.2.20)
a4,1 a4,2 a4,3 a4,4 a4,5 a4,6

a a5,2 a5,3 a5,4 a5,5 a5,6
5,1
a6,1 a6,2 a6,3 a6,4 a6,5 a6,6
49


b1,1 b1,2 b1,3 b1,4 b1,5 b1,6

b2,1 b2,2 b2,3 b2,4 b2,5 b2,6


b3,1 b3,2 b3,3 b3,4 b3,5 b3,6
K2 =


(2.2.21)
b4,1 b4,2 b4,3 b4,4 b4,5 b4,6

b b5,2 b5,3 b5,4 b5,5 b5,6
5,1
b6,1 b6,2 b6,3 b6,4 b6,5 b6,6
Equation (2.2.22) features the assembly of the matrices K1 and K2 into the matrix

Kassem .


a a1,2 a1,3 a1,4 a1,5 a1,6 0 0 0
1,1
a 0
2,1 a2,2 a2,3 a2,4 a2,5 a2,6 0 0

a3,1 a3,2 a3,3 a3,4 a3,5 a3,6 0 0 0


a4,1 a4,2 a4,3 a4,4 + b1,1 a4,5 + b1,2 a4,6 + b1,3 b1,4 b1,5 b1,6


Kassem = a5,1 a5,2 a5,3 a5,4 + b2,1 a5,5 + b2,2 a5,6 + b2,3 b2,4 b2,5 b2,6

a b3,6
6,1 a6,2 a6,3 a6,4 + b3,1 a6,5 + b3,2 a6,6 + b3,3 b3,4 b3,5

0 0 0 b4,1 b4,2 b4,3 b4,4 b4,5 b4,6


0 0 0 b5,1 b5,2 b5,3 b5,4 b5,5 b5,6

0 0 0 b6,1 b6,2 b6,3 b6,4 b6,5 b6,6
(2.2.22)

We can observe, in Fig. 2.3, that the two discrete nodes, one from each element,

are superposed. This superposition also occurs in the middle of the matrix Kassem

where there are the sum of two components, one from each element. One example of

superposition is the element dened by the sum a4,4 + b1,1 .

Then the assembly operation must be repeated for all elements matrices that will

assemble the whole riser as shown Fig.2.4. Beside the global stiness matrix, the same

assemble operation shall be repeated for the global mass matrix and global damping

matrix.
50

Figure 2.4: Assembling the global matrix.

Further details about the matrix assembling can be found in Paz & Leigh [40] and

Smith & Griths [47].

2.2.8 Boundary Conditions

Usually, the global stiness matrix assembled as described in the sub-section 2.2.7 is

a singular matrix [47]. The numerical calculation using the Finite Element Method

requires that the stiness matrix shall be invertible (see sub-section 2.3 and Ap-

pendix D). Thus is necessary to add the boundary conditions information in the

analysis in order that such matrix becomes invertible. In other words, it is necessary

to add the values of a set of dependent variables, the discrete nodes position in our

case, that are known before the matrix inversion.

For example, the Top Tensioned Riser (TTR) (Fig. 2.5a) has two discrete nodes

as boundary conditions: the top discrete node and the bottom discrete node. We

assume that the bottom discrete node is clamped; it means that all its DOFs are

constant; and, in this case, equal to zero. Further, the top node has a prescribed

boundary condition; such node has a oscillatory trajectory in our simulation.


51

The easiest way to apply the boundary condition is when the DOF has a constant

value equal to zero; in this case, we need only to withdraw the matrixs row and

column relative to such DOF [47]. Such method is some times known as Elimination

Method for boundary conditions.

But in this work, we are not using the elimination method, we will assume the

penalty method that usually is applied for prescribed boundary conditions (non-zero

boundary conditions).

In the penalty method, the penalty (a large number) is added to the stiness

matrixs element in the leading diagonal that is corresponded to the DOF which is

desired to applied a prescribed boundary conditions. Such penalty is assumed as

1 106 in our program. The penalty is an empiric value that shall be larger enough

than the sum of the other terms that compose the same row/column, and also not

too large because a over large penalty can make the matrix ill-conditioned [42].

For example, Equation (2.2.23) has a system of equation composed by a generic

stiness matrix. In this example, a prescribed boundary condition was added in the

rst DOF, namely, x1 . The penalty 1106 was added to the respective element a1,1 in

the leading diagonal. The force vectors relative component is composed by the sum

pn + 1 106 ; where pn is the prescribed value of x1 , which can prescribe a trajectory

varying its value for each n-iteration of the time.


a1,1 + 1 106 a1,2 ...
x1
pn + 1 106










a2,1 a2,2 ...
x2 f2

.. ... .. = .. (2.2.23)
. . .







an,n xn fn

When we solve the above system of equation for a given n-iteration, the response
52

for the rst DOF will be x1  pn . The error between x1 and pn depends of how large

is the penalty. The penalty must be large enough to achieve a permissible error and

not too large in order to avoid that the matrix becomes ill-conditioned.

2.3 RiserSIM : computational program for riser


simulation

During this doctoral research, a computational program for the numerical simulation

of the Riser s static and dynamic behavior, which we named as RiserSIM, has been

developed. This program is coded using Fortran 95 and compiled by Intel Visual

Fortran 11.1.065 [IA32] 4 . In addition, the IMSL Fortran Numerical Library Version

5.0 [50] is used as mathematical library for the matrices calculation.

So far, the RiserSIM is can simulate three dierent riser congurations: Top Ten-

sioned Riser (TTR), Hanged Riser, and jumper conguration, as shown by Fig. 2.5.

We can observe in gure above, the position of the Coordinate Reference System

for each one of the riser conguration.

Following, Figure 2.6 shows a owchart of the RiserSIMs main program. First,

the program reads the simulation parameters from an ASCII le named input.txt.

This le contains information about the risers properties and conguration, external

loads, top oscillation, dynamic simulation parameters, e.g., coecient, time step,

nal time, etc.


4
Authors note: The Intel Visual Fortran is fully integrated with Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 s
Integrated Development Environment, or IDE. Such IDE is a user friendly interface where it is possible
to edit code les and to access the Intel Visual Fortran main functionalities, such as, the compiler,
debugger, Intel Array Visualiser, etc. We strongly recommend the synergic use of the Intel Visual
Fortran and the MS-Visual Studio for the development of the numerical calculation programs.
53

Figure 2.5: The three riser congurations available so far for simulation: (a) TTR,
(b) hanged pipe, and (c) jumper. Obs.: the number of elements in the above gure
is merely illustrative; actually the number of elements used during the simulation is
a parameter that shall be dened in the input le.

Only for the jumper conguration case, a second le named catenaryprops.txt

is read. Such le contains information about the position of the two ends discrete

nodes of the jumper, which have eect on the nal geometry of the jumper.

Next, the subroutine Initialize Riser is called. This subroutine allocates memory

for the main data structures5 that will be used in both static and dynamic analysis.

First, each data structure is set as zero. Then the initial value of such structures are

set in accordance with the data read from input le(s) in the previous step.

Finally, the subroutine StaticAnalysis and DynamicAnalysis are called consecutively.

Following, a brief description about each of such subroutines.

5
The data structures that are used in the calculation are mostly vectors and matrices of real
variables with double precision.
54

Figure 2.6: Flowchart of the RiserSIMs main program.

Static Analysis

The subroutine named StaticAnalysis calculates the initial risers shape and the un-

damped natural frequencies.

Figure 2.7 shows the owchart for the static analysis. First the data structures,

which are used in this subroutine, are initialized. In other words, such structures are

allocated in the memory and the initial values are set as dened in the input les (see

subroutine Input in the main program, Fig. 2.6).

According to the parameters dened in the input le, the hydrostatic and internal

ow parameters are calculated and stored in the respective data structure.


55

Figure 2.7: Flowchart of the RiserSIMs Static Analysis.


56

Next, the Consistent Mass Matrix, Elastic Stiness Matrix and Geometric Sti-

ness Matrix are assembled for the risers initial geometry, as presented in the Sec-

tion 2.2.1. Such initial geometry is assumed as a straight vertical pipe for the TTR

and hanged pipe cases; and as a straight horizontal pipe for the jumper case. The

discrete nodes positions of such initial geometry is calculated as equidistant discrete

nodes (the number of discrete nodes is an input parameter) and stored in the initial

geometry vector x0 .

Following, the external force vector is assembled; only the axial tension and

gravitational forces are taken in account. Then the system of equation dened by

Eq. (2.3.1) are calculated.

K0 u0 = f0 (2.3.1)

In the above equation, K0 is the initial global stiness matrix, which includes the

elastic stiness matrix and the geometric stiness matrix; u0 is the initial displace-

ment; f0 is the initial external force vector.

Equation (2.3.1) is solved using the subroutine LSLRG from the IMSL Fortran

Numerical Math Library [50]. The solution u0 is the displacement vector containing

the elongation displacement for the TTR and hanged pipe cases. For the jumper case,

this is only the rst partial displacement for the calculation of the jumpers initial

geometry.

For the TTR and hanged pipe cases, the risers initial geometry x0 is updated

with the displacement u0 , namely,

x0 = x0 + u0 (2.3.2)

where x0 is the risers initial geometry; and u0 is the displacement calculated by


57

Eq. (2.3.1).

The next step is update all simulation parameters and matrices, namely, Mass Ma-

trix, Stiness Matrices, Axial Tension, External Forces (including current), Internal

Flow parameters.

In the cases of TTR and hanged pipe, the next step is calculate the natural

frequencies and modal shaped of the tensioned straight pipe. In Appendix B.2, there a

brief description about the numerical calculation of the undamped natural frequencies

and modal shapes. Further details can be found in Paz & Leigh [40].

The results of the natural frequencies and modal shapes are save in an ASCII le

named NaturalFrequency.csv. The results are saved starting from slowest natural

frequency with the respective modal shape coordinates of each discrete node (the

vector of the modal displacement is already separated by the nodes coordinates: z-

direction, x-direction, and rotational direction).

Next, the iterative part of the Static Analysis starts calculating the vector of

external forces that includes even the loads due to the current. Such external force

is supposed to bend the pipe to the static shape. This iterative algorithm is required

because the mass and stiness matrices vary depending the geometry.

Then the system of equation (Eq. 2.3.3) is solved using again the subroutine LSLRG

[50].

Ki ui = fi (2.3.3)

In the above equation, Ki is the i-th global stiness matrix, which includes the

elastic stiness matrix and the geometric stiness matrix; ui is the i -th displacement;

fi is the i -th external force vector.

Then the response ui is compared with the previous response ui1 as shown by
58

Eq. (2.3.4). Each element of the vector ui is subtracted by the respective element if

the previous response ui1 .


N
Err = |ui (j) ui1 (j)| (2.3.4)
j=1

In the above equation, ui (j) is the j -th element of the response vector ui ; ui1 (j)

is the j -th element of the vector ui1 ; N is the number of the response vector ui .

If the summation Err is bigger than a user dened convergence factor, the pro-

gram calculates another iteration, updating all parameters, calculating the vector of

external forces, and solving again the system of equations dened by Eq. (2.3.3), and

verifying again the convergence (Eq. 2.3.4). The convergence factor is dened in the

input le and usually is a small number. During this research, the convergence factor

as assumed as 1 105 .

If the calculation did not converged after 200 iterations, the program stops the

running a give a error message.

If the convergence is achieved, for the jumper case, the natural frequency and

modal shapes are calculated (see Appendix B.2).

Finally, the static deected shape nal result is saved in the le named Stat-

icDisplacem.csv. The data is saved from the discrete node closest to the coordinate

reference system (see Fig. 2.5). The nodes position is saved in the order: x-direction,

z-direction, and rotational direction.

Dynamic Analysis

In this subroutine, the time-domain dynamic response of the riser is calculated. The

risers dynamic equation (Eq. 2.2.1) is solved using the Newmark- algorithm [34].
59

In the Appendix D, there is a brief explanation about this algorithm.

Figure 2.8 shows the owchart of the dynamic analysis subroutine. First, the data

structures that are used in the dynamic analysis subroutine must be allocated in the

memory and the initial values are copied into such structures.

Then all matrices, namely, Mass Matrix (subsection 2.2.2), Elastic Matrices (sub-

section 2.2.3), and the Structural Damping Matrix (subsection 2.2.4), are assembled

in accordance with the static result calculated previously.

Next the vector of external forces are calculated; such vector includes the hydro-

dynamics loads, internal ow related forces, and gravitational forces.

Following, the Initial Acceleration vector is calculated. Equation (C.1.2) in Ap-

pendix D denes how to calculate such acceleration vector.

Then it is the start of the rst loop for the iterative calculation. Each iteration

of such loop corresponds to the calculation of one time step. The time step t is

a parameter dened in the input le input.txt. In this research, it was assumed

t = 0.01 s as time step.

The vector of external forces and the Top Oscillation Force are calculated. The

external forces corresponds to the hydrodynamics loads, gravitational loads, and in-

ternal ow related forces. The top oscillation force is

2.3.1 Validation: static displacement

In order to validate the Static Analysis, the comparison between the analytical solu-

tion and the numerical solution was carried out. This document contains the descrip-

tion of the adopted model (Section 2.3.1), the results comparison (Section 2.3.1), and

the calculation to achieve the analytical solution (Appendix A).


60

Initializing the Data Structures

Calculating the Mass Matrix &


Stiffness Matrices
(based in results of the static analysis)

Calculating the vector of Forces for t 0


(including the current)

Calculating the Initial Acceleration


n=0
n=n+1

Calculating the vector of


the External Forces

Calculating the Top Oscillation Force


i=0

i=i+1
i > 200
Updating all parameter i 200
? Mass Matrix
? Stiffness Matrices Solving Newmark- Algorithm
? Axial Tension
? External Forces
Keep the results as u n ERROR: calculation
did not converge

Comparing the results u n & u n-1

NO Did the solution converged?


u n @ u n-1
YES
Saving the solution into the file
DynResponse.csv

NO Is nt=t final true?


YES

Figure 2.8: Flowchart of the RiserSIMs Dynamic Analysis.


61

Table 2.1: Material properties of the pipe.

Modulus of Elasticity E 4.5 106 P a


Second Moment of Area I 4.5 M P a
Pipes Length L 0.6 m
External Diameter OD 9.35 mm
Internal Diameter ID 6.35 mm

Adopted Model

A Hanged Pipe was assumed as model in this analysis (Fig. 2.9). The pipes upper

end is clamped (xed in all directions); and the lower end is free. The pipe is also

tensioned through a weight xed at the lower end.





Figure 2.9: Adopted model: tensioned hanged pipe.

Figure 2.9 features the loads acting on the pipe. Beside the tension due to the

weight at the lower end, there is an external load of 1.0 N/m on the radial direction;

and the pipe itself is assumed massless. Further, the pipes main properties are shown

by Table 2.1.
62

Comparison of Results

The static problem featured by Fig. 2.9 and Table 2.1 was resolved analytically and

numerically. Figure 2.10 shows the comparison between the analytical solution (blue

line) and numerical solutions obtained through the developed program (red dots).

The numerical solutions were calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM);

and it was solved for dierent numbers of elements. From the numerical and analytical

results comparison showed by Fig. 2.10, we can observe that the numerical results

converges on a solution that is shifted from the analytical solution. Maybe this

dierence between such results is due to the assumed analytical and numerical model.

