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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This is to acknowledge the different practitioners, experts, and specialists who


made this learning materials and teaching guides for Grade 8 possible.

Writers ( Agriculture and Fishery Arts)


1. Aniceta Kong Master Teacher I Div. of Oriental Mindoro
2. Delia San Diego Master Teacher I FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
3. Julie Francisco Teacher I FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
4. Nenitadela Cruz Teacher III MMFSL, Malolos City
5. Emma Mendoza Master Teacher I TSF, Tanauan City
Language Editor
Dr. Ofelia C. Flojo Retired Regional CALABARZON
English Supervisor
Consultant
Alberto Dumo Retired BSE Sta. Maria Bulacan
Agriculture Specialist
Reviewers
1. Mila Dena Lomat Master Teacher I FNAS, Floridablanca,
Pampanga
2. Wilfred S. Murla Principal VHS Annex, Victoria, Tarlac
3. Armado V. Illescas Master Teacher I MMFSL, Malolos City
4. Eliseo T. Caseres Instructor I MMFSL, Malolos City
5. Nenita P. Dela Cruz Teacher III MMFSL, Malolos City
Lay-Out Artist/Illustrator
1. Henry Allen M. Arcos
2. Brenn R. Bulado
3. Arlene A. Guiao
4. Francis C. Pili
5. Noel C. Pili
6. John S. Saladas
Management Team
1. Dr. Lolita M. Andrada Director IV
2. Joyce DR. Andaya Director III
2. Ms. Bella O. Marinas Chief,SDD
3. Dr. Jose D. Tuguinayo, Jr. SST. CHIEF, CDD, OIC
4. Mr. Emmanuel S. Valdez EPS II
5. Mr. Albert B. Erni EPS II

NOTE:
All pictures and graphic illustrations taken from the internet are properties of the
original owners and are used only as supplemental materials for educational purposes.

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INTRODUCTION
This Module on Animal Production is one of the eighteen mini-
courses under TLE subject designed mainly for you either in the
Regular High School or Open High School Program. In this module, you
are provided with various learning resources and experiences to enable
you to gain wisdom and understanding of the lesson. Each of these includes what to
know, what to process,what to reflectand understand and what to transfer.
Specifically, this module is proposed to boost the knowledge, skills, and necessary
attitudes of the learners in Animal Production. It includes lessons such as use of farm
tools, their maintenance, mensuration and calculation, interpretation of plans and layout,
application of safety measures in the workplace, selection of farm site, breeds of farm
animals, housing systems, fixtures and equipment, feeds and feeding, sanitation and
cleanliness in the farm and marketing animals and their by-products. It also integrates
common competencies necessary in raising farm animals.
The animal industry can supply the needs of the Filipino consumers if you know
how. Production efficiency depends on a better knowledge and understanding of the
fundamental principles and practices in animal production.

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1) demonstrate skills and understanding in:


a. the use of farm tools
b. the selection of farm site
c. mensuration and calculation
d. the interpretation of plans and layout
e. application of safety measures in the workplace
2) identify the following:
a. breeds of farm animals
b. housing systems
c. fixtures and equipment for herd and flocks
d. feeds and feeding
f. anitation and cleanliness on the farm
g. arketing farm animals and animal by- products

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What to know

LESSON 1:USE OF FARM TOOLS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE

Farm tools are very important in every farm activity. Without them, very little is
accomplished. Therefore, you as learners should be able to identify and learn how to
use them to make your work easier and faster,

1. Digging fork is a multipurpose tool, used for breaking up and turning soil in the
garden, harvesting, and for manual cleaning around the barn.
2. Spade a tool designed for the purpose of digging or removing soil.
3. Shovel a tool that is suited for moving loose materials.
4. Rake a tool used to gather or loosen materials or to level a surface.
5. Bolo a tool whose primary use is for cleaning the vegetation for agriculture.
6. Scythe a tool that is used for cutting grass and fodder for the carabaos and
cattle.
7. Hoe a tool used to cultivate silage plantation
8. Pinchers
9. Ear notchers
10. Castrating and butchering tools
11. Fencing ranches

Spade Shovel Bolo

Digging fork Rake

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LESSON 2 : SAFETY MEASURES IN USING FARM TOOLS

Wear the proper protective clothing: safety footwear, gloves, long pants if
necessary.
Allow for safe distance between people if you are working with other people.
Check for faulty and defective farm tools and report them in accordance with
farm procedures.
Use appropriate tools and equipment safely according to job requirements; and
manufacturers conditions.

Activity no. 1

List down the safety measures to be observed specifically in cattle barns and
goat barns?

