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Operation Modes Prediction of a High Speed Rotor

with Dual-Point Measurement

.............................................................................................................i

...................................................................................................... iii

.......................................................................................................vi

................................................................................................. vii

............................................................................................................x

Abstract.................................................................................................... xii

..............................................................................................1

1.1 .........................................................................................1

1.2 .........................................................................................2

1.3 .....................................................................................5

..................................................6

2.1 .............................................................................6

2.1.1 ..........................................................6

2.1.2 ....................................10

2.1.3 ....................13

i
2.2 ...........................................................15

....................................................................................21

3.1 .......................................................21

3.1.1 ....................................................................21

3.1.2 ........................................44

3.2 .......................................................61

3.2.1 ............................................................................61

3.2.2 ........................................71

3.3 ...............................................84

............................................................................................90

..................................................................................................91

A 0 96

B .......................................................................98

C MAC .......................................................100

ii

2. 1 .............................................11

3. 1 ..........................................................................23

3. 2 ..............................................................24

3. 3 ..................................................................25

3. 4 ......................................................................26

3. 5 ..........................................................................29

3. 6 ..............................................................................30

3. 7 B&K-3560B ................................................31

3. 8 ..............................................................32

3. 9 i = 2, j = 2 ........................33

3. 10 i = 2, j = 9 ......................34

3. 11 46.5HZ ..........39

3. 12 116HZ ...........40

3. 13 225HZ ...........41

3. 14 FRF ........................................................42

3. 15 ............................................46

3. 16 ........................................47

iii
3. 17 ............................................................48

3. 18 ............................................49

3. 19 ........................................................50

3. 20 ........................................................51

3. 21 ........................................................52

3. 22 ........54

3. 23 ........55

3. 24 ........56

3. 25 ....................57

3. 26 ....................58

3. 27 ....................59

3. 28 DAIU-208P ...................................63

3. 29 ............................................................64

3. 30 ........................................................65

3. 31 ................................................................................66

3. 32 ................................................................................67

3. 33 3711 ..............................68

3. 34 3711 ..........................69

iv
3. 35 3711 ..........................................................70

3. 36 47.4HZ ........................................................73

3. 37 96.6HZ ........................................................74

3. 38 ................75

3. 39 ................76

3. 40 0%25% ..............................78

3. 41 0%25% ..............................79

3. 42 0%25% ..............................80

3. 43 0%25% ..............................81

3. 44 ........................88

3. 45 ............89

3. 1 .....................................37

3. 2 .....................................................38

3. 3 MAC ............................................................43

3. 4 .....................................................53

3. 5 MAC ...................................60

3. 6 MAC ..............................77

3. 7 .........................................82

3. 8 .........................................83

3. 