For the analytical model, only the bending deformation and the eect of the axial

tension on the bending moment is taken in account; the pipes axial elongation is

neglected (Further information about the analytical model and calculation can be

obtained in the Appendix A of this document).

Otherwise, the numerical model, besides the bending deformation and the eect of

the axial tension on the bending moment, includes the eect of the axial elongation;

we can even observe in Fig. 2.10 that the numerical results have a pipe longer than

the analytical solution. In addition, a stand pipe has a dierent stiness matrix than

an inclined pipe. In the later case, the bending deformation and axial elongation are

balanced through a coordinate transformation calculation.

This numerical solution presented by Fig. 2.10 must be calculated iteratively in

a nonlinear fashion. First, the deformation is calculated for the initial condition:

straight stand pipe. Then a new stiness matrix is calculated using the initial result as

input for pipes length and inclination; a new deformation is calculated and compared

with the previous results. This operation is repeated until the pipes deformation
63

Cantilever Beam's Displacement


0.7
Analytical
4 elements
0.6 8 elements
16 elements
0.5 32 elements
Pipe's Length [m] 64 elements

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-0.1
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
Displacement [m]

Figure 2.10: Results comparison: analytical & numerical nonlinear solution.

converges on the response.

In other to verify the argument that the dierence between results concerns to the

dierent models deployed by both numerical and analytical calculation, the numerical

calculation was repeated, this time the pipes elongation is neglected. Then the

iterative calculation is no more necessary, the response is achieved in only one iteration

in a linear way. Figure 2.11 shows the comparison between the analytical response and

the numerical response for dierent number of elements. We can observe that, when

the number of elements increases, the numerical solution converges on the analytical

response.
64

Cantilever Beam's Deformation (Linear Solution)


0.7
Analytical Solution
4 Elements
0.6 8 Elements
16 Elements
0.5 32 Elements
64 Elements
128 Elements
Pipe's Length [m]

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

-0.1
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
Displacement [m]

Figure 2.11: Results comparison: analytical & numerical linear solution.

2.3.2 Validation: Natural Frequency & Modal Shape

Beside the validation of the static deformation presented in the sub-section 2.3.1, the

validation of the natural frequency and modal shape, also named modal displacement,

was also carried out.

Comparing Natural Frequencies

The dimensionless natural frequencies (dened by Eq. (2.3.5)) for the pipe, which

the properties were featured by Fig. 2.9 and Table 2.1, were calculated in both ways:

analytically and numerically.

l2
= (2.3.5)

65

where is the natural frequency in [rad/s]; l is the pipes length in [m]; and is

dened by Eq. (2.3.6).


EI
= (2.3.6)
A
where E is the Youngs Modulus in [P a]; I is the second moment of area in [m4 ];

is the pipes material density; and A is the cross sectional area.

The analytical solution for the dimensionless natural frequencies was calculated

solving the characteristic equation of the tensioned beam as shown by Eq. (B.1.15)

in Appendix B. Figure 2.12 shows the analytical solutions for the rst four natural

frequencies.

Table 2.2 shows the natural frequencies comparison between numerical and ana-

lytical results. The numerical results were calculated for dierent number of elements.

We can observe that when the number of elements increases, the numerical solution

for the dimensionless natural frequencies converges on the analytical.

Table 2.2: Dimensionless Natural Frequencies


8 elements 16 elements 32 elements Analytical
1st Mode 37.95958 37.91931 37.91534 37.915036962841
2nd Mode 115.78470 115.65585 115.64308 115.642087389182
3rd Mode 199.17875 198.90406 198.87793 198.875914140724
4th Mode 291.47805 290.82898 290.77360 290.769422628810

Comparing Modal Displacement

Each natural frequency has a specic modal displacement, or also named mode shape.

The numerical modal displacement is obtained through the eigenvector calculation,

as shown by Eq. (B.2.2).


66

Dimensionless Natural Frequencies


100

80      1/2
2
tan U 1 + 1+
60 U2

40

20
X: 115.6 X: 198.9 X: 290.8
Y: 5.027 Y: 3.418 Y: 2.921
0 X: 37.91
Y: 14.15

-20

-40

-60
2 + 2 /U 2

-80 /U

-100
0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Figure 2.12: Natural frequencies: analytical solution.


67

The analytical modal displacement was calculated applying the respective dimen-

sionless natural frequency and the proper boundary conditions to the Eq.(B.1.3). In

the analytical solution calculation, it is necessary to pay attention to the hyperbolic

functions. Such functions use to have huge numbers as answer for inputs bigger

than 12. The numerical calculation of such huge numbers brings in the truncation of

the less signicative digits. But such truncation is a problem because the numerical

calculation yields inaccuracy in the responses.

In this work, to overcome this truncation problem, the analytical solution was

calculated using the MuPad, which is a Computer Algebra System that is a tool of

the Matlab. The MuPad allows to set the variables precision, it means that is possible

to congure the number of digits contained in a variable. The following analytical

response were calculated using 300 digits of precision.

Next, Figure 2.13 shows the modal displacement for the 1st Mode. The solid line

represents the analytical solution. It also includes the numerical response calculated

for dierent number of elements. We can observe a good agreement between numerical

and analytical solutions.

The same agreement between the numerical and analytical solutions can be ob-

served for the 2nd Mode (Fig. 2.14), 3rd Mode (Fig. 2.15), and 4th Mode (Fig. 2.16).

2.4 Parametric Analysis

In this section, some results from the numerical simulation will be featured. We will

try to investigate the eect of the internal ow rate and the internal pressure on the

numerical simulation of the risers dynamics.


68

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

z 0.5

0.4

0.3
Analytical Solution
0.2 4 Elements
8 Elements
0.1 16 Elements
32 Elements
0
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0

Figure 2.13: Modal shape: 1st Mode.

0.9

0.8 Analytical Solution


4 Elements
0.7 8 Elements
16 Elements
0.6 32 Elements

z 0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
-1 - 0 . 75 - 0 . 5 - 0 . 25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Y

Figure 2.14: Modal shape: 2nd Mode.


69

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
z 0.5
Analytical Solution
0.4 4 Elements
8 Elements
16 Elements
0.3
32 Elements
0.2

0.1

0
-1 - 0 . 75 - 0 . 5 - 0 . 25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Y

Figure 2.15: Modal shape: 3rd Mode.

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
z 0.5

0.4
Analytical Solution
0.3 4 Elements
8 Elements
0.2 16 Elements
32 Elements
0.1

0
-1 - 0 . 75 - 0 . 5 - 0 . 25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
Y

Figure 2.16: Modal shape: 4th Mode.


70

Figure 2.17: The prescribed trajectory of the pipes top end.

Table 2.3: Main properties of the pipe assumed as model for the numerical simulation.

External diameter (OD) 42 mm


Internal diameter (ID) 32 mm
Total Length (L) 10 m
Submersed Length (L) 9.6 m
2nd moment of area (I) 101.27 109 m4
Modulus of elasticity (E) 1.1 M P a

For the simulation, it is assumed as a model the same submersed tube deployed

in the experiment that will be explained in section 4.1.

The pipe model is hanged as shown by Fig. 2.5b. The pipes top end is above the

water surface with a prescribed trajectory (Fig. 2.17).

The pipes lower end is free to move with a mass of 4.6 kg attached. Table 2.3

features further details about the pipe assumed as model for the numerical simulation.

About the pipes discretization, the simulation was calculated for a pipe divided into

110 elements with the same lengths.

It is also assumed that the water is injected into the pipe thought the top end.
71

The Data Analysis. In order to compare the simulation results, we calculate the

amplitude and phase for the each one of the discrete nodes, namely,


Ai = a2f + b2f (2.4.1)
 

af

arctan , if bf > 0;


bf
 




a
+ arctan bff , if af 0, bf < 0;

 


+ arctan af , if af < 0, bf < 0;
bf
i = (2.4.2)





, if af > 0, bf = 0;


2





, if af < 0, bf = 0;

2


0 if af = 0, bf = 0.
where Ai and i are the amplitude and the phase for the i-th discrete node; and af

and bf are the Fourier Coecients dened by Eqs. (2.4.3) and (2.4.4).

Following, the Fourier coecients [26] are dened as,


 2N
1
af = gi (t) cos 2f t dt (2.4.3)
N 0
 2N
1
bf = gi (t) sin 2f t dt (2.4.4)
N 0

where af and bf are the Fourier coecients; N is the number of the time seriess

cycles that shall be analyzed; gi (t) is the time series of the i-th discrete node; f is the

frequency in hertz that shall be analyzed what, in this case, means the top excitation

frequency; and t is time in second.

The Inlet Pressure as parameter. During this simulation, the pipes inter-

nal ow rate was assumed constant, namely, 0.675 L/s (Fig. 2.18) and 1.013 L/s

(Fig. 2.19). In addition, the simulation was calculated for dierent inlet internal
72

pressure. Such pressure is the internal pressure at the pipes top discrete node (where

the water is injected into the pipe). Then the pressure drop for the following discrete

nodes were calculated as presented previously in the sub-section 2.2.5.

The top discrete node has a prescribed trajectory, as shown by Fig. 2.17, with a

oscillatory frequency of 1.35088484 rad/s (0.215 Hz).

Further the numerical results were calculated for 60 s of simulation using a time

step of 0.01 s. The results are showed in terms of amplitude (Eq. 2.4.1) and phase

(Eq. 2.4.2) for f = 0.215 Hz. Such frequency corresponds to the top oscillation

frequency; thus we calculated the amplitudes and phases for the pipes main dynamic

response.

Figures 2.18 & 2.19 are composed by two graphs, the left graph shows the ampli-

tudes and the right one has the phases. The vertical axis in both graphs corresponds

to the vertical position (positive downwards), where zero means the water surface.

The horizontal axis corresponds to the amplitude and phase for the respective graph.

In Figure 2.18, the black line corresponds to the response for the inlet pressure of

10.0 kP a. We can observe that the pipes top and bottom are opposed in phase; and

there is a node 6 around the vertical position of 6 m. In such node, there is the lowest

amplitude and a phase of 90 .

Increasing the inlet pressure for 40.0 kP a and 60.0 kP a, we can observe that the

nodes position moved to the 7.0 m and 8.0 m, respectively.

For inlet pressures of 80.0 kP a and 100.0 kP a, new nodes appeared. We can

assume that increasing the inlet pressure, and consequently increasing the internal

6
Here, node (in italics) refers to the point in the modal shape where there is a minimal amplitude
and, usually, phase around 90 . Do not misunderstand with the discrete node that refers to nite
elements node.
73

Figure 2.18: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: inlet pressure (constant
internal ow rate 0.675 L/s).
74

Figure 2.19: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: inlet pressure (constant
internal ow rate 1.013 L/s).

pressure along the whole pipe, reduces the pipes natural frequencies. This state-

ment is based in the fact that, in the simulation results, for the same top oscillation

frequency, the pipe had dierent modal shapes depending the internal pressure. In

other words, the responses for the highest pressures had a modal shape with several

nodes what indicated that the natural frequencies of the high modal shapes shifted

to a lower position.

Next, Figure 2.19 shows the response for a xed internal ow rate of 1.013 L/s.
75

We can observe that the responses are close to the previous case (Fig. 2.18). The

reason is that 0.675 L/s and 1.013 L/s are relative small internal ow rates compared

with the internal pressures. The relation between internal ow rate, internal pressure

and pipes stiness is giving by the Eective Tension (Eq. 2.2.6) of the Geometric

Stiness Matrix (Eq. 2.2.5).

The Internal Flow Rate as parameter. In order to verify the eect of the

internal ow rate on the pipes dynamics, we decided to make another parametric

analysis: to calculate the simulation for dierent internal ow rate using a constant

inlet pressure. The simulation parameters are the same of the previous analysis.

Figure 2.20 shows the amplitudes and phases calculated using Eqs. (2.4.1) &

(2.4.2) for a frequency f = 0.215 Hz (the same frequency of the top oscillation).

Such results corresponds to the simulation calculated using a constant inlet pressure

of 10 kP a. The pressure drop along the pipe is calculated using the Eq. (2.2.10). The

simulation was carried out for an internal ow rate up to 8.0 L/s. This is probably

an unrealistic ow rate for a pipe with 32 mm of internal ow. However, the idea

here is verify the trend of the pipes dynamic response when the internal ow rate

increases.

In Figure 2.20, the black line corresponds to the dynamic response for 0.1 L/s, the

lowest internal ow rate. In this response, the top and bottom have opposite phases

(180 ).Further, there is a node (the place)


76

Figure 2.20: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (constant
inlet pressure 10.0 kP a).
77

Figure 2.21: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (constant
inlet pressure 20.0 kP a).
78

Figure 2.22: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (constant
inlet pressure 40.0 kP a).
79

Figure 2.23: Amplitude & phase for a parametric analysis: internal ow rate (constant
inlet pressure 60.0 kP a).
Chapter 3

Initial Experiments

The initial experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of Ocean Systems Design,

located in the Environment and Information Building no.1 of the Graduate School of

Environment and Information Sciences at the main campus of the Yokohama National

University.

A couple of small scale experiments were carried out in order to verify the eects

of the internal ow on the risers mechanical behavior, namely the variation of the

natural frequency and dampness, as predicted in other theoretical researches [25, 36,

46].

Another point to be cleared was which kind of instrumentation ts better to

measure the vibration of a pipe. Since the beginning, the use of a sensor embedded

on the pipe, e.g., accelerometer, was rejected because the pipe mass including internal

uid is reduced and the sensors mass could aect the results.

First, we tried to use laser sensor, but the measurement range for the available laser

sensor is very reduced, about a few millimeters. Thus this reduced range restrained

the use of such sensor.

Next, the ultra-sonic sensor was tested for the measurement of the riser vibration.

80
81

The ultra-sonic sensor has a measurement range, about 10 cm, much larger than the

laser sensor. But its accuracy is worse than the laser sensor. The restriction of the

ultra-sonic sensor was the pipes small diameter and round shape.

The ultra-sonic wave released by the sensors head travels through the air; when

the wave achieves the pipe, it is supposed to be reected back to the head. But

because the pipes small diameter, the waves reection was reduced. In addition, the

pipes round shape reected the ultra-sonic wave in other direction else, instead the

sensors head direction. Thus no reected signal could be measured by the ultra-sonic

measurement system.

Finally, we tried the Visual Measurement System. In this approach, several Mea-

surement Stations (pieces of colorful tape) are sticked on the tubing. Then a camera

lms the pipe vibration. After, a software post-processes the images tracking the

measurement stations and calculating the time-series of each station. In this work,

we are using a software that was initially developed by Dr. Rogerio Yugo Takimoto

during his PhD studies at the YNU [48].

We believe that the visual measurement system ts well the requisites for the

instrumentation of a vibrating pipe. The stick-on used as measurement station has a

reduced mass that has a reduced eect on the pipes dynamic response.

In addition, we also tried to develop a methodology for the analysis of the ex-

perimental results. Such methodology was supposed to handle the displacements

time-series of several measurement stations located along the pipe and feature the

results of the whole together pipe in, as simple as possible, way.

In the following sections, the initial experiments will be presented. In Section 3.1,

the experiment which we tried to measure the natural frequency and damping factor
82

Table 3.1: TYGON R-3603 material properties [44].