___________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

What to process
Directions: Write the tool that is described in the following
statements .Write you answers on your test notebook.

1. a ground heavily covered with dried leaves


2. a plot to be planted with forage
3. the ranch being fenced with barbwire
4. animal manures to be transferred outside their quarters
5. clearing a canal
6. making marks on the ears of an animal
7. a plot to be cultivated by turning up the soil

LESSON 2: SELECTING THE SITE

Tell whether a site is ideal or not? Read the statements below and check all that
applies to a good site.

1. The soil is not easily flooded. ------------


2. It is not easily reached by vehicles. ----
3. Stealing is rampant in the area. ----------

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4. The soil is well drained. ---------------------
5. The neighbors are friendly. ---------------
6. Feeds and medicines are available in the area.
7. It is very far from the town. ---------------
8. All kinds of vehicles can pass by the farm. -------
9. It is hard to buy stocks in the place. ----------------
10.There are many jobless people near the farm site.

Selecting the farm site is an important decision to make because farm buildings
are not easy to relocate once they are constructed. It also determines whether the
business will prosper or not.

Factors to consider in selecting the site:

1. Accessibility of the farm to roads and population centers will reduce cost.
2. A hilly topographyprevent flood or stagnant water.
3. Availability of feeds and medicines in the area.
4. Distance from neighboring farms
5. Presence of trees as windbreaks during typhoons and as regulators of
temperature during summer season.
6. Available space for growing forage and other green feeds.
7. Available pasture area for the livestock.
8. Peace and order condition in the area.
9. An adequate source of water
10. Distance to neighboring residences

LESSON 3: BREEDS OF FARM ANIMALS

What to know

BREEDS OF POULTRY

The different breeds of poultry may be classified according to the purpose of their
production:
BREED ORIGIN TYPE
Excellent in meat but poor
CORNISH English Meat/broiler
egg-layers
One of the most popular
RHODE ISLAND among heavy breeds, fairly
American Meat/broiler
RED good egg layer, and excellent
in meat quality

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High egg producer with white-
LEGHORN Mediterranian Egg layer
shelled eggs.
Medium in size, good layer of
CANTONESE China Egg/layer medium size eggs and best
suited to Phil. condition
Good egg-laying average and
dual-
good meat qualities
NEW HAMPSHIRE American purpose/general
purpose

Cornish Rhode Island Red Leghorn

Cobb New Hampshire

BREEDS OF SWINE:

COUNTRY
BREED COLOR EARS TYPE CHARATERISTICS
OF ORIGIN
Long face, good and
Landrace White Hanging Meat Denmark prolific mothers, weak
legs
Large Fertile, high quality
White Standing Meat England
White meat, fast grower
Short, black skinned,
Black with
more resistant to
Berkshire 6 white Standing Lard England
diseases compared to
points
white breeds

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Black with Short, good quality
Hampshire Standing Meat USA
white band meat, strong legs
Good constitution,
2/3
Duroc Red strong legs, fast
erect,1/3 Meat USA
Jersey (golden) grower, resistant to
hanging
stress
Very meaty ham and
Black and Very
Pietrain Standing Belgium loin, very susceptible
white meaty
to stress
Reference: Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH

Largewhite Landrace

Berkshire Hampshire

Duroc Pietrain

Hypor

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BREEDS OF GOATS:

BREED CHARACTERISTICS

At mature age, it weighs 70 kg and could produce 1.5 litres of milk


ALPINE
every day. It is from European breed that has upright ears, a
straight face and colours that vary from black, red and off white
A tropical breed known for its floppy pendulous pair of ears and a
ANGLO NUBIAN mix of brown and black or sometimes just brown hair. It weighs
70-90 kgs.at mature age and can produce 1-2 litres of milk daily.
They are known for their high-quality meat and excellent
productive qualities. Compared to other local goats, they are fairly
larger in size and are double-muscled. They are easy to raise,
BOER
have mild temperaments, are affectionate, require no milking, no
special care, shearing or fancy fences. Not only that, they can also
graze in the coldest of weathers.
This breeds colors range from red, white, black or a combination
NATIVE of the three. At mature age, it can weigh up to 30 kg. Its milk
production, however, can just be enough for its young.
Its weight that can go up to an average of 70 kg which helps in its
being the highest milk producer among other breeds. It can tote up
SAANEN
to 1.8 liters daily. This breed originated from Switzerland and
boasts of its pure white to off-white color.
Also from Switzerland, Toggenburgs are easy to spot. They have
white markings on their face and erect ears like Saanens. At
TOGGENBURG
mature age, their milk production can amount up to 1.5
literseveryday.
Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide Raising Goat, 2006

Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer

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Native goat Saanen Toggenburg

BREEDS OF SHEEP

Portland Merino Cheviot

BREEDS OF CATTLE

BREEDS CHARACTERISTICS

They are very hardy, prolific, and resistant to diseases.


They belong to the dual-purpose type because local
PHILIPPINE CATTLE farmers usually use them as work animals and later on, sell
them for beef. The most popular of this type is the Batangas
Strain.
The animals under this breed are active and strong so they
make good work animals. The animal has humps but, they
NELLORE are not as prominent as those of the Brahman. They also
have a pendulous dewlap.
The cattle under this breed have almost non-recognizable
humps. Their colors range in shades of red. Like Brahman,
SANTA GERTRUDES they have the ability to adapt to the hot climate of the
Philippines and they can also equal the calving efficiency of
the Philippine cattle. This breed is a good source of beef.

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This breed is considered the best among the imported
breeds of commercial beef cattle in the country. It is
recognized through its humps over the shoulder. It is
AMERICAN BRAHMAN greyish-white in color with very loose, pendulous skin along
the dewlap and under the throat extending between the
forelegs. It has large, drooping ears and horns that curve
upward and backward.
The animals under this breed are considered dairy cattle.
However, they can also be used as work animals. They are
THARPARKAR greyish or white in color with horns that are rather small.
They have long bodies.
This breed originated from Pakistan and is known for its
hump. It is docile and considered to be a dual-purpose
RED SHINDI breed- aside from being a good source of beef and milk, the
steers may be used as work animals.

Native cow Nellore Santa Gertrudis

Red Shindi American Brahman Tharparkar

Sahiwal

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BREEDS OF CARABAO

Native Carabao Tamaraw Murrah Buffalo

Identify the breed based on the characteristic described.

________ 1.
A breed of poultry that is excellent in meat but poor egg-layer.
________ 2.
Pig breed that possesses a white color and hanging ears.
________ 3.
This breed is known for being a good layer and has a good quality meat.
________ 4.
A breed of goat known for its high-quality meat and excellent
productive qualities.
________ 5. This breed of cattle is also known as Batangas Strain.

What to process

Activity

WORD HUNTING : Encircle the different breed of farm animals below.

C O R N I S H I L N
S A A N E N A P E E
N D O R O C M I G L
A U N E L L P E H L
T R Y O R K S T O O
I O B E R K H R R R
V C A M E L I A N E
E G G B O E R I N K
A L P I N E E N I H
G R A N E L L O E G
B R A H M A N A L P
T O G G E N B U R G
L A R G E W H I T E

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NATIVE CORNISH SAANEN BOER NELLORE
DUROC HAMPSHIRE PIETRAIN LEGHORN
ALPINE BRAHMAN TOGGENBURG LARGEWHITE

What is the best breed of poultry? This is the most commonly asked question by a
poultry raiser and as such, there is no best breed. Each breed has its own good and
poor characteristics. A farmer can choose the proper breed to use depending on the
type of production that he wants to attain.

What to understand

Activity

Collect pictures of different breeds of animals and show to your


classmates. Identify based on their color and other characteristics.

SCORE CRITERIA

5 With 9 to 10 pictures of different breeds


of animals properly identified.

4 With 7-8 pictures of different breeds of


animals properly identified.

3 With 5-6 pictures of different breeds of


animals properly identified

2 With 3-4 pictures of different breeds of


animals properly identified.

1 With 1-2 pictures of different breeds of


animals properly identified.

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What to transfer
Question and Answer.

1. What breeds of poultry and livestock are recommended in our country?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

2. What standards should be considered in selecting the kind of breed to raise?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

LESSON 4: HOUSING THE ANIMALS

Interpreting Plans and Layout

What to know

Animals also need housing to protect them from adverse weather conditions.
Good housing should be durable, easy to clean and gives accessibility to
feeding, loading and unloading activities. Furthermore, it should allow the entry of
sunlight, have enough space for every animal andshould have proper ventilation.
. For poultry and livestock raising the ideal house should have the following
characteristics:

1. It is far from residential areas that may be affected by the unpleasant odor
produced by a large number of animals.

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2.It is on an elevated area that has good drainage and will not keep water to
accumulate.
3.It is exposed to ample sunlight.
4.The area is close to a source of water for cleaning and feeding of animals.

THE POULTRY HOUSE

Type of Shelter for poultry:

1.RANGE-TYPE is located in
the middle of the pasture. It
needs a wide land area.