Specic gravity 1.18


Modulus of Elasticity (E) 4.5 106 P a

of a pipe conveying fresh water is featured. Section 3.2 has the experiment which a

vertical pipe conveying fresh water was excited with a top harmonic oscillation.

3.1 First Experiment: Natural Frequency & Damp-


ing Factor

During the rst experiment, we tried to measure the natural frequency and damping

factor of pipe conveying fresh water. The experiment was carried out in the air,

not immersed in water. This decision was made in order to avoid the hydrodynamics

eects that could overcome the eects of the internal ow.

3.1.1 Pipe Model

The model is a horizontal tube made of TYGON1 and is clamped at both ends. The

material properties and geometric properties of the tubing are shown in Tables 3.1

& 3.2, respectively.

In addition, the experiments were carried out using specimens of three dierent

lengths as shown by Table 3.3.

1
TYGON is the commercial name of silicon made by the company Saint-Gobain [44].
83

Table 3.2: Geometric properties of the tubing.

Internal diameter (ID) 6.35 mm


External diameter (OD) 9.35 mm
Moment of inertia (I) 295.35 mm4

Table 3.3: Length of the specimens.

Tube Specimen Length


A 300 mm
B 450 mm
C 600 mm

3.1.2 Experimental Apparatus

The experimental apparatus (Fig. 3.1) includes a positive displacement pump that

injects fresh water into the model. The model has three dierent measurement sta-

tions: one is in the middle of the tube length and the other to stations are a quarter

of the length from the central point. A high-speed camera (300 f ps) lms the tube

vibration. Next, a software post processes the recorded movie by tracking and cal-

culating the time series of the position for each one of the stations [48]. Figure 3.2

shows a picture of the real experimental apparatus.

Each one of the three specimen (Table 3.3) was tested under three dierent shapes.

The rst of these is called Straight and it refers to the conguration reached by ten-

sioning the tubing until one achieves an engineering strain 2 of 2.5% while maintaining

a straight shape for the tubing. The Straight prole serves as reference for the other

two shapes that are called Prole #1 and Prole #2, respectively. The corresponding

dimensions d and h (Fig. 3.3) for each specimen are shown in Table 3.4.
2
Engineering Strain is the ratio l/l; where l is the change in length and l is the original length.
84

Figure 3.1: Schematic of the Experimental Apparatus: natural frequency & damp-
ness.

Figure 3.2: Schematic of the Experimental Apparatus: natural frequency & damp-
ness.
85

Figure 3.3: Example of pipe proles.

Table 3.4: Prole conguration for the specimens (dimensions in mm).

Straight Prole #1 Prole #2


Specimen d h d h d h
A 0.0 0.0 3.5 2.0 7.0 6.0
B 0.0 0.0 3.5 6.0 7.0 12.0
C 0.0 0.0 5.0 6.0 10.0 12.0

3.1.3 Experimental Analysis

Each experimental condition (3 dierent specimens, 3 dierent shapes, 5 dierent

conditions of internal ow, making a total of 30 conditions) was carried out 3 times.

The initial condition is a displacement of the central station about 40 mm below the

reference of the point Straight and null velocity.

First, a software post processes the recorded lm tracking and calculating the time

series of each one of the stations. Figure 3.4 shows one example of the superposition

of two post processed frames. In this example, the red circles are generated by the

software and represent the center of the central station. The position of the red

circle is converted from pixel to millimeters generating the position time series of

each station.
86

Figure 3.4: Example of peak and valley (superposition).

Then the position time series of the three stations of each specimen were compared

(Fig. 3.5). The result analysis indicates that the all stations were always in phase

meaning that he only rst vibration mode was measured.

Next, the time series of the central measurement station is analyzed as illustrated

below (Figure 3.6). For this, the data is rst ltered by a triangular window lter [32].

In terms of results analysis, the rst cycle of the target vibration is always neglected.

Next, the mean value is removed from all points. Thereafter, the peaks (positives

and negatives) are identied (Figure 3.7).

Using the mean value of the period between peaks, it is possible to estimate the

damped frequency in rad/s as:

2
d = (3.1.1)
TP
where d is the damped frequency; and T P is the mean value of the period between
87

Figure 3.5: Example of raw data for 3 stations.

Figure 3.6: Example of of raw data and ltered data.


88

Figure 3.7: Example of tting an exponential curve curve to the positive peaks.

peaks.

Next, an exponential function is tted to the peaks (Figure 3.7), using the relation:

y = C exp(s t) (3.1.2)

where y is the tted function; C is a constant that depends the initial condition; and

s is the slope of the logarithmic decrement.

After determining the slope s and the damped frequency d , it is possible to

estimate the natural frequency n and damping factor from the following set of

equations [16], viz:

s = n (3.1.3)

d = n 1 2 (3.1.4)

where the natural frequency n and damping factor are the unknowns; s is the slope
89

from the tted equation (Eq. 3.1.3); and d is the damped frequency calculated by

Eq. 3.1.1.

3.1.4 Results

The experimental results are displayed below in terms of the damping factor and

the natural frequency n . In particular, Figure 3.8 shows the damping factor results

for the specimen A (Table 3.3). Here, the horizontal axis represents the ow rate

where the label without water means that the specimen is lled only with air and

no ow. On the other hand, the label 0000 means that the tube is lled with water

and no ow. The other labels, viz. 0050, 0790 and 1580 indicate the water ow

rate in mL/min. In addition, Figure 3.8 also shows the results for the three dierent

tube proles (Table 3.4).

It is possible to assume that the tube in the position Straight has a tension higher

than the other two proles (the tube has an engineering strain of 2.5% in the position

Straight) and this tension has an eect that seems to neutralize the internal ow

eect on the damping factor. The eect of the internal ow is more pronounced in

the other two proles, especially for the without water and 1580 mL/min internal

ow conditions.

Figure 3.9 shows the experimental results of the damping factor for the three

dierent proles of the specimen B. The blue line shows the damping factor of the

straight tube for dierent internal ow conditions, including the without water case.

The results for specimen B clearly illustrate the eect of the internal ow on the

damping factor especially for the without water and 1580 mL/min internal ow

conditions even for the case when the tube prole is Straight.
90

Figure 3.8: Damping factor for the pipe Specimen A.

Figure 3.9: Damping factor for the pipe Specimen B.


91

Figure 3.10: Damping factor for the pipe Specimen C.

Figure 3.10 features the experimental results of the damping factor for specimen C.

For longer tube, it is easier to see the eect of the internal ow on the pipe dynamics.

For the Straight prole, we nd that because the tension is higher, the eect of the

internal ow is reduced. However, for the proles #1 and #2, it is possible to verify

that the damping factor increases as the internal ow increases.

Figure 3.11 features the natural frequencies of the 1st vibration mode for specimen

A. The horizontal axis shows the ow rate scenarios. Here the blue curve applies to a

straight tube, while the red and green graphs describe the natural frequency response

for the pipe tubing with proles #1 and #2 respectively.

It is evident from Fig. 3.11 that the without water condition has a signicant

eect on the natural frequency. In the without water condition, the mass of the

model is smaller and the reduced mass has the eect of elevating the natural frequency.
92

Figure 3.11: Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen A.

Furthermore, increased tension in the tube also increases the natural frequency [52].

Figure 3.12shows the experimental results of natural frequencies for specimen B.

Again, the without water condition has a signicant eect on the natural frequency

due to the reduced mass of the pipe in this condition.

Lastly, Figure 3.13 shows the results of natural frequencies for the third specimen,

and we observe they follow the same pattern of behavior recorded in respect of the

other two specimens.

3.1.5 Remarks

From Figures 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10, we observe that the damping factor has the tendency

to increase when the ow rate increases. But this tendency is also moderated by

other factors such as the pipe tension and length. Here the countervailing eects of
93

Figure 3.12: Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen B.

Figure 3.13: Natural Frequencies for the pipe Specimen C.


94

Figure 3.14: Comparison of the slope among the pipe specimens for the prole con-
guration #1.

the increase in pipe tension and mass ow rate are illustrated by the Straight pipe.

Figure 3.14 shows the experimental results of the damping factor for the dierent

specimens congured for Prole #1 in order to show the sensitiveness of the pipe

length over the internal ow eect. This prole was chosen because it does not have

the eect of the tension accentuated as in the Straight prole neither does it has the

nonlinearity embedded in Prole #2, due to its catenary shape. When a polynomial

function of 1st order is tted for each specimen, it is observed that the longest pipe

(i.e. specimen C) has a higher slope than the other two results.

From Figures 3.11, 3.12 and 3.13, we observe that the label without water has

a natural frequency higher than the other conditions with water. It is because the
95

specimens in this ithout water condition have a smaller mass. Equation (3.1.5)

shows relation of the mass and stiness with the natural frequency [16],


k
n = (3.1.5)
m

where n is the natural frequency, k is a spring constant that can be interpreted

as stiness and m is the system mass. This smaller mass infers a higher natural

frequency.

Furthermore, the natural frequency for Straight pipe proles is always higher than

the proles #1 and #2. This phenomenon occurs because the tension on the pipe (i.e.

prole Straight has an engineering strain of 2.5%). The tension is proportional to the

second derivative of the beam, i.e. the third term of Eq. (2.1.5), which corresponds to

the bending moment [37]. Here the tension reduces the bending moment. Then the

pipe behaves like it had a higher stiness. According to Equation (3.1.5), a higher

stiness means a higher natural frequency. Further, despite the reduced eect, the

increase of the internal ow rate decreases the natural frequency.

Concluding, the damping factor has a tendency to increase when the ow rate

increases. This trend seems to be sensitive to the countervailing eects of the pipes

tension and length. The pipe tension eect overcomes the internal ow eect and the

pipe length seems to increase the internal ow eect. Finally, the eect of an internal

ow eect on the dynamic response of a pipe could be veried by this initial study.

Further investigation shall be conducted to verify the sensitiveness of the internal

ow eect to the uid viscosity and the external loads.


96

3.2 Second Experiment: Top Oscillation

The second experiment was carried out using a top oscillator. Such oscillator is

composed by a linear guide and a sphere screw. A small cart slides on the linear

guide driven by the sphere screw; and the screw is coupled with a stepping motor.

The whole oscillator assembly, including stepping motor, and the electronic driver for

the stepping motor were purchased from the Oriental Motor, Co.

The electronic driver for the steeping motor requires two main input3 and other

auxiliary input in order to control the motor. The two main inputs drive the motor:

when one of such inputs has a TTL pulse, it rotates the motor by one step. If we

put the pulse in the other main input, the motor will rotate in the other way by one

step. Controlling the frequency of the pulses, we can control the oscillator speed; and

choosing which main input to put in the pulses, we can control the direction of the

oscillator.

The auxiliary inputs have several functionalities, such as, set the motor to run,

set the motor free (without brake), set the oscillator in the initial position, etc.

In order to generate the pulse signal and to control some of the drivers func-

tionalities, we developed a computational program using Microsoft Visual C++ 2008

Express 4 . We also used a freeware library to have access to the computers par-

allel port. Then the signals are sent from the computer into the stepping motors

driver through the parallel port. In addition, we made another small electronic board

containing photo-couplers to be used between the computer and the driver. Those

3
The driver inputs are all TTL signals.
4
The Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express is a free and lighter version of the Microsoft Visual
C++ 2008 ; despite to be a non-complete version of the commercial compiler, the Express version
contains the C/C++ compiler, Microsoft Foundation Class (MFC), IDE, etc.
97

Table 3.5: Geometric properties of the tubing for the top oscillation experiment.

Tube Specimen Length


A 450 mm
B 600 mm

photo-couplers protects the computer against electric current peaks, etc. that can

occurs in the driver.

Furthermore, this experiment was also carried out in the air in order to avoid

the hydrodynamics eects.

Following, during the next sections, a small brieng about the model, experimental

apparatus and the results will be presented.

3.2.1 Pipe Model

The model is a vertical tube made of TYGON and its boundary conditions are xed

at both ends. The material and geometric properties of the tubing are shown in

Tables 3.1 and 3.3, respectively.

Further, the experiments were carried out using specimens of two dierent lengths

as shown by Table 3.5.

Then each specimen was tested under two dierent proles for the axial tension.

The rst tension prole is named Prole #1, which is reached by tensioning the tubing

until one achieves an engineering strain of 2.5%. The Prole #1 serves as reference

for the Prole #2 ; the distance d, between the Prole #1 and Prole #2, as shown

by Figure 3.15 is equal to 5 mm.


98

Profile #1
Profile#2

Figure 3.15: Schematic of the dierent tension proles for the top oscillation experi-
ments.

3.2.2 Experimental Apparatus

Figure 3.16 shows a schematic of the experimental apparatus. A positive displacement

pump injects fresh water into the model. The lower pipes end is xed; and, at the

top end, there is oscillator driven by a stepping motor that generates the oscillatory

motion. In addition, the model has four dierent measurement stations named: A,

B, C, and D, from up to down, respectively. The station A is located at the top

end of the tubing and corresponds to the position of the oscillator; the station C is

located in the middle of the tube length; and the stations B and D are a quarter of

the length from the central point. Then a high-speed camera (300 fps) lms the tube

vibration. Next, a software post processes the recorded movie by tracking [48] and

calculating the time series of the position for each one of the stations.
99

Flow

Oscillator
Oscillating
End
A High-Speed
Camera
B
Stations

Model
D

Fixed
End
Water
Reservoir
Pump

Figure 3.16: Schematic of the experimental apparatus for the top oscillation experi-
ments.
100

scillator

Stations

High-Speed
Camera

Figure 3.17: The experimental apparatus for the top oscillation experiments.

Figure 3.17 shows a picture of the real apparatus; the main components are indi-

cated.

3.2.3 Experimental Analysis

During this experiment, we developed a methodology for the data analysis of the

experimental results that will be used for the rest of the experiments.

Assuming that the pipes dynamic response is the summation of several compo-

nents, namely, several modal shapes, as shown by Fig. 3.18.

Then the next step is identify the frequencies of each of those components using

the Fourier Transform [42]. Next, the amplitude and phase of each component are

calculated using the Fourier Coecients [26].

Following, a detailed explanation:


101

st nd rd 2000
1 Modal Shape 2 Modal Shape 3 Modal Shape

(...)
4000

Depth [mm]
+ + + = 6000 0.0 s
0.4 s
0.8 s
1.2 s
8000 1.6 s
2.0 s
2.4 s
2.8 s
10000 3.2 s
3.6 s

-100 0 100
Displacement [mm]

Figure 3.18: Pipes Response as the summing of several modal shapes.

Data Analysis Methodology

The rst step of the data analysis is the post processing of the record lm tracking

and calculating the time series of each measurement station. After, the mean value

is removed from the time series (Fig. 3.19).

Next, the main frequency of the time series periodic signal is identied; and the

Fourier coecients [26] for the main frequency are calculated, viz:

2N
1
a = f (t) cos t dt (3.2.1)
N
0
2N
1
b = f (t) sin t dt (3.2.2)
N
0

where a and b are the Fourier coecients; N is the number of signals cycles that

shall be analyzed; f (t) is the time series; is the frequency which is required to be

analyzed; and t is time.

Then it is possible to calculate a cosine function, namely,

g(t) = A cos ( t ) (3.2.3)


102

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0790 mL/min; Profile #1


4
Station B
3

2
Position [mm]

-1

-2

-3

-4
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time [s]

Figure 3.19: Example of a time series.

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0790 mL/min; Profile #1


6
Station B
5
g(t)=2.8746 cos(5.84484 t-0.2373)
4
3
Position [mm]

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time [s]

Figure 3.20: Example of the curve tting.


103

that ts the time series periodic signal. In the above equation, A is the amplitude

dened by Eq. (3.2.4); is the time series frequency; t is time; is the phase

dened by Eq. (3.2.5).


A = a2 + b2 (3.2.4)

 
b
= arctan (3.2.5)
a

where A and are the amplitude and the phase of Eq. (3.2.3); and a2 and a2 are

the Fourier coecients dened by Eqs. (3.2.1) & (3.2.2), respectively.

For the example of time series shown by Fig. 3.19, the Fourier Coecients and

frequency become, respectively,

a 2.794014 (3.2.6)

b 0.675772 (3.2.7)

5.844824 rad/s (3.2.8)

Following, the red line in Fig. 3.20 shows the tted curve (Eq. 3.2.3), using the

above parameters, superposed to the experimental data series from the previous ex-

ample (Fig. 3.19).

The same procedure can be repeated for any frequency. Thus it is possible to

separate each pipes response by a chosen frequency (Fig. 3.18). Further, using this

methodology, it is not necessary to use any lter nor curve tting algorithm.
104

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


6
Station A
5
g(t)
4
3
2
Position [mm]

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time [s]

Figure 3.21: Station As input (14.5 rad/s).

3.2.4 Results

Figure 3.21 shows the time series of the Station A with input amplitude and fre-

quency of about 4 mm and 14.5 rad/s, respectively. In the plot, the black line is the

experimental data and the red line is the tted curve.

Next, Figure 3.22 shows the Station C s response for the previous input (Fig. 3.21).

It is possible to see that the input with a frequency of 14.5 rad/s generated a high

frequency response of the pipe.

Then the spectral analysis [42, 26] (Fast Fourier Transform-FFT) was carried out

to investigate the high frequency output signal (Fig. 3.22). The spectrum (Fig. 3.23)

shows two signicant peaks: the rst one (X = 14.73, Y = 2.248) is around the input

frequency; and the second peak (X = 43.72, Y = 1.876) is around the 3rd harmonic.
105

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


6
5 Station C
4
3
2
Position [mm]

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time [s]

Figure 3.22: Station C s time-series (14.5 rad/s).

Single-Sided Amplitude Spectrum of f(t)


2.5

X: 14.73 X: 43.72
2 Y: 2.248 Y: 1.876

1.5
|F(f)|

0.5

0
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Frequency (rad/s)

Figure 3.23: Spectrum of the Station C s time-series.


106

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


6
Station C
5
g1+g2+g3+g4
4
g1+g3
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time [s]

Figure 3.24: Station C s time-series and tted curves.

For this case, it was decided to repeat the curve tting procedure described in the

sub-section 3.2.3 for the rst 4 harmonics frequencies, viz: 14.5 rad/s, 29.1 rad/s,

43.6 rad/s, and 58.2 rad/s. Figure 3.24 compares the Station Cs experimental data

with the tted curves. The red line with marked with dots is composed by the four

tted curves; the blue line is composed only by the 1st and 3rd harmonics.

The amplitudes of the 2nd and 4th harmonic can be neglected. In addition, Fig-

ures 3.25 and 3.26 show the trajectories of each one of the four Stations for the rst

and third harmonics, respectively. The time step between each point is 0.01 s; and

only a half cycle of the oscillatory motion is plotted. Some points are highlighted only

to make clearer the pipe shape. Further, the arrows indicate the stations directions.

Figure3.25 shows the pipe motion due to the oscillatory motion generates by the

oscillator. The frequency of this input motion (14.5 rad/s) is three times smaller
107

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60
Station A
50

40 Station B
y [cm]

30
Station C

20
Station D
10
=14.5 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.25: Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
14.5 rad/s).

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60 Station A

50
Station B
40
y [mm]

30 Station C

20
Station D
10
=43.5 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.26: Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
14.5 rad/s).
108

Specimen B; Profile #1

60 0000 mL/min
0050 mL/min
50
0790 mL/min
y [cm] 40 1580 mL/min

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
x [mm]

Figure 3.27: Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 14.5 rad/s).

than the motion of Figure 3.26. The pipes response, shown by Fig. 3.26, seems to be

the 2nd modal shape a pipe (the 1st vibration mode must be the pendulum mode). In

fact, this high frequency (43.6 rad/s) is close to the natural frequency measured in the

previous experiment5 , as shown by Fig.3.13; but, in the previous works experimental

apparatus, the pipe was in the horizontal position.

According to Figure 3.27, the internal ow does not have a signicant eect on

the 1st harmonic response. For the 3rd harmonics response (Fig. 3.28), the internal

ow with 790 mL/min has the highest amplitude.

Next, the same analysis is applied for the experimental data with the same con-

ditions, except the oscillating frequency that is about 10.5 rad/s, smaller than the

resonance frequency of the previous case.

Figures 3.29 and 3.30 shows the stations trajectories of a half of cycle for the

5
During the previous experiment, the same specimen (length of 600 mm) was named Specimen C
109

Specimen B; Profile #1

60 0000 mL/min
0050 mL/min
50 0790 mL/min
1580 mL/min
40

y [cm]
30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
x [mm]

Figure 3.28: Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 14.5 rad/s).

1st harmonic responses, viz., 10.5 rad/s; and the 3rd harmonic, 31.5 rad/s. Some

points are highlighted only to make clearer the pipe shape. Figure 3.29 shows the

half cycles trajectories of all Stations; it has the same behavior of the previous case:

up side down triangular shape and all stations moving in the same way.

Figure 3.30 shows the all Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic. Again, all

stations have the same behavior of the previous case. The pipe seems to have the

shape of the 2nd vibration mode. The main dierence is the amplitude; the previous

cases motion (Fig. 3.26) is in resonance and has the highest amplitude.

Following, the amplitudes for the 1st harmonic and 3rd harmonic response are

shown by Figs. 3.31 and 3.32, respectively.

Last, the same analysis is applied for a top oscillation frequency of 17.9 rad/s

that is higher than the resonance frequency. Figures 3.33 and 3.33 show the response

of the 1st harmonic and 2nd harmonic motions, respectively.


110

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60
Station A
50

40 Station B
y [cm]

30
Station C
20

10 Station D

=10.5 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.29: Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
10.5 rad/s).

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60 Station A

50
Station B
40
y [cm]

30 Station C

20
Station D
10
=31.5 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.30: Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
10.5 rad/s).
111

Specimen B; Profile #1

60

50

40
y [cm]
30
0000 mL/min
20 0050 mL/min
10 0790 mL/min
1580 mL/min
0
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
x [mm]

Figure 3.31: Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 10.5 rad/s).

Specimen B; Profile #1

60

50

40
y [cm]

30
0000 mL/min
20 0050 mL/min
0790 mL/min
10
1580 mL/min

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
x [mm]

Figure 3.32: Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 10.5 rad/s).
112

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60
Station A
50

40 Station B
y [cm]

30
Station C
20

10 Station D

=17.9 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.33: Stations trajectories for the 1st harmonic (top oscillation frequency
17.9 rad/s).

Specimen B; Flow Rate: 0000 mL/min; Profile #1


60 Station A

50
Station B
40
y [cm]

30 Station C

20
Station D
10
=53.7 rad/s
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
x [mm]

Figure 3.34: Stations trajectories for the 3rd harmonic (top oscillation frequency
17.9 rad/s).
113

Specimen B; Profile #1

60 0000 mL/min
0050 mL/min
50
0790 mL/min
40 1580 mL/min

y [cm]
30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
x [mm]

Figure 3.35: Amplitude of each Station for the rst harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 17.9 rad/s).

The plot shown by Fig. 3.33 has the same triangular shape as the other two

previous 1st harmonics plots. Further, as shown by the arrows, all stations moves

to the same direction. On the other side, Fig. 3.33 plots the stations trajectories

for the 3rd harmonic; in this case, the pipe has a dierent behavior if compared with

the previous cases. The Station A moves to an opposite direction from the Station C

and Station D; and the Station B has a motion with very low amplitude indicating

that can have a node nearby to this station; this behavior resembles the 3rd vibration

mode of a pipe.

Next, Figures 3.35 and 3.36 compare the 1st harmonic and 3rd harmonic ampli-

tudes for dierent ow rates, respectively.


114

Specimen B; Profile #1

60 0000 mL/min
0050 mL/min
50
0790 mL/min
y [cm] 40 1580 mL/min

30

20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
x [mm]

Figure 3.36: Amplitude of each Station for the third harmonic motion (top oscillation
frequency 17.9 rad/s).

3.2.5 Remarks

In this experiment, we could observe the eect of the internal ow on the dynamics

of a vibrating pipe. The pipe was induced with a top oscillation from an oscillator

(Figs. 3.16 & 3.17).

In one case, it was observed that the oscillating input generated a high frequency

response on the pipe. Throughout a spectral analysis, it was possible to conclude that

this high frequency response was composed by two oscillation motions: one motion

was at the same frequency of the input and the other was its third harmonic. The third

harmonic frequency is close to the natural frequency of a pipe in similar conditions

that was measured in a previous experiment (the natural frequencies results are shown

by Fig.3.13); this fact is a suggestion that the pipe was in resonance. Further, the

trajectories of each measurement station were plotted separately for each harmonic;

the rst harmonics response is similar to a motion of an up side down pendulum


115

(Fig. 3.25), and the third harmonics response is similar to the second vibration mode

of a pipe (Fig. 3.26).

Next, the same procedure of data analysis was deployed in the same experiment,

but with two dierent input frequencies: lower and higher than the frequency of the

resonance case.

The experiment with input frequency lower than the pipes natural frequency has

a dynamic behavior similar the resonance case. The main dierent is the reduced am-

plitude of the third harmonics frequency (Fig. 3.30) if compared with the resonance

amplitude, what is expected. In addition, it is possible to verify the eect of internal

ow eect on the pipes dynamic behavior, especially of third harmonics response

(Fig. 3.28 & Fig. 3.32). As veried in a previous experiment, the pipes damping

has the tendency to increase when the internal ow rates increases; then it can be

veried the lower amplitude of the third harmonics response are at the highest ow

rate (Fig. 3.28 & Fig. 3.32).

For the experiment with frequency higher than the natural frequency, the rst

harmonics response has similar behavior as the two previous cases (Fig. 3.33). The

main dierence concerns to the third harmonics response. In this case, the Station B

has a low amplitude indicating that there is a node nearby this measurement station.

In addition, the Station A moves in the opposite direction than the Station C and

Station D; actually, this behavior is similar to the third vibration mode of a pipe

(Fig. 3.36).
Chapter 4

Experiments in the
Deep-Sea Basin

The next experiments were carried out at the Deep Sea Basin of the National Mar-

itime Research Institute (NMRI), located in the city of Mitaka, Tokyo Metropolis

Japan. The Deep Sea Basin was certied by the Guinness Book as the worlds deepest

marine test basin. However, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University inaugurated a new

basin with a 40 m depth pit in 2010.

The Deep Sea Basin is composed by a circular basin, with 16 m of diameter

and 5 m of depth, and a deep pit of 5 m of diameter and 30 m of depth, summing

35 m of maximum depth (Fig. 4.1). The basin is also equipped with paddle type

wave generator (128 paddles distributed all around the circular basin) and current

generators that can circulate water within predetermined areas of the basin.

The basin is also equipped with Visual Measurement System that is composed by

20 cameras of high resolution. Such cameras are installed in pairs along the deep pit

(9 pairs) and 1 pair is installed below the paddles of the wave generator. Each pair of

cameras lms the same region from dierent angles; it means that both cameras can

lm the displacement of the same measurement station from dierent angles. Then

116
117

Figure 4.1: The Deep-SEA Basin. Source: Dr. Shotaro Uto.


118

a cluster of computer, in real time and with a sampling rate of 10 Hz, tracks such

measurement stations and, using the data from both cameras, calculates the position

of the measurement station in 3 Dimensions.

In the following two sections, two experiments using the model in dierent con-

gurations will be presented. Section 4.1 features the experiment that has the model

in the hango conguration; and section c4s:Experiment02 is about the experiment

using the model in a jumper conguration.

4.1 Experiment: Hanged Pipe

In September of 2009, this experimental analysis was carried out, in the Deep Sea

Basin of the National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI), using a model of 10 m

length. In this experiment, a mono-phase uid of fresh water and another bi-phase

uid of fresh water with solids in suspension are used as the internal ows uid and

a parametric analysis using the internal ow rate and pipes oscillating frequency was

carried out.

4.1.1 Pipe Model

The riser model deployed in this experiment is a pipe made of silicon with 10 m length,

outer diameter of 42 mm, and inner diameter of 32 mm. The model has a vertical

free-hanging conguration, which the upper end is xed to the pivoted tube and the

lower end is free to move. The lower end also has a weight of 4.6 kg that keeps the

model tensioned.

The model has 33 measurement stations along its length; each station is placed
119

MODEL

MEASUREMENT
STATIONS

Figure 4.2: The model deployed in the experiment.

30 cm of distance each other (Fig. 4.2). Those stations are used by the Visual Mea-

surement System to measure the dynamical behavior of the pipe.

In addition, beside the measurement stations, the model is equipped with 4 ac-

celerometers (2-axis), as shown by Fig. 4.3, that were used to measure the accelera-

tions in the axial and radial directions as a spare measurement system.

Next, some pictures of the model. Figure 4.4 shows Mr. Fujiwara and Mr. Kanada

xing an accelerometer on the pipe. Following, there are two pictures of the model in

the Deep-Sea Basin: the rst pictures (Fig. 4.5) shows the pipe in the basin without
120

ACC. #1

1m
2.5m
ACC. #2

5m
ACC. #3

8m

ACC. #4

MODEL WEIGHT

Figure 4.3: Accelerometers positions.

Figure 4.4: Fixing the accelerometers on the pipe.


121

water; and the next picture (Fig. 4.6) shows the pipe immersed in the water.

4.1.2 Apparatus

In this experiment, the apparatus was assembled over the deep pit (the circular basin

was not used) as shown by Fig. 4.7. The experimental apparatus includes a pos-

itive displacement pump that injected fresh water stored in an auxiliary tank into

the model. Further, an oscillator generates an oscillatory motion on the upper end

through a pivoted tube that connects the pump discharge to the model.

The experiment was also carried out adding glass balls to the pumps suction.

Such glass balls that have 3 mm of diameter are injected with fresh water into the

model increasing the average density of the internal uid. The glass balls eect also

can be understood as the solids in suspension in a multiphase ow. In addition, a

basket, that was raised by a winch, was used at the bottom end to collect such glass

balls.

Figures 4.7 & 4.8 show the real experimental apparatus.

4.1.3 Data Acquisition System

Two dierent data acquisition systems were deployed in this experiment: an Analog-

ical Data Acquisition System and a Visual Measurement System.

The data that were acquired by the analogical system are shown by the Table 4.1.

Accelerometers #1 up to #4 have each one two channels because these accelerome-

ters, which are installed on the model, measure the pipes acceleration in two dierent

direction: axial and radial. The channel 9 corresponds to Flowmeter signal and chan-

nel 10 gives the Oscillators stroke position. The channel 11 corresponds to the signal

of the accelerometer installed nearby the owmeter (Fig. 4.9). Such accelerometer has
122

Figure 4.5: Model set in the Deep-Sea Basin without water.