2.SEMI-CONFINEMENT TYPE has


provisions for a sun porch or runway for
additional space for movement of the
birds. The floor is the slat-type made of
litter.

3.COMPLETE
CONFINEMENT
SYSTEM the birds are
confined to the house
entirely, with no access to
land.

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Broilers Requirements:

A. The following space requirements may serve as guide


1. Day-old to three weeks - 0.3sq.ft./chick
2. 3 weeks to 4 weeks - 0.5sq.ft/chick
3. 5 weeks to market age - 1.0sq.ft./bird

HOUSING THE PIG

Gestation unit is where pregnant Farrowing unit where nursing


pigsare confined. It is designed as sow and its young are confined
individual pen to restrict pregnant animal for 30 days
from turning around.

.
Nursery unit where the piglets Growing unit where weanlings
are kept for two months are raised until they are ready to
be marketed

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HOUSING THE SMALL RUMINANTS (goat and sheep)

Like other herds, goats


require a few provisions.
First and foremost,
remember that the goat
houses primary
objective is to provide
the animals shelter, so
make sure it prevents
rain and wetness from coming in. Goats, after all, are
very prone to pneumonia. They also like elevated
platforms that take the form of stairs.

HOUSING LARGE RUMINANTS

House stock must be provided with sufficient space for lying, grooming and normal
animal-to-animal interactions. Escapes must also be provided if young calves are
housed with adults; for example, calves and suckler cows. Providing indoor housing for
cattle also prevents damage to pasture during rainy season when the grass is scarce.

B. TYPES OF ROOFS FOR POULTRY

Types of roofs for animal production

There are several types of roof construction to choose from. The choice is determined
by the available materials, the amount of investment and the size of operations.

a. Shed or single span type This is the most simple type of roof. It is usually used
in small construction.
b. Gable or bouble span This is the conventional system of roof construction.

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c. Monitor This type is appropriate for big establishments. It is actually a big
double span with an outlet for air at the top of the roof.
d. Semi- monitor - This is like the monitor type except that an outlet on top
of the roof is made on side.
e. Combination of shed and gable

What to process
Write True if the idea is correct and False if the idea is incorrect.

______ 1. Shelter is a basic need of the animals.


______ 2. Ideal houses for animals should be near the residential areas.
______ 3. The area should be closed to a source of water for cleaning and feeding
the animals.
______ 4. The animal house should allow provision for proper ventilation.
______ 5. One thing basic to all animal houses is cleanliness.

What to understand

Discuss the different houses and units for the animals.

POULTRY

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SWINE

GOAT

CATTLE

What to transfer

Activity

Illustrate a typical house of poultry and swine.


Materials needed:

Bond paper
Pencil
Ruler
Eraser

1. Using the information given, draw typical houses for poultry and livestock(pig).
Include and label the different parts/compartments of the housing.

2. Submit your output to your teacher. Be prepared to present your work.

3. If in case you have questions, ask your teacher.

Find out how you fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely.
Remember it is your learning at stake!

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DIMENSION 1 2 3

1. Plan / drawing Highly acceptable; it Somewhat Not at all


is well thought out acceptable; thought acceptable;
out not thought out

2. Justification Every part of the Some parts of the No part makes


drawing makes drawing make sense
sense sense

3. Appropriate All materials are Some materials are No material is


material choices appropriate appropriate appropriate

C. FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT

What to know

Activity Lets Shop!

Inside the box are the different farm tools and equipment used in animal raising.
Group them according to their purpose and write them on the table below the box.

spade fork brooder perch shovel


dropping board heat lamp bolo feeding trough drinking trough
nest water system farrowing crate shipping crate trailer
waterer feed cart self-feeder castration rack rake

Farm Tools Poultry Swine

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A. POULTRY

EQUIPMENT FUNCTION PICTURE

DROPPING These fixtures should be


BOARDS provided in the laying house
to facilitate collection of
manure.

PERCHES These are horizontal poles


where birds can sit and rest
especially during night time.
Sufficient perches should be
constructed to prevent the
birds from crowding at night.

NEST Hens or layers lay their eggs


in the nest. A nest could be
either open or closed. The
nest should be built on a
partition or on end walls. It
should be high enough
above the floor so that the
hens can work under them.
FEEDING These should be provided
TROUGHS so as to keep the hens from
scratching the feeds and
wasting them especially
when the birds are laying
eggs.

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DRINKING Drinking jars should be large
TROUGHS and sufficient enough to
supply the water needs of
the birds for the whole day.
It should be durable and
easy to clean.