123

Figure 4.6: Model set in the Deep-Sea Basin with water.


124

CIRCULAR FLOW
METER MASTER
BASIN
VERTICAL VALVE
ACCELEROMETER BY-PASS
VALVE
WINCH PUMP
AUXILIARY
PIVOTED TANK
TUBE

DEEP PIT

OSCILLATOR

MODEL
BASKET WEIGHT

Figure 4.7: Experimental apparatus schematic.

FLOW MASTER
METER VALVE
WINCH

PIVOTED
TUBE PUMP

OSCILLATOR
MODEL

Figure 4.8: Picture of the experimental apparatus.


125

ACCELEROMETER FLOW MASTER


METER VALVE
PUMP

AUXILIARY
TANK
PIVOTED
TUBE OSCILLATOR

MODEL

Figure 4.9: Picture of the experimental apparatus.

Table 4.1: Analogical acquisition channels.

Channel Data
1&2 Accelerometer #1
3&4 Accelerometer #2
5&6 Accelerometer #3
7&8 Accelerometer #4
9 Flow Rate
10 Oscillators Position
11 Vertical Accelerometer
126

PUMPS
FREQUENCY
ANALOGIC SYSTEMS INVERSOR
SIGNAL CONDITIONER

2-AXIS ACCELEROMETERS
SIGNAL CONDITIONER

Figure 4.10: Analogical signal conditioners and pumps frequency inversor.

only one axis and was installed to measure the apparatus vertical vibration induced

by the pump.

The analogical signals from the sensors are, rst, sent to the signal conditioner

(Fig. 4.10). From the conditioner, the signals are sent to an AD system, where the

analogical signal is converted into digital data. Then such digital data are sent to the

Deep-Sea Basins control room through a wireless link. In the control room, the data

are saved in a computer.

Next, the Visual Measurement System tracks and calculates the 3-D position of

each measurement station along the pipe [7]. Such measurement system use pairs of

cameras installed on the Circular Basin (1 pair) and along the Deep Pit (9 pairs). In

this experiment, only the rst 3 pairs of camera installed in the Deep Pit have been

used. Because the cameras are pointed downward, there is a blind area on the top

of the model (rst 4 measurement stations) where the data acquisition is not possible.
127

The Visual Measurement System is the main system used to measure the pipes

dynamic response. The accelerometers #1 up to #4 are the spare instrumentation

for the pipes response.

4.1.4 Experimental Analysis

The data analysis that was computed for this experiment is similar to the methodology

presented previously in the sub-section 3.2.3.

First, the measurement stations were numbered from the top to the bottom, which

the Station #1 is the rst station on the top after the blind area of the Visual

Measurement System. Next, the average of the time series is withdrawn. Then

the time series for the position of each measurement stations were plotted together.

Figure 4.11 shows a typical result for the risers model dynamic behavior which the

internal ow, with only water, is 0.169 L/s and a oscillatory motions frequency of

0.235 Hz. Such gure has 2 graphs, the left one that is called IN-LINE corresponds to

the models displacement in the same direction of the oscillatory motion; and the right

graphic called TRANSVERSE is the models perpendicular displacement in relation

to oscillatory motion. The vertical axis corresponds to the Deep Pits depth where

the origin is located on the Circular Basins oor; and the horizontal axis corresponds

to the displacements amplitude, which the average is zero.

In Figure 4.11, it is easy to identify a node nearby the depth of 8 m in the in-lines

graph. In the transverses graph, there are two nodes nearby depths of 6 m and 10 m.

The pipes motion in the transverse direction, probably, is due to the vortex shed-

ding. Figure 4.12 shows the trajectories of four dierent stations in the plan formed

by the directions of in-line and transverse. The label above each graph indicates the
128

In-Line Transversal

2000 2000

4000 4000
depth[mm]

depth[mm]
6000 0.0 s
6000
0.0 s
0.4 s 0.4 s
0.8 s 0.8 s
1.2 s 1.2 s
8000 1.6 s 8000 1.6 s
2.0 s 2.0 s
2.4 s 2.4 s
2.8 s 2.8 s
10000 3.2 s 10000 3.2 s
3.6 s 3.6 s

-100 0 100 -100 0 100


amplitude[mm] amplitude[mm]
Figure 4.11: Riser models dynamic behavior.

stations number and, between parentheses, its depth. The Station #3 is, among

such stations, the closest one to the pipes top, then it has largest displacement in the

in-line direction; this station also has a trajectory in a U -shape what is one charac-

teristic of Vibration Induced by Vortices, or VIV. The Stations #9 and #30 describe

a 8 -shaped trajectory what also is one characteristic of the VIV. The Station #21

has a reduced displacement because it is near to node that was observed in the in-line

result of Fig. 4.11.

Next, the Fourier Transform was calculated for the time series of each stations in
129

POINT NO.3 (2137mm) POINT NO.9 (4005mm)


Transverse[mm] 100 100

Transverse[mm]
50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100
-100 -50 0 50 100 -100 -50 0 50 100
In-Line[mm] In-Line[mm]
POINT NO.21 (7642mm) POINT NO.30 (1039mm)
100 100
Transverse[mm]

Transverse[mm]
50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100
-100 -50 0 50 100 -100 -50 0 50 100
In-Line[mm] In-Line[mm]

Figure 4.12: Dynamic behavior of dierent stations.

both in-line and transverse directions using the algorithm of the Fast Fourier Trans-

form(FFT). Further details about the numerical calculation of the Fourier Transform

can be found in Press et al. [42]. Figure 4.13 shows the FFT results for the in-line

direction of the case showed previously by Fig. 4.11.

In Figure 4.13, the axis called Station Number corresponds to each one of the

measurement stations numbered from #1 up to #30, which the station #1 is the

rst visible station at the top1 , and the station #30 is the lowest station. The axis

called Frequency shows the frequencies wherein the FFT has been calculated. The

vertical axis called Amplitude is the result of the FFT calculation. In other words,

this graph shows the FFT results for all visible measurement station.

We can observe, as expected, that amplitudes peaks are located in the oscillators

frequency. Such frequency, in this case, is equal to 0.235 Hz. It is also possible to
1
The rst three pipes stations could not be measured by the Visual Measurement System.
130

NE
IN-LI
Amplitude [mm]

100

50

0 1.562
0 1.171
St
ati 20 0.781 z]
on q u e n cy [H
Nu 0.390 Fre
mbe
r

Figure 4.13: FFT results for all stations.

observe that also there are peaks at the harmonics of the excitation frequency, namely:

0.470 Hz, 0.705 Hz, and so on.

In order to observe the pipes dynamic behavior at each one of the harmonics, it

was decided to calculate, for the excitation frequency and its 2nd and 3rd harmonics,

the Fourier Coecients [26], viz :

 2N
1
af = gi (t) cos 2f t dt (4.1.1)
N 0

 2N
1
bf = gi (t) sin 2f t dt (4.1.2)
N 0

where af and bf are the Fourier coecients; N is the number of the time seriess cycles

that shall be analyzed; gi (t) is the time series of the i-th station; f is the frequency

in hertz that shall be analyzed what, in this case, means the excitation frequency or

its harmonics; and t is time in second.

Using the Fourier coecients, it is possible to calculate the amplitude and phase
131

of a signals component at the excitation frequency and its harmonics, namely:



Af = a2f + b2f (4.1.3)
 

a
arctan bff ,

if bf > 0;

 




a
+ arctan bff , if af 0, bf < 0;

 


+ arctan af , if af < 0, bf < 0;
bf
f = (4.1.4)





, if af > 0, bf = 0;


2





, if af < 0, bf = 0;

2


0 if af = 0, bf = 0.
where Af and f are the amplitude and the phase; and af and bf are the Fourier

coecients dened by Eqs. 4.1.1 and 4.1.2. The function dened by Eq. 4.1.4, that is

also called atan2 in the most of the mathematical computer libraries, is an extension

of the arctangent function. The arctangent results is dened only in the interval

2 , 2 . In the other hand, the function atan2 (Eq. 4.1.4) extends the results to the

interval [, ].

Finally, the amplitude and phase of the harmonics components are plotted to-

gether for In-Line and Transverse directions as shown by Figs. 4.14 and 4.15, respec-

tively.

4.1.5 Experimental Results

For lack of space, only the results for the experiments carried out in the water and

with a excitation frequency of 0.235 Hz are shown in this work. Table 4.2 features

the cases that are shown in this subsection.

Figure 4.14 shows the results of the Case 1 for the In-Line direction, and Fig. 4.15

for the Transverse direction. Both gures are composed by two graphs; the rst
132

Table 4.2: Cases analyzed which the results will be featured in subsection 4.1.5.

Case Flow Rate [L/s] Frequency [Hz] Glass Ball


1 0.000 0.235 no
2 0.169 0.235 no
3 0.338 0.235 no
4 0.675 0.235 no
5 1.013 0.235 no
6 0.675 0.230 yes (1.092)
7 0.675 0.230 yes (1.103)
8 1.013 0.230 yes (1.072)
9 1.013 0.230 yes (1.083)

graph of Fig 4.14 shows the vibration amplitudes (horizontal axis) calculated by

Eq. 4.1.3 for each measurement station (vertical axis) in the in-line direction. In such

vertical axis, there are the numbers of each measurement station where the station #1

means the rst visible station at the top, and the station #29 corresponds to the

lowest station. The amplitude calculation is carried out for the excitation frequency

showed by Table 4.2, and its 2nd and 3rd harmonics, namely: 0.235 Hz, 0.470 Hz and

0.705 Hz. The red line corresponds to the amplitude for the excitation frequency, the

green line corresponds to the 2nd harmonic, and the blue line shows the results of the

3rd harmonic. The second graph of Fig. 4.14 shows the phases calculated by Eq. 4.1.4

for the pipes vibration in the in-line direction. Figure 4.15 shows the amplitude and

phase for the Case 1 in the Transverse direction.

In addition, we can observe in Fig. 4.14 that the pipes response occurs, as ex-

pected, mainly in the excitation frequency (0.235 Hz). Further, in such frequencys

response, there is a node located around the station #27. The stations above the

node (stations #1 up to #26 ) and the stations below the node (stations #28 and
133

#29 ) are vibrating in an opposite phase (about 180 ) as shown by the right graph of

Fig. 4.14.

Figure 4.15 shows the amplitudes and phases calculated for the transverse direc-

tion of Case #1. In this case, the transversal response has two main component,

namely, the response in the excitation frequency (0.235 Hz) and its 2nd harmonic

(0.470 Hz). In the response for 0.235 Hz, the stations amplitudes are very close each

other, but the phase changes gradually along the pipe giving a pendular behavior to

this response. The 0.470 Hz response has an amplitude a little higher between the

station #5 and station #10, and one node nearby the station #10 and another at the

lower end, as shown by the phase graph of Fig. 4.15. Further, the upper pipes part

(between stations #1 and #10 ) and the lower part (below station #10 )are vibrating

with a phase of about 90 (right graph of Fig. 4.15). The vibration observed in the

Transverse Direction is, probably, caused by the vortices shedding due to the In-Line

oscillation (Vibration Induced by Vortices-VIV).

Next, Figure 4.16 shows the amplitude and phase for the Case #2 in the In-Line

direction. In this gure, the In-Line response has a node nearby the stations #18

and #19 ; the amplitude around this node is reduced (amplitude graph of Fig. 4.16)

and its phase is close to zero (phase graph of Fig. 4.16). The pipes top part (between

stations #1 and #17 ) and the lower part (below station #18 ) are vibrating with a

phase of about 90 .

For the transversal response (Fig. 4.17), the main response is in 0.235 Hz, as in

the previous case, the transversal amplitudes are very close each other and the phase

changes gradually along the pipe. The 2nd harmonic has a peak around the station

#20 with a phase of about 20 in relation to the top part of the model.
134

Figure 4.14: Results: Case 1 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.15: Results: Case 1 TRANSVERSE.


135

Figure 4.16: Results: Case 2 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.17: Results: Case 2 TRANSVERSE.


136

Figure 4.18: Results: Case 3 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.19: Results: Case 3 TRANSVERSE.


137

Figure 4.20: Results: Case 4 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.21: Results: Case 4 TRANSVERSE.


138

The response that is showed by Figs. 4.16 and 4.17 corresponds to the same case

featured previously by Figs. 4.11 and 4.12. It is also important to notice that despite

the Case #1 and Case #2 have the same input frequency, their response in both

In-Line and Transverse directions are dierent.

Following, Figures 4.18 and 4.19 show the response for the Case #3 in the In-Line

and Transverse directions, respectively. In the In-Line response (Fig. 4.18), the main

response is in 0.235 Hz, wherein it is possible to identify a node nearby the station

#25.

Figure 4.19 shows the transversal response for the Case #3, which the main re-

sponses are in the frequency 0.235 Hz and, in the 0.470 Hz response, there is a peak

between stations #15 and #25. Again, the response in the rst frequency has a

pendular behavior due to the phase that increases along the pipe (red line in the

right graph of Fig. 4.19). The second frequency has a peak (nearby the station #21 )

higher than the rst frequency. In the second frequency response, the top part (above

station #10 ) and bottom part have a phase below 90 .

The next results corresponds to the Case #4 in the In-Line (Fig. 4.20) and

Transverse directions (Fig. 4.21). The In-Line result shows the main response in the

rst frequency with a node at the lower end (station #29 ). In the phase graph (right

graph of Fig. 4.20), we can observe the propagation of the pipes displacement through

the phase that is changing gradually along the pipe. In this case, the pipes top end

and bottom end are vibrating in the opposite phase (about 180 ). In the transversal

direction (Fig. 4.21), the main response are in rst and second frequencies. Again, the

rst frequencys response has a pendular behavior. The second frequencys response

has two peaks with a node nearby the station #11 and the pipes top part and bottom
139

part vibrate with a phase about 90 .

The Case #5 has the higher internal ow rate among the cases that were carried

out with only fresh water as internal ow. Figure 4.22 shows the results in the In-Line

direction and Fig. 4.23 shows the results in the transversal direction. In the In-Line

response (Fig. 4.22), the main response corresponds to the rst frequency, namely

0.234 Hz, as expected. Such response has a node nearby the station #17 and the

vibration of the pipes top has about 90 of phase with the bottom.

For the Transverse direction of case #5 (Fig. 4.23), the main responses are in

the rst and second frequency. In the rst frequency, the response is similar to the

previous case with a pendular behavior. For the second frequency, it is important

to notice that it has the highest peak among all results showed up till now. In such

frequency, we can observe that the top part has a phase of about 90 with the lower

part.

Internal Flow: solids in suspension. From here, all results corresponds to the

experiments with internal ow including the glass balls. Such balls were added into

the internal ow through the pumps suction, in order to increase the average of the

internal uids density simulating solids in suspension.

But it is dicult to measure the amount of glass ball in the ow during the

experiment. Then it is assumed the all glass balls, which are added to the pumps

suction, were pumped uniformly into the risers model. The average uid density was

calculated summing the mass of the glass balls added to the pumps suction, to the

total of water mass pumped during the experiment, and dividing such amount by

the pumped volume. The relative density2 of the multiphase uids are shown by the
2
Assuming waters relative density= 1.
140

Figure 4.22: Results: Case 5 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.23: Results: Case 5 TRANSVERSE.


141

Figure 4.24: Results: Case 6 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.25: Results: Case 6 TRANSVERSE.


142

values between parentheses in the column called Glass Ball of Table 4.2.

The experiment using glass balls into the internal ow were carried out only for

the two highest internal ow rate, namely 0.675 L/s and 1.013 L/s. For each ow

rate, the experiment was carried out twice and the excitation frequencies diers a

little from the previous results (Table 4.2).

Following, the Case #6 s results for the In-Line direction (Fig. 4.24) and Trans-

verse direction (Fig. 4.25) are featured. Again, the main component of the In-Line

response refers to the excitation frequency, viz., 0.230 Hz. In such frequency response,

there is a node near to the stations #21 and #22 because the phase between such

stations is 90 . The pipes top end vibrates in an oppositive phase (about 180 ) in

relation to the lower end (red line in the right graph of Fig. 4.24).

In the transversal results (Fig. 4.25), the main response is the 2nd harmonic,

namely 0.460 Hz. In such frequency response, there are two peaks: the rst is located

around the station #6 and the second is located in the station #29. Further, there

is a node nearby the station #20. We can observe that, in this case, the second

frequencys amplitude is higher than in the previous cases. This is an important

concern because the high frequency vibration can reduce the risers service life due

to fatigue.

Next, the previous experimental condition is repeated for the Case #7. In the In-

Line direction, the main response is in the rst frequency, viz. 0.230 Hz (Fig. 4.26).

In addition, there is a node around the station #23, and the vibration of the pipes

top end has about 90 of phase with the lower end(phase graph of Fig. 4.26).

For transversal direction (Fig. 4.27), the main response, as in the previous case,

is the second frequency, namely, 0.460 Hz. In such frequency response, there is node
143

Figure 4.26: Results: Case 7 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.27: Results: Case 7 TRANSVERSE.


144

near to the station #10, and the vibration of the pipes upper and lower parts has a

phase of about 90 .

Comparing the In-Line results from Figs. 4.24 and 4.26, we can observe that such

results are similar each other in term of amplitude. In term of phase the Case #6

has a maximum phase of 180 (red line in the right graph of Fig. 4.24), and the Case

#7 has a maximum phase of about 90 (red line in the right graph of Fig. 4.26).

Following, the Case #8 s results are showed. The In-Line response is shown by

Fig. 4.28. In this case, the station #2 should be neglected because this station has a

response dierent from the nearby stations. The main response for the In-Line is still

the excitation frequency. Such response has a node around the station #23 (phase

graph of Fig. 4.28). Further, the top end and the lower are vibrating in an opposite

phase, namely, the phase is 180 (red line in the right graph of Fig. 4.28).

For the transversal response of the Case #8 (Fig. 4.29), the main response is the

2nd harmonic, viz. 0.460 Hz. Such response has a higher peak around the station #6

and another peak around the station #29. Further, there is a node nearby the station

#20 where the phase is about 90 (green line in the right graph of Fig. 4.29) and the

amplitude is also reduced (green line in the left graph of Fig. 4.29).

In the Case #9, the experimental conditions of the previous case is repeated.

Figure 4.30 shows the In-Line response and Fig. 4.31 shows the Transverse. The

stations #2, and #10 should be neglect because their behaviors are dierent from the

surrounded stations. In the In-Line direction, the main response is in the excitation

frequency (0.230 Hz). A node is located near the station #26 and the upper and

lower ends are vibrating in an opposite phase.

In the Transverse (Fig. 4.31), the main response is in the 2nd harmonic and a peak
145

Figure 4.28: Results: Case 8 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.29: Results: Case 8 TRANSVERSE.


146

Figure 4.30: Results: Case 9 IN-LINE.

Figure 4.31: Results: Case 9 TRANSVERSE.


147

Table 4.3: Cases analyzed in this work.

Case Flow Rate [L/s] Frequency [Hz]


1 0.000 0.215
2 0.169 0.215
3 0.675 0.215
4 1.013 0.215

Table 4.4: Main properties of the pipe deployed during the experiment.

External diameter (OD) 42 mm


Internal diameter (ID) 32 mm
Length (L) 10 m
2nd moment of area (I) 101.27 109 m4
Modulus of elasticity (E) 1.1 M P a

near to the station #20 and a node nearby the station #6.

Comparing the results of Case #8 and Case #9, we can observe that such re-

sults are similar for both In-Line and Transverse directions. Comparing Fig. 4.28 to

Fig. 4.30, the amplitude of both graphs are similar; the dierence is in the position

of the node: the Case #8 has the node near to the station #23, and the Case #9 s

node is located nearby the station #26.

4.1.6 Numerical Simulation: comparing results

For lack of space, only the results for cases included in Table 4.3 will be discussed.

The simulations were calculated using the properties of the pipe used as a model

for the experiment featured in the sub-section 4.1.1. Table 4.4 summarizes the pipes

main properties.
148

Figure 4.32 shows both experimental and numerical results for the Case 1 (no

internal ow and top oscillation with frequency of 0.215 Hz), which is dened by the

Table 4.3. Despite the numerical simulation was calculated in the time domain, the

numerical and experimental results will be compared by their amplitude and phase,

which were calculated as shown by Eqs. 4.1.3 and 4.1.4, respectively.

Further, this gure is composed by two graphs: the amplitude response named

Normalized Amplitude on the left, and the phase response on the right. The amplitude

graph was normalized by the amplitude response of the highest measurement station

analyzed. In addition, it was assumed the highest measurement stations phase as

zero reference. In both Normalized Amplitude and Phase graphs, the vertical axis

corresponds to the vertical position in meters. The vertical position zero means the

highest measurement station analyzed what does not mean the pipes top end. The

Deep Sea Basins Visual Measurement System has a blind area at the top. About

1.5 m of the pipes top portion could not be analyzed during the experiment analysis.

Thus the same pipes top portion was neglected during the numerical analysis.

The experimental responses are represented by squares in both amplitude and

phase response, as shown by Fig. 4.32. In the same gure, the solids lines represent the

numerical responses. In this case, the calculation was carried using the Inlet Pressure

(the internal pressure at the pipes top end) as parameter. The Inlet Pressure is used

as initial condition to calculate the internal pressure all along the pipe.

In Figure 4.32, we can see a gap around 3.5 m of the experimental response.

Sometimes, during the experiment, the Visual Measurement System missed some

measurement station as such in this case. Despite the unmeasured stations, it is

possible to observe, in the experimental results, that the top and lower parts are
149

vibrating in opposite phase (about 180 ) with a single node around 5 m. This shape

is resembles the second modal shape of a vibrating cantilever beam [40].

For the numerical response, it does not have a good agreement with the exper-

imental. The amplitude response for the numerical analysis is higher at the pipes

lower portion; and the phase between top and bottom is about 120 . But we can

observe the impact of the inlet pressure (and consequently the internal pressure) on

the dynamic behavior. The amplitude has the tendency to decrease and the phase

has the tendency to increase, when the inlet pressure increases.

Following, Figure 4.33 shows the amplitude and phase response for the Case 2.

Again, the experimental response is missing the results of two measurement stations:

5.5 m and 6.75 m. In this case, the numerical response for normalized amplitude has

a better agreement with the experimental results. As observed in the prior case, the

amplitude response, specially at the pipes lower portion, has the tendency to decrease

and the phase has the tendency to increase when the inlet pressure increases.

Next, the results for the Case 3 are shown by Fig. 4.34. The amplitude response

diers between the numerical and experimental results. The experimental response

has the highest amplitudes at the upper portion of the pipe while the numerical re-

sponse has the highest amplitudes at the pipes lower portion. In the phase response,

the upper and lower portion have good agreement between numerical and experimen-

tal responses; the dierence is concerning mainly to the position of the node. The

experimental phase is located around 5.5 m, and the numerical node is located around

4 m.

The last case is presented by Fig. 4.35. In this case, there are a good agreement

for both amplitude and phase responses. The inlet pressure has the same eect as
150

Figure 4.32: Case 1: no internal @0.215 Hz. The Inlet Pressure is used as parametric
input.
151

Figure 4.33: Case 2: internal ow rate 0.169L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The Inlet
Pressure is used as parametric input.
152

Figure 4.34: Case 3: internal ow rate 0.675L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The Inlet
Pressure is used as parametric input.
153

Figure 4.35: Case 4: internal ow rate 1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz. The Inlet
Pressure is used as parametric input.
154

observed in the prior cases, namely, the inlet pressure decreases the amplitude and

increases the phase at the pipes lower portion.

Following, a numerical parametric analysis was carried out in order to verify the

eect of such parameters on the risers mechanical behavior.

The rst parameter is the Modulus of Elasticity E. Figure 4.36 shows the results

for an internal ow rate of 1.013L/s and a top oscillation frequency of 0.215 Hz (the

same conditions of the Case 4 in Table 4.3 ). Such results are also compared with

the experimental results of the Case 4.

We can observe that the response for the lowest Modulus of Elasticity, namely,

E = 0.5 GP a has the highest elongation. The elongation can be observed for the

length the respective response in both normalized amplitude and phase responses.

Further, no signicant variation can be observed especially for the highest Modulus

of Elasticity responses.

Next, the Hydrodynamics Drag Coecient CD is used as parameter for the results

shown by Fig. 4.37. For the normalized amplitude response, the variation of CD has

same eect on the amplitude at the lower part of the riser. For the phase response,

no signicant variation is observed.

The last two parametric analyses concern to the weight located at the pipes lowest

end. This weight is composed by a plate of about 7500 mm2 of area and 4.5 kg of

mass. Then the rst analyzed parameter is the weights mass (Fig. 4.38).

We can observe in Fig.4.38 that the numerical response for weights mass of 2.0 kg

has the shortest length as expected. Further, the 2.0 kg response diers from the

others, but, beyond the elongation due to the higher tension caused by the weights

increasing mass, no signicant variation can be observed in the responses for 4.6 kg,
155

Figure 4.36: Parametric Analysis: the Modulus of Elasticity E @ internal ow rate


1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz.
156

Figure 4.37: Parametric Analysis: the Drag Coecient CD @ internal ow rate


1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz.
157

Figure 4.38: Parametric Analysis: the lower Weights mass @ internal ow rate
1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz.
158

Figure 4.39: Parametric Analysis: the lower Weights drag coecient @ internal ow
rate 1.013L/s & top oscillation 0.215 Hz.

6.0 kg, and 7.0 kg.

The last parametric analysis concerns about the variation of the lower weights

drag coecient as shown by Fig. 4.39. We can observe that the drag coecient has

some impact at the middle portion of the riser, but no signicant response variations

at the pipes extremities.

4.1.7 Remarks

In this section, the eect of the internal ow eect on the risers mechanical behavior

was investigated by the way of experimental and numerical analysis.


159

For the numerical simulation, it was assumed an inviscid uid; and the pressure

balance between the inlet and the outlet of a single element of riser [46] was used

to calculated the external force due to the internal ow. The eects of the risers

internal pressure and internal ow velocity on the Geometric Mass Matrix were also

included [52, 36]. Further, the parametric analyses for some risers properties were

also featured.

We can observe that, for the numerical simulation, the inlet pressure has a signif-

icant eect on the pipes vibration mode. Such pressure is related to internal ow.

During the numerical simulation, such pressure is the initial condition for the calcu-

lation of the internal pressure all along the pipe. Increasing the inlet pressure, the

pipes lower portion amplitude has the tendency to decrease, and the phase has the

tendency to increase. The node, where the pipe has the lowest amplitude and phase

about 90 , also lowers down when the inlet pressure increases.

In addition, the parametric analyses showed that Modulus of Elasticity and the

lower weight has some eect especially on the pipes elongation.

In this numerical calculation, the hydrodynamic eect concerned especially the

viscous damping; wave, current and VIV were neglected. As shown by Fig. 4.37, the

drag coecient has not a very signicant eect on the numerical results.

In the experimental results showed in this work, we could observe the eect of the

internal ow rate on the vibration. A curious agreement of the vibration modes can

be observed for dierent ow rates. For example, the amplitude and phases responses

for no internal ow case (Fig. 4.32) is similar to the response for internal ow rate

of 0.657 L/s (Fig.4.34). In addition, the response for internal ow rate of 0.169 L/s

(Fig. 4.33) resembles the response for 1.013 L/s (Fig. 4.35). The same pattern of
160

matched responses had been observed in dierent condition for the same experiment

[54]. But so far, no reasonable answer have been achieved for this phenomenon.

Finally, improvements in the numerical model for the internal ow eect are nec-

essary to enhance a better agreement with experimental data. Further investigation

shall be necessary, specially for catenary riser, because, in this case, the variation of

the risers geometry could maximize the internal ow eect.

4.2 Experiment: Jumper Conguration

The second experiment in the Deep-Sea Basin was carried out in August of 2010. In

this experiment, we tried to investigate the eect of the internal ow on the dynamic

behavior of a exible riser in the Jumper Conguration.

A brief explanation about exible riser (Fig. 1.21) was given previously in sub-

section 1.4.2.

The jumper (Fig. 1.23) is a piece of exible riser that connects the main structure

of a Free Standing Hybrid Riser (FSHR) to the oating production unit (FPU). The

sub-section 1.4.2 has a short description about the FSHR.

4.2.1 Pipe Model

The pipe model deployed in this experiment is a tube with 3 concentric layers made

of dierent materials (Fig. 4.40). The most internal layer is a silicon made tube; the

middle layer is a criss-cross of metallic wires; and the external layer is made of rubber.

Table 4.5 features the pipes main geometric properties.

In addition, the model has several measurement stations attached along its length

(Fig. 4.41); each station is placed 25 cm of distance each other (Fig. 4.42). Those
161

Figure 4.40: The models layers.

Table 4.5: Geometric properties of the pipe.

Internal diameter (ID) 31 mm


External diameter (OD) 44 mm
Length (L) 10 m

stations are used by the Visual Measurement System to measure the dynamic response

of the pipe.

The model also is equipped with four 2-axis accelerometers. Figure 4.43 shows

the position of each one of the accelerometers; the distance refers to the axial length

from the pipes end that is connected to the oscillator

4.2.2 Apparatus

In this experiment, the apparatus was assembled over the deep pit (the circular basin

was not used) as shown by Fig. 4.7. The experimental apparatus includes a positive
162

Measurement
Stations

Figure 4.41: Model deployed during the experiment.

25 cm

Figure 4.42: Detail of the distance between two measurement stations.


163

Figure 4.43: Schematic of the accelerometers positions.

2-axis accelerometer

Figure 4.44: Detail of the accelerometer attached to the model.


164

CIRCULAR FLOW
METER MASTER
BASIN
VALVE
BY-PASS
ACCELEROMETER VALVE
PUMP
FORCE/TORQUE
TRANSDUCER

INTERNAL FLOW
AUXILIARY
MODEL TANK

OSCILLATOR

Figure 4.45: The experimental apparatus schematic.

displacement pump that injected fresh water stored in an auxiliary tank into the

model.

Figure 4.46 shows a picture of the experimental apparatus. The main components

of the apparatus are indicated.

After the fresh water is injected into the model, the water returns to the auxiliary

tank within a hose, as shown by Fig. 4.47.