INCUBATOR This is a device that


maintains the required
temperature needed to
hatch the egg.

BROODER A device with controlled


temperature for the rearing
of newly hatched chicks until
two weeks old or until the
birds are ready to be
transferred to growing
house.

2.Equipment for hogs and livestock

1. Breeding crate. Is theequipment used when natural breeding method is practiced.


The gilt or sow in heat is confined first inside the crate before the boar is allowed for
mating.

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2. Farrowing crate or stall. Due to its limited space, this equipment minimizes the
movement of the sow and reduces the possibility of death of piglets due to
crushing. This also prevents the sow from eating the feeds given to the piglets.

3. Heat lamps and brooders.


Baby pigs can be kept
comfortable by providing them
with brooders with a 50 to 100
watt bulb especially during
rainy or cold days.

Brooders and heat lamps must


be located on any side of the
farrowing stall. Be sure that the
sow will not get in contact with
the brooder which should not
be electrically grounded.

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4. Water system. A pressurized water
system with pipes extending to the
hog houses is the most desirable
type. A minimum pressure of five
(5) kg per sq cm and 500 gallons
an hour is necessary. This will
eliminate labor in fetching water.

5. Shipping crate. This handy piece of


equipment is ideal for transporting pigs.

6. Castration rack. This equipment is


used during castration. The piglets are
laid down with their backs on the
rack.

7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to


transport feeds during feeding time. It
can accommodate 100 kg of feed.

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8. Self-feeders. An automatic self-feeder
is designed so that feed wastage is
minimized and the rate of flow of the
feed can be controlled. It is durable
and can hold sufficient feed for a day.

9. Waterers. Pigs will consume 2.0 to 2.5


pounds of water per kg of dry feed.
Automatic waterers are advantageous. If
the nozzle type waterers are used, they
must be placed 24 to 30 inches above the
floor for sows and growing pigs. One
automatic cup or nozzle for each pig pen is
normally sufficient to supply the water
needs of the animals. Waterers should not
be placed beside the self-feeder or feeding
trough. This practice will keep the feeding
area dry and clean.

10. Livestock trailer. This is designed


for the comfort and safety of the
animals. They usually have
adjustable vents and windows as well
as suspension designed to provide a
smooth ride and less stress on the
animals.In addition, trailers have
internal partitions that assist the
animal in stayingupright during travel
and protect the animals from injuring
each other in transit.

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What to process

Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer in your test notebook.

Column A Column B

1. This fixture should be provided in a. drinking trough


laying house to facilitate collection of
manure.

2. This fixture should be constructed so as to b. perches


keep the hens from scratching the
feeds and wasting them especially when
the birds are laying eggs.

3. This is a device for maintaining the c. nest


eggs of birds to allow them to hatch.

4. This equipment provides heat to the baby pigs


especially during rainy or cold days. d. dropping board

5. This equipment is used to transport


feeds during feeding time. e. farrowing crate/stall

6. These are horizontal poles where


birds can sit and rest especially during f. heat lamp & brooder
night time.

7. An equipment that minimizes the g. incubator


movement of the sow and reduces
the possibility of death of piglets due to
crushing.

8. This equipment is used when breeding gilt to a h. feeding trough


large boar or a large sow to a junior
boar.

9. This fixture is where a hen or a layer lays i. breeding crate


their eggs

10. It contains the water that the birds j. feed cart


need for the whole day.

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What to understand

A. Assess your personal knowledge of poultry facilities and equipment by giving a


simple definition or function using the table below. Write your answer on the
spaceprovided.

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT IN Defined as.


POULTRYPRODUCTION

1. Dropping board

2. Brooder

3. Feeding trough

4. Incubator

5. Nest

6. Castration rack

7. Farrowing crate

8. Breeding crate

9. Shipping crate

10. Self-feeders

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What to transfer

Activity

Making feeding and drinking trough

Directions: After learning about using farm tools, equipment and facilities being used in
animal production, you will be constructing a simple feeding and drinking trough using
indigenous materials.

1. Group yourselves into three. Inform your teacher that you are ready to construct the
simple feeding and drinking trough for poultry.

2. Your teacher will provide you with the following:

1. Bamboo
2. Cutting tools
3. Electric drill
4. Screw driver
5. Claw Hammer
6. Nails
7. Screws
8. Protective materials
9. Plastic sealant

3. Your teacher will also demonstrate the construction procedures. Take note of the
following while he/she performs this activity:

Checking the tools


Wearing appropriate personal protective equipment
Observing safety precautionary measures practiced during the construction
Using the tools correctly
Cleaning and storing of farm tools
Proper disposing of waste materials

4. After the demonstration, construct your own simple feeding and drinking trough.
Ensure that you follow the procedures done by your teacher. If you have queries or
questions, approach your teacher.