The pipe was clamped at both ends in the vertical position; then the pipe has

a U-shaped conguration (Fig. 4.48). One pipes end is xed and the other end is

connected to the oscillator. The water is injected into the model through the end

connected to the oscillator. After ow within the model, the water returns to the

auxiliary tank through a hose.


165

ACCELEROMETER FLOW METER

PUMP

HOSE

OSCILLATOR

FORCE TRANSDUCER

Figure 4.46: Picture of the experimental apparatus.

OSCILLATOR
HOSE

FIXED END

Figure 4.47: Detail of the hose that returns the water to the auxiliary tank.
166

MEASUREMENT
STATIONS

Figure 4.48: The model in the basin.

4.2.3 Data Acquisition System

As in the previous experiment with the hanged pipe (section 4.1), two dierent data

acquisition systems were deployed in this experiment: an Analogical Data Acquisition

System and a Visual Measurement System.

The data that were acquired by the analogical system are shown by the Table 4.6.

The channels 16 has the signal from the Force Transducer that has 6 Degrees

of Freedom (DOF): 3 forces and 3 moments. The transducer is installed between the

oscillator and the pipes end, as shown by Fig. 4.46.

Accelerometer #1 up to #4 (channels 714 ) have each one two channels because

those accelerometers have two axis. The measured directions of each accelerometer

are showed by Fig. 4.43.


167

Table 4.6: Analogical acquisition channels.

Channel Data Unit


1 Force X-direction N
2 Force Y-direction N
3 Force Z-direction N
4 Moment X-direction Nm
5 Moment Y-direction Nm
6 Moment Z-direction Nm
7&8 Accelerometer #1 m/s2
9 & 10 Accelerometer #2 m/s2
11 & 12 Accelerometer #3 m/s2
13 & 14 Accelerometer #4 m/s2
15 Apparatus Accelerometer X-direction m/s2
16 Apparatus Accelerometer Y-direction m/s2
17 Internal Flow Rate L/s
18 Oscillators Position X-direction
19 Oscillators Position Y-direction
20 Oscillators Position Z-direction
21 Marker
168

5.5

Z-Direction [m]
6.5

7.5

8.5

9
-1 0 1 2 3 4
X-Direction [m]

Figure 4.49: Example of average position. (Osc. Freq.= 0.866 Hz, no internal ow)

The channels 15 & 16 correspond to the signals of the 2-axis accelerometer in-

stalled nearby the owmeter (Fig. 4.45). Such accelerometer has was installed to

measure the apparatus vibration induced by the pump.

The channel 17 corresponds to Flowmeter signal measured in liters per sec-

ond (L/s). The channels 18  20 give the Oscillators stroke position for X, Y

and Z directions, respectively.

About the Visual Measurement System, further details were featured previously

in the section 4.1.3.

In order to carry out this experiment, a pair of cameras of the visual measurement

system had been rearranged. Thus two pairs of cameras lmed the region near to the

water surface.

Despite this cameras arrangement, only about 3/4 of the tube could be lmed

(Fig. 4.49). There is also a small discontinuity between the responses from each pair

of camera, around the position (0.5, 7.2).

The Visual Measurement System is the main system used to measure the pipes

dynamic response. The accelerometers #1 up to #4 are the spare instrumentation

for the pipes response.


169

Y X
Z
MODEL

Figure 4.50: The reference coordinate system assumed during this experiment.

4.2.4 Results

For the data analysis for this experiment, the reference system showed by Fig. 4.50

is assumed.

The internal pulsing ow experiment

Figure 4.51 shows one example of average position of the model during this experi-

ment. Further, the station #19, which will be used as reference, is indicated.

Then a pulsing ow was injected into the model. Figure 4.52 shows the ow rate

measured by the ow meter. Such internal ow rate has an average ow rate about

0.4 L/s and a pulsing period of about 6 s.

Next, Figure 4.53 shows the spectral analysis of the internal ow rate. We can

observe the peak at 0.1563 Hz (period of 6.3 s) that is close to the pulsing period

(Fig. 4.52).

Following, Figure 4.54 shows the time-series of the station #19 (the stations

position is indicated in Fig. 4.51) in the X-direction. During the experiment, only

120 s of data were recorded. The pipes initial condition was static and we can observe
170

0.5

1
Zdirection

1.5

2.5
Node #19
3

3.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Xdirection

Figure 4.51: Example of average position.

0.44

0.42
Internal Flow Rate [L/s]

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34
Average Flow Rate:0.3918 L/s
0.32
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Time [s]

Figure 4.52: Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 6 s).


171

4
x 10
3

0.1563 Hz
2.5
Power Spectrum

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Frequency [Hz]

Figure 4.53: Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 6 s).

that pipe started to vibrate. We must remember that, during this experiment, beside

the pulsing internal ow, the model did not have any kind of external forced oscillation

(the oscillator was not used during this experiment).

Figure 4.55 shows the displacement in the time domain of the same measurement

station #19 in the Y-direction (transversal direction). We can observe some oscilla-

tion with period of about 6 s on the rst 70 s. However, during the last 50 s, the

oscillation became more regular with a period of about 3 s.

Such regular oscillation in the Y-direction (transversal) might be caused by the

shedding of vortex. The transversal oscillation with the double frequency of in-line

direction is characteristic of the Vibration Induced by Vortices.

Next, the same experiment was repeated for a pulsing internal ow with a period

of 9 s as shown by Fig. 4.56.


172

2.54
12 s 18 s
2.52
Xdirection [m]

2.5

2.48

2.46

2.44
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.54: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: pulsing
ow (period 6 s).

0.6

0.58
Ydirection [m]

0.56

95.7 s 98.7 s
0.54

0.52

0.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.55: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: pulsing
ow (period 6 s).
173

0.46

0.44
Internal Flow Rate [L/s]

0.42

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34
Average Flow Rate: 0.3920 L/s
0.32
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.56: Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 9 s).

The spectral analysis of the internal ow rates signal conrms the period of 9 s

(Fig. 4.57).

Figure 4.58 shows the displacement of the measurement station #19 (see the

stations position in Fig. 4.51) in the X-direction. We can observe that the station

vibrates at the same frequency of the internal ow pulse, namely 9 s ( 0.11 Hz).

However the vibration amplitude is about 3 times smaller than the amplitude observed

in the previous case (Fig. 4.54).

In the Y-direction (Fig. 4.59), the measurement station #19 vibrated in same pe-

riod of 9 s. The vibration period was constant since the beginning, but the amplitude

was increasing during the experiment.

Following, the experiment was again repeated for a pulsing internal ow of 12 s

( 0.083 Hz) as shown by Fig. 4.60 & Fig. 4.61.


174

3
x 10
2.5

0.1172 Hz
2
Power Spectrum

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Frequency [Hz]

Figure 4.57: Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 9 s).

2.54

2.52
59 s 68 s
2.5
Xdirection [m]

2.48

2.46

2.44

2.42

2.4
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.58: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: pulsing
ow (period 9 s).
175

0.6

0.58
Ydirection [m]

0.56
61 s 70 s
0.54

0.52

0.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.59: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: pulsing
ow (period 9 s).

0.44

0.42
Internal Flow Rate [L/s]

0.4

0.38

0.36

0.34

Average Flow Rate: 0.3930 L/s


0.32
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.60: Time-series of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 12 s).


176

3
x 10
8

7
0.08 Hz
6
Power Spectrum

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
Frequency [Hz]

Figure 4.61: Spectral analysis of the internal ow rate: pulsing ow (period 12 s).

Figure 4.62 shows the time-series for the displacement of the measurement station

#19 in the X-direction. We can observe a transient response in the rst 20 s, then

the steady response is achieved and the station vibrates at the same frequency of the

internal ow, namely 12 s. The vibrations amplitude is smaller than the previous

cases (Figs. 4.54 & Fig. 4.58).

The response in the Y-direction, for the oscillation period is the same 12 s, is also

the smallest among the all cases as shown by Fig. 4.63.

Some comments about the data analysis. We could observe that, from a static

initial condition, the pipe started to vibrate excited only by the pulsing internal ow

in the X-direction (e.g., Fig. 4.54) and Y-direction (e.g., Fig. 4.55).

In the X-direction, the pipes vibrated in the same frequency of the internal ow in

all the cases. In addition, it seems that the internal ow frequency has some eects
177

2.54

2.52

68.5 s
Xdirection [m]

80.5 s
2.5

2.48

2.46

2.44
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.62: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the X-direction: pulsing
ow (period 12 s).

0.6

0.58
Ydirection [m]

0.56

69 s 81 s
0.54

0.52

0.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Time [s]

Figure 4.63: Time-series of the measurement station #19 in the Y-direction: pulsing
ow (period 12 s).
178

on the pipe response amplitude. We observed the maximum amplitude in the period

of 6 s. Probably, because such period is close to the pipes natural frequency.

In the Y-direction, we could observe the response in a frequency dierent than the

pulsing internal ow frequency. In the rst case (period of 6 s), the pipe started from

a static condition. First, it achieves an initial transient response in the rst 20 s,

with a slow frequency. Then the response developed into a more regular vibration

which the period was 3 s. In other words, in this case, the Y-direction vibration had a

frequency 2 times faster than the X-direction. Such response is usually associated

with VIV.

For the case which the internal ow period is 9 s, despite the small response in

the X-direction (Fig. 4.58), it has a signicant response in the Y-direction with the

same period 9 s (Fig. 4.59). We must observe that the amplitude increased along

the time. Unhappily, we could not observe if amplitude achieved a steady response

because the experiment was ran for only 120 s.

In the last case (period of 12 s), the response in the Y-direction was reduced

(Fig. 4.63), but the response period was the same 12 s.


Chapter 5

Final Remarks

This thesis features part of the research activities that were done during 3 years of

doctoral studies at the Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences of

the Yokohama National UniversityJapan.

The internal ow eects on exible tubes. During the experiments featured

in the section 3.1, we could measure the pipes natural frequency and dampness for

dierent internal ow rates. As predicted with some theoretical investigations [36],

we observe that the damping factor has the tendency to increase when the internal

ow rate increases (Figs. 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10). But this tendency is also moderated by

other factors such as the pipe tension and length.

We also observer that the natural frequency has the tendency to decrease when the

ow rate increases (Figs. 3.11, 3.12 and 3.13). But the natural frequency variation

is reduced if compared to the damping factor.

As shown by the numerical model (section 2.2). The increase of the internal ow

rates results in the increase of the internal pressure because a bigger frictional pressure

drop PP F is expected. Then a higher internal ow rate and pressure shall reduce the

179
180

pipes stiness, more specically the Eective Tension (Eq. 2.2.6) of the Geometric

Stiness Matrix (Eq. 2.2.5). Thus higher amplitude are expected at higher internal

ow rate.

However, we could not observe such highest amplitudes at the highest ow rate

in the small scale experiments, as shown by Figs. 3.28 & 3.32, nor in the experiment

at the NMRI (Fig. 4.22).

It seems that other eects of the internal ow counterbalance the eect of internal

pressure and internal uid velocity. In our numerical model only such 2 parameters,

internal pressure and uid velocity are already included (section 2.2.1).

We should improve the numerical model including other internal ow eects terms,

such as, the Coriolis acceleration, see Eq. (2.1.3); and the internal uid viscosity that

must increase the eective tension.

Numerical Simulation. Along this period, a computational program for the nu-

merical simulation of the risers static and dynamic have been developed, as featured

in the Chapter 2. This program includes a model for internal ow eect as found

in the technical literature [52, 46, 36]. So far, it is possible to simulate 3 dierent

risers conguration: TTR, hanged pipe, and jumper conguration (Fig. 2.5). But

we cannot arm that this program is complete. Actually it is very far from this.

Actually, several implementations are required to enhance a better agreement with

the experimental data. Among such implementations, we shall cite the internal ows

Coriolis acceleration eect, uid viscosity, etc.

The program in Fortran 95 has been fully developed during this doctoral studies.

The Fortran 95 is a good choice for the development of programs that makes massive
181

computations using matrices. This language has a simpler/easier code for matrices

than, for example, the language C/C++. Some problems about the Fortran 95 are

that this language is not compatible with Object-Oriented language, and, for while,

a good freeware Fortran 95 compiler does not exist, only proprietary compilers. We

have used the INTELs Visual Fortran using the Microsofts Visual C++ 2005 as

IDE; and we think it is a best option available for programming in the MS-Windows

environment.

Several improvements shall be done in the program, for example, the model for

the internal ow eect must be improved, update the nite element for 3D, change

the numerical math library, etc.

For the math library, the program started to developed using the IMSL-Fortran

Numerical Library [50] from the Visual Numerics, Inc. because this was the only

library available at that time in the laboratory. The IMSL is a good library (so

far, we did not have any problem with bugs, etc.), easy to use and with a good

documentation in Visual Numerics web site. But the problem is the portability, the

IMSL runs only under Microsofts Windows operational system (OS).

One alternative for the IMSL is the INTELs MKLMath Kernel Library. The

Intels Fortran compilers are available for any operational system that runs on the

Intels microprocessors: Apples Macintosh, Microsofts Windows, and Linux. And

the MKL is compatible with those OSs.

It was a good opportunity to develop this numerical program. We had to learn

deeper about Finite Element Method, Newmark- algorithm, numerical calculation

problems, Fortran 95, debugger, etc; beyond what is taught in classroom or text-

books.
182

Experiments. For the rst time, we had the opportunity to carried out an ex-

periment concerning about the riser dynamic behavior. The riser is a very narrow

structures; then the experimental model usually does not allow the use of attached

sensors on the pipe because the mass of such sensor can alter the response.

We could test three dierent types of instrumentation that do not require an

attached sensor (Chapter 3): ultrasonic sensor, laser sensor and visual measurement

system. Until now, the visual measurement system seems to be the best alternative.

But we think that the laser sensor also has a potential in some applications.

During the experiments featured in the Chapter 3, we used a post-processing

program developed by Dr. Rogerio Yugo Takimoto [48] with small alterations for our

application. Such program tracks and calculates the time-series of a measurement

station position in 2D.

We believe that further development is necessary for the visual measurement sys-

tem. Such new developments should be concerning the stereo imaging, the use of two

cameras to measure the position in the 3D space, and automation, currently it is still

necessary a lot of users intervention for the calculation.

In addition, it was another great opportunity to participate in the experiments in

the Deep-Sea Basin, a world unique basin for experiment of narrow oshore structures

such as riser (Chapter 4).

This basin is equipped with a visual measurement system that tracks and calcu-

lates the time-series in real-time. Beside such system, we used accelerometers attached

on the pipe as spare sensors for the risers dynamic response. The model was heavy

enough to have the sensors attached on.

We have a lot of data from those experiments, and more publications can be done
183

based on those data, even after the period of this PhD studies.
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Appendix A

Analytical Model for Tensioned


Beam

The Riser can be assumed as a tensioned beam, namely:

d4 v d2 v d4 v T d2 v q(y)
EI 4
T 2
= q(y) 4
2
= (A.0.1)
dy dy dy EI dy EI
where v is the pipes displacement in the x direction; E is the Modulus of Elasticity
in P a; I is the Second Moment of Area in m4 ; T is the axial tension; and q is the
external load on the radial direction in [N/m].

A.1 Analytical Solution



T
Assuming = EI
, Eq. A.0.1 becomes:

d4 v 2
2d v q(y)
4
2
= (A.1.1)
dy dy EI
Then, integrating 2 times both sides of Eq. A.1.1:

d2 v q(y) 2
2
2 v = y + C1 y + C 2 (A.1.2)
dy 2EI
The Characteristic Equation of Eq. A.1.2 is given by:

191
192

d2 v
2 v = 0 m 2 2 = 0 m = (A.1.3)
dy 2

Therefore the solution for the homogeneous equation is obtained, viz.

vg = C3 ey + C4 ey (A.1.4)

In addition, using the Method of Undetermined Coecients, it assumed a poly-


nomial equation as a candidate for the particular solution [49], namely:

vp = a y 2 + b y + c (A.1.5)
dvp
= 2a y + b (A.1.6)
dy
d 2 vp
= 2a (A.1.7)
dy 2

Substituting Eq. A.1.5 and Eq. A.1.7 into Eq. A.1.1

q
a 2 y 2 b 2 y + (2 a c 2 ) = y 2 + C1 y + C 2 (A.1.8)
2 EI

For a:

q q q
a 2 = a= or a= (A.1.9)
2 EI 2 EI 2 2T

For b:

C1
b 2 = C1 b= (A.1.10)
2

For c:
193

2 a c 2 = C2 (A.1.11)
c 2 = C2 2 a (A.1.12)
2 a C2
c= 2 (A.1.13)
2
q C2
c= 2
2 (A.1.14)
T
Then the particular solution becomes:

q 2 C1 q C2
xp = y 2 y 2
2 (A.1.15)
2T T
The general solution of Eq. A.0.1 is the sum of the solution of the related homo-
geneous equation xg and the particular solution xp :

x = xg + x p (A.1.16)

namely,
q 2 C1 q C2
x(y) = C3 ey + C4 ey y 2 y (A.1.17)
2T T 2 2

A.2 Boundary Conditions


For the beam shown by Fig. 2.9, the boundary conditions are dened as,
For the lower end:
!
d2 v !!
=0 (A.2.1)
dy 2 !y=0
" 3 #
dv 2 dv
=0 (A.2.2)
dy 3 dy y=0
for the upper end:

v|y=L = 0 (A.2.3)
!
dv !!
=0 (A.2.4)
dy ! y=L
194

The boundary conditions cited above shall be applied properly to to the solution
featured by Eq. A.1.17 and its respective derivatives, namely,

dv qy C1
= C3 e y + C4 e y 2
2 (A.2.5)
dy EI
2
dv q
2
= 2 C3 e y + 2 C4 e y (A.2.6)
dy EI 2
d3 v
= 3 C3 e y + 3 C4 e y (A.2.7)
dy 3

First, calculating the boundary conditions related to the lower end (y = 0)


(Eqs. 1.19 & 1.20) using Eqs. 1.23 1.25:
!
d2 v !! 2 2 q
! = C 3 + C 4 =0 (A.2.8)
dy 2 y=0 EI 2
" 3 #  
dv 2 dv 3 3 2 C1
= C3 + C4 C3 + C4 2 = 0 (A.2.9)
dy 3 dy y=0

After, calculating the boundary conditions related to the upper end (y = L)


(Eqs. 1.21 & 1.22) using Eqs. 1.18 and 1.231.25:

q 2 C1 q C2
v|y=L = C3 eL + C4 eL L 2 L 2
2 =0 (A.2.10)
2T T
dv q L C 1
= C3 e L + C4 e L 2 =0 (A.2.11)
dy EI 2

From the Eq. 1.261.31, we have a system of equations:

C1 = 0 (A.2.12)
q q
2 C 3 + 2 C 4 2
= (A.2.13)
EI EI 2
1 q L2 q
2 C2 + e L C3 + e L C4 = 2
+ 2 (A.2.14)
2 EI t
q L
e L C3 + e L C4 = (A.2.15)
EI 2
195

The constants for the boundary conditions are dened below:

C1 = 0 (A.2.16)
q L2 q q L (e L e L ) 2q
C2 = + L
+ 2
(A.2.17)
2 EI T EI (e + e ) EI (e L + e L )
L

q
C3 = C4 (A.2.18)
EI 4
qL q e L
C4 = + (A.2.19)
EI 3 (e L + e L ) EI 4 (e L + e L )
(A.2.20)
Appendix B

Modal Displacement & Natural


Frequencies

B.1 Analytical Solution


The analytical solution for natural frequencies and modal displacement were obtained
from Bokaian [12].

 


Figure B.1: TENSIONED CANTILEVER BEAM.

It is assumed a cantilever beam with constant tension along the length as showed
by (Fig. B.1). According to Bokaian [12], assuming that the material is linearly elastic,
small deformations, and the shear deformation and rotary inertia are negligible, the
vibrating tensioned beam can be modeled as:

4v 2v 2v
EI T + A =0 (B.1.1)
x4 x2 t2
where E is the Elasticity Modulus; I is the second moment of area; T is the axial

196
197

tension (constant along the length); is the beams material density; A is the beams
cross sectional area; v is the transverse displacement v = v(x, t); x is the coordinate
along the straight beams axis; and t is time.

When the beam vibrates at one of its natural frequencies, we can assume that
v(x, t) = Y (x) cos t, where Y (x) can be modeled as,

d4 Y (x) d2 Y (x)
EI T A 2 Y (x) = 0 (B.1.2)
dx4 dx2

where is a natural frequency in rad/s; and Y (x) is the modal displacement.

The solution of Eq. B.1.2 is given by:

Y (x) = C1 sinh M + C2 cosh M + C3 sin N + C4 cos N (B.1.3)

where C1 , C2 , C3 and C4 are the constant of integration that should be calculated


based in the boundary conditions; is the dimensionless beam coordinate, namely,
= x/l; and M and N are dened as:

 1/2
M = U + U2 + 2 (B.1.4)

 1/2
N= U+ U2 + 2 (B.1.5)

where U = T l2 /2EI is the dimensionless tension parameter; = l2 / is the dimen-



sionless natural frequency; and = EI/A.
For the cantilever beam, the boundary conditions are dened as:
198

for the left side:

Y |x=0 = 0 (B.1.6)
!
dY !!
=0 (B.1.7)
dx !y=0

for the right side:


!
d2 Y !!
=0 (B.1.8)
dx2 !x=L
" 3 #
dY T dY
=0 (B.1.9)
dx3 EI dx y=L

Applying the boundary conditions to Eq. B.1.3, it is possible to obtain the constant
of integration, viz.

C1 = 1 (B.1.10)
2
M sinh M + M N sin N
C2 = (B.1.11)
M 2 cosh M + N 2 cos N
M
C3 = (B.1.12)
N
M 2 sinh M + M N sin N
C4 = (B.1.13)
M 2 cosh M + N 2 cos N
For the Natural Frequencies, Eq. B.1.14 gives the characteristic equation for the
cantilever beam axial axial constant tension.

2 + U sinh M sin N + (2 U 2 + 2 ) cosh M cos N = 0 (B.1.14)

In Equation B.1.14, when U is large(U  12), and consequently M is also a large


number, the hyperbolic functions give a huge number as answer. For the case of large
U , Equation B.1.15 should be used instead.

2U 2 + 2
tan N = (B.1.15)
U
where N is given by Eq. B.1.5; U = T l2 /2EI is the dimensionless tension parameter;
and = l2 / is the dimensionless natural frequency.
199

Thus the dimensionless natural frequencies can be calculated solving Eq. B.1.14, or
when U  12, the Eq. B.1.15 should be solved instead. After the natural frequencies
were calculated, the modal displacement or modal shape Y (x) can be calculated using
Eq. B.1.3. Each natural frequency has one unique modal displacement.

B.2 Numerical Solution


In order to calculate the undamped natural frequency, we need to assume the free
vibration problem of a undamped lumped mass system [40], namely,

M v + K v = 0 (B.2.1)

where M is the global mass matrix; K is the global stiness matrix; v is the displace-
ment vector.
In the case of a resonant response, viz., (v = y sin t), Eq. B.2.1 can be dened
as,
 
K 2 M y = 0 (B.2.2)

where M is the global mass matrix; K is the global stiness matrix; I is the identity
matrix with appropriate size; is a natural frequency; and y is the vector containing
the nodes coordinates for the modal shape.
Then the Natural Frequency and Modal Shape can obtained solving the eigenvalue
and eigenvector problems of Eq. B.2.2.
The solution for the determinant showed by Eq. B.2.3, gives the natural frequen-
cies ,
! !
!K 2 M! = 0 (B.2.3)

where M is the global mass matrix; and K is the global stiness matrix.
Applying each natural frequency to Eq. B.2.2; the solution of y gives the re-
spective eigenvector.
200

During the calculation, Eq. B.2.2 is rearranged as,


 
K M1 2 I y = 0 (B.2.4)

where M is the global mass matrix; K is the global stiness matrix; I is the identity
matrix with appropriate size; is a natural frequency; and y is the vector containing
the nodes coordinates for the modal shape.
Then Equation B.2.4 is solved using the subroutine EVCRG that is included in the
IMSL Fortran Numerical Math Library [50]. The input for the subroutine EVCRG is
the matrix dened as K M1 ; and the output are a vector containing the squares of
the natural frequencies ( 2 ) and a matrix containing the vectors with the coordinates
of the modal shape.
Appendix C

The Newmark- Algorithm

C.1 Numerical Solution


In this investigation, the risers dynamics can be modeled, using the Lumped Mass
Approach [40], as a second order linear system, namely,

M u + B u + K u = f (t) (C.1.1)

where M is the global mass matrix; B is the global structural damping matrix; K is
the global stiness matrix; u, u and u are the acceleration, velocity and displacement
of the risers discrete nodes, respectively; f (t) is the external forces vector including
hydrodynamics forces.

During this research, Eq. C.1.1 is solved in the time domain using the Newmark-
Algorithm. Following, a brief description of the algorithm is featured. Figure C.1
has a owchart of the Newmark-Beta algorithm. Further details can be found in
Newmark [34] and Paz & Leigh [40].

The initial conditions are mandatory to start the calculation. Such initial con-
ditions are composed by the initial position vector x0 , that is the calculated by the
Static Analysis; and the initial velocity vector x0 , that is assumed null, except where
indicated dierently.

201
202

We should emphasize the dierence between the risers position vector xi and the
risers displacement vector ui . The position vector xi refers to discrete nodes posi-
tion, at the i-th time iteration, in relation to a Coordinate Reference System that is
arbitrarily assumed. Figure 2.5 shows the position of the Coordinate Reference Sys-
tem for the three risers congurations that can be solved by the simulation program
developed during this research. The displacement vector ui refers to the displacement
between the risers previous position and its current position, viz., ui = xi xi1 .

The Initial Acceleration vector u0 is calculated using the Eq. C.1.2 (Eq. 6.39 of
Paz & Leigh [40]), namely,

u0 = M1
0 (f0 B0 x0 K0 x0 ) (C.1.2)

where x0 and x0 are the initial conditions: the risers initial position and initial veloc-
ity; M0 is the initial global mass matrix; B0 is the initial global damping matrix; and
K0 is the initial global stiness matrix. The matrices M0 , B0 and K0 are calculated
using the response of the static analysis as geometric parameters.

The Incremental Displacement vector ui is calculated solving a linear system


of equations1 dened as following,

Ki ui = fi (C.1.3)

where Ki is the eective stiness for the i -th time iteration dened by Eq. C.1.4; fi
is the eective incremental force for the i-th time iteration dene by Eq. C.1.5.

Mi Bi
Ki = Ki + 2
+ (C.1.4)
t 2 t
1
The numerical solution of a linear system of equation is not part of the scope of this investigation.
A proprietary numerical math library [50] is widely used in the computational simulation program.
For the ones who desires more information and details about numerical calculation, Press et al. [42]
is a classic reference.
203

 
Mi Bi Mi 1
fi = fi + ui + ui + ui t 1 Bi ui (C.1.5)
t 2 2 4
For the above equations, is the Newmark-Beta Methods input parameter; t
is the time step dened as a simulation input; Ki is the global stiness matrix for the
i-th time iteration; Mi is the global mass matrix for the i -th time iteration; Bi is the
global structural damping matrix for the i-th time iteration; fi = fi+1 fi ; ui and
ui are the pipes velocity and acceleration for the i-th time iteration.
We should remember that the global matrices, namely, mass matrix, stiness
matrix, and structural damping matrix are not constant during the simulation. The
risers Eective Tension (dened by Eq. 2.2.6) changes the geometric stiness matrix;
and the risers element direction modies coordinate transformation matrix.

The ui and ui are calculated as dened by Eqs. C.1.6 & C.1.7 (already assuming
= 1/2), respectivelly.

 
1 1 1
ui = ui ui + 1 t ui (C.1.6)
2t 2 4

1 1 1
ui = u i ui ui (C.1.7)
t2 t 2
In the above equations, is the Newmark-Beta Methods input parameter; t is
the time step; ui is the incremental displacement vector that is calculated solving
the system of equation dened by Eq. C.1.3; ui and ui are the pipes velocity and
acceleration for the i-th time iteration.
The Newmark- has, actually, two dierent coecients, viz., and . The values
of dierent than 1/2 introduces an excessive damping in the system [40]. Thus it
is usually assumed = 1/2. The second coecient is an input parameter of the
Newmark-Beta algorithm. Paz & Leigh [40] suggested the range 1/6 1/2. In
this research, except where indicated dierently, we assume = 1/4, that corresponds
to the constant acceleration method [40].
204

Calculating the Next Step. Here, the risers displacement, velocity, and accel-
eration for the next time step are calculated using the incremental position ui ,
incremental velocity ui , and incremental acceleration ui , viz.,

ui+1 = ui + ui (C.1.8)

ui+1 = ui + ui (C.1.9)

ui+1 = ui + ui (C.1.10)

where ui+1 , ui+1 and ui+1 are the risers displacement, velocity and acceleration for
the next time step.

Saving DATA. The numerical results are saved into the le DynResponse.csv. Only
the risers discrete node position xi is saved,

xi+1 = xi + ui+1 (C.1.11)

where xi+1 is the risers discrete node position vector for the next time step, which
will be saved; xi is the current risers discrete node position vector; ui+1 is the risers
displacement vector, which was calculated as shown by Eq. C.1.8.
Then the current time step data ui , ui and ui are updated with the calculated
data of the next time step, namely,

ui = ui+1 (C.1.12)

ui = ui+1 (C.1.13)

ui = ui+1 (C.1.14)

Finally, the iteration restartes incrementing the counter i, until the nal simulation
time tend (simulations input) is reached, as shown by Figure C.1.
205

Figure C.1: Flowchart of the subroutine Newmark-.


Appendix D

The Experimental Apparatuses:


drawings

D.1 Drawings
During this research, two dierent experiments were carried out at the Laboratory of
Ocean Systems Design in the Yokohama National University.
Table D.1 features the two assemblies that were used in the experiment for Natural
Frequencies & Dampness; and Table D.2 have the assemblies for the experiment with
top oscillation.
Following, the drawings of the assembly and parts are featured.

Table D.1: Experiment #1: Natural Frequency & Dampness (section 3.1).

Main Assemblies
1 Turret to tension the pipe
2 Fixed tower for the water input

206
207

Table D.2: Experiment #2: Top Oscillation (section 3.2).

Main Assemblies
1 Oscillatory Tower
2 Fixed tower for the water input