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Find out how you have fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and
sincerely. Remember it is your learning at stake!

Dimension Excellent Very Satisfactory Needs No POINTS


Satisfactory Improvement Attempt
5pts.) (4pts) (3pts) (2pts) (1pt)
Uses tools Uses toolsUses tools Uses tools
and and and and
equipment equipment equipment equipment
Use of tools
correctly correctly correctly incorrectly No
and
and and and and less attempt
equipment
confidently confidently
confidently confidently.
at all times. at all times.
most of the
time.
Manifests Manifests Manifests Manifests
very clear clear understand- less
understand- understand- ing of the understand-
Application ing of the ing of the step by step ing of the
No
of step by step step by step procedure step by step
attempt
procedures procedure procedure with some procedure
clarification with so
much
clarification
Observe Observe Observe Do not
safety safety safety observe
Safety Work precautions precautions precautions safety No
habits at all times most of the sometimes precautions attempt
time most of the
time
Completene No
ss of output attempt

CRITERIA 5 points 3 points 1 point


1. Accuracy The output is The output is almost The output has
accurately done. accurately done many errors.
2. Craftsmanship / The output is very It is good but still It is very crude and
Quality good. needs improvement. needs much
improvement.

3. Originality Design is very Design is unique, Design is very


unique, innovative innovative and common and it is
and indigenous. indigenous. not
indigenous.
4. Functionality It is very functional. It is functional. It is not functional.

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LESSON 5: FEEDS AND FEEDING

Mensuration and Calculation

What to know
Feed is anything given to animals for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Feeds
serve as fuel for the animals body. It is one of the most important factors that contribute
to the success of animal production.

Farm animals are raised for family consumption and for sale in the market. To achieve
high returns on investments, provide the flock with the necessary feeds and vitamins
that will facilitate their growth. It is important to observe the proper feeding
requirements. The raiser should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and
kinds of feeds appropriate to the age of the animal.

Kinds of feeds

1. Concentrates -- feeds which are relatively high in total digestible nutrients (TDN)
and low in fiber. Examples, cereal grains like corn, sorghum, and pollard
2. Roughage --- feeds which are high in fiber and low in digestible nutrients (TDN).
Examples, Grasses, legumes, silage,hay, rice straw, bean straw, etc.

Forms of feeds

1. Pellet
2. Crumble
3. Mash

CLASSIFICATION OF FEED RATION

Starter. This is fed to young chickens one day to six weeks old. This is given
to chicks that cannot eat large particles of feeds for the first two weeks after
they are hatched. The mash contains 20 to 21% protein.
Booster. This kind of feed is specially made for the delicate nutritional needs
of newly hatched chicks. It is given to chicks one day to two weeks old.
Grower. This is fed to growing chicks six to twelve days old and to the swine
when they are two to six months old. It contains 17% protein.
Fattener. Fattening rations are given to hogs or cattle until they reach
maturity and are ready for market.

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Finisher. This feed is given after the chicken has consumed one kilogram of
starter till the point of disposal of the birds.
Layer. This is for the layer of eggs for the market. It should contain 17 to 18%
protein.
Breeder. This ration is given to well-selected and mature animals ready for
breeding.
Pullet Developer. This is fed to pullet 12 to 18 weeks old. A 14% protein
should be sufficient.

Table 1. Average feed consumption of broilers at different stages of growth

Age of Chick Average Weight Weekly Feed Type of Feed


(g) Consumption(g)
1-7 74 85 Booster
8-14 154 125 Starter
15-21 269 225 Starter
22-28 423 348 Starter
29-35 628 429 Starter
36-42 868 837 Finisher
43-49 1123 723 Finisher
50-60 1384 890 Finisher

Activity

Direction: Compute the cost of broiler based on the given weights if the price per kilo is
120 pesos.

1. 0.5 kilo __________P


2. 0.9 kilo __________P
3. 1.2 kilos __________P
4. 1.5 kilos __________P
5. 2.0 kilos __________P

Farm animals are raised for family consumption and for sale in the market. To achieve
high return on investments, provide the herd with the necessary feeds and vitamins that
will facilitate their growth. It is important to observe the proper feeding requirements.
The raiser should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and kinds of feeds
appropriate to the age of the animal.

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GUIDELINES IN PREPARING HOME RATION FOR GROWING AND FATTENING
FARM ANIMALS:

PALATABILITY. The ration must be palatable. It can be measured by the


amount of feed consumed by the animals for a given period of time.
NUTRITIVE REQUIREMENT. In formulating a simplified ration, keep in
mind that it should always contain the needed nutrients, like protein,
vitamins, and minerals. Younger animals require more crude protein than
growing and fattening animals. Leftover foods, corn and corn by-products,
and root crops like sweet potatoes and cassava can be used as feeds
provided they are properly cooked. Feed premix (feed supplement can be
added to the simplified ration to cover deficiencies in vitamins and
minerals.
ECONOMY. It should be reasonably economical aside from the ready- mix
ration, the animals must be fed with some green feeds, like grass, ipil-ipil,
and kangkong. They are also good sources of vitamins and minerals and
will lessen the cost of feeds for the livestock.

What to process

Draw a happy face ( ), if the statement is correct and a sad face ( ), if the
the statement is wrong.

________ 1. It is important to keep all feeding and watering equipment clean.


________ 2. The ration must be palatable.
________ 3. The feeds should be reasonably economical.
________ 4. Animal must be fed with some green feeds like ipil-ipil and kangkong.
________ 5. The feed should be made available to the animals at all times.

What to understand
Discuss the following classification of feeds:

1. Starter Mash
___________________________________________________________
2. Growing Mash
___________________________________________________________
3. Fattening Mash
___________________________________________________________

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4. Layer Mash
___________________________________________________________
5. Breeding Ration
___________________________________________________________
6 .Pullet Developer Mash
___________________________________________________________

What to transfer

Activity # 1

Direction: Using table 1 on feed consumption for broilers, compute how many
kilos of feeds ( broiler, starter and finishing feeds) a broiler will consume in 45
days.

Youroutput will be rated using the rubric below:

SCORE CRITERIA
5 Correct procedure and computation is presented
in logical order.
4 Complete and correct method of solution but has
not obtained the final answer.
3 Complete method of solution and with strong
computation.
2 Suggest good mathematical thinking but with
incomplete solution and no answer.
1 No attempt

Activity No. 2

Formulate a simple feed for swine using Pearson square method.

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LESSON 6: SANITATION AND CLEANLINESS ON THE FARM

Applying Safety Measures in the Workplace

What to know
Sanitation means providing clean and favourable surroundings to
maintain good health in the flocks and herds. The maintenance of good health of farm
animals spells the difference between failure and success of animal production.

Some guideposts for keeping the farm clean and sanitary are as follows:

Select stocks that are young and disease-free.


If the house to be used is an old poultry house or pigpen, clean it very well first
before housing the new set of animals. Floors, ceilings and walls should be
scrubbed thoroughly. Sanitize the waterers and feeding trough.
Disinfect the animal houses to kill parasites and disease-causing organisms.
Disinfect all tools and equipment.
Animal should be confined. Confinement makes it possible to keep the place
clean and sanitary. It helps the farmer see changes in the behaviour or condition
of the flock or herd in times of epidemics. Loss due to stray animals is also
prevented by confinement.
Preventive measures should be taken to protect the flock or herd from disease.
Vaccination or medicine may be administered to the flock or herd to prevent them
contracting from diseases.
Add antibiotics to the drinking water of animals to avoid scours or diarrhea.

What to process
List down seven sanitary practices that must be observed in the farm:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

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What to understand

Activity # 1

Visit a farm and interview the owner or any responsible personnel regarding the
guidelines for keeping the farm clean and sanitary. Make an observation if the practices
we discussed are applied in that farm.

List down your observations and discuss them in the class.

______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Activity # 2

List down as many precautionary measures in the following:

1. Poultry farm
2. Piggery farm
3. Cattle ranch
4. Goat farm

What to transfer

Activity # 1

The latest bird flu that killed millions of chicken in Hongkong, China, and
Vietnam caused alarm to farmers not only in those places but also in other agricultural
countries such as the Philippines. As a student of Agriculture, conduct a research on the
causes ofthis epidemic and what can be done to prevent it.

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The foot and mouth disease that infected thousands of pigs in Metro Manila a
few years ago affected the swine industry. Make a study on how this disease can be
prevented.

Your output will be rated using the rubric below.

SCORE CRITERIA
5 Information gathered suggests excellent and critical
analysis of the diseases affecting both poultry and
swine.
4 Information gathered suggests good analysis of the
diseases affecting both poultry and swine.
3 Information gathered lacks depth in the analysis of
the diseases affecting both poultry and swine.
2 Information gathered is unclear and has no bearing
on the issue affecting both poultry and swine.
1 No research work presented.

LESSON 7: MARKETING ANIMALS AND THEIR BY-PRODUCTS

What to know

In any production aspect, marketing is very important to keep the enterprise


profitable and meaningful to the producer. Marketing farm animals includes all the
activities from the time animals are taken out of their pens or cages until the products
reach the consumers. Efficient marketing inspires and speeds up production.

Factors to consider in marketing:

1. Know the factors affecting the cost of production.


2. Know the cost of production of your product.
3. Study the different ways of selling .
4. Select the most practical and economical way of marketing your animals.
5. Market them at the best time of the year.
6. Load and transport your animals properly.
7. Market animals at the best weight.
8. Prevent losses at marketing time.

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9. Plan your marketing methods or ways.
10. Feed animals properly and fit them for market.
11. Consider the suggestions of the buyers.
12. Study the prices in relation to making the best use of the animal products.
.
Marketing Systems that can be adopted by a Producer:

1. Wholesale or pakyawan
2. Direct selling to consumers
3. Marketing through cooperatives

What to process
. Discuss the different factors to consider in marketing.

What to understand
Visit animal raisers in your locality. Gather information about the way they
market their products and why. Report it to the class for group interaction.

What to transfer
As a future poultry and livestock producer, what marketing system will you
adopt and why? Share it in class.

SUMMARY

This Mini-Course in Animal Production is designed to fit your interest and needs. It
provides you withimportant information on how to plan a small business. Above all,
since human resources are major factors in any business enterprise, it shows you
qualities of a good entrepreneur. It also covers the basic information you need in raising

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animals such as the different breeds of farm animals that thrive in the country; housing
for their confinement; and other needed equipment. Finally, this module ends with the
discussion of the principles of feeding farm animals; maintaining cleanliness and
sanitation of the farm; and marketing farm animals and their by- products.

GLOSSARY

Animal Production a science that deals with production and management of livestock or
domestic animal.
Breed - a group of animals that have specific traits or characteristics in
common.
Broiler - a meat type chicken commonly grown up to 35-42 days and
weighing 1.5-2.0 kg liveweight
Confinement - the state of being confined, with restricted movement
Entrepreneur - someone who enters any business to introduce a product or service
to substantially form or change the nerve center of that business
Farrowing - the act of giving birth to swine
Feed -edible materials which are consumed by animals and contribute
energy or nutrients to the animal diet
Feeding -the process of giving feeds to the animal
Gestation - the time from breeding of a female until she gives birth to her young
Layer - egg-type or dual-type 6- month female fowl that lays eggs.
Market - a place where goods are sold
Mortality Rate - number of animals that died based on the total number of animals
raised.
Nutrients substances that nourish animals for specific purposes such as for
health maintenance, growth, repair of body tissues, reproduction, and
other productive activities
Parasite - a living organism which is dependent on another living organism for
food in order to survive
Poultry - a collective term for all domestic birds rendering economic service to
man.
Pullet - female fowl 5-6 months of age intended for egg production
Ration - amount of feed an animal receives in a 24 hour period
Ruminant -name given to grazing animal that chew its cud and has split hoofs
Steer - a male cattle that has been castrated before the secondary sex
character develops

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Swine - a term collectively used for any of the stout-bodied, short-legged
omnivorous mammals with a long mobile snout.
Tool - device that makes the work of man easier and faster
Type -refers to a group of animals raised to serve a certain purpose.
Vaccination - an injection of vaccine, bacterin, antiserum or anti-toxin to produce
immunity or tolerance to disease.

REFERENCES:

Books

1. Andales, Mildred S.M. et. Al.Worktext in Technology and Livelihood


Education.
2. Bernardino, Josephine C. Technology and Livelihood Education I. Phoenix
Publishing House,Inc. 2005.
3. SDEP Series. Technology and Home economics I. 1990.
4. Tabinga and Gagni, Swine Production in the Philippines, 1984.

Pamphlets

1. Competency-Based Learning Material Animal Production NCII


2. Effective Technology and Livelihood Education
3. Intervet. Course on Pig Health and Management. ITCPH
4. Introduction To Entrepreneurship, Revised Edition 2007.SERDEF
5. MARID Agribusiness Technology Guide. Raising Cattle For Meat and Milk
Production. 2011
6. MARID Agribusiness Technology Guide. RAISING GOATS. 2006
7. Tips on broiler production Retrieved Aug 19,2011
Others

1. http://www,da.gov.ph/dawebsite/poutry1.pdf
2. https://www.google.com.ph/search?
3. www.ext.colostate.edu.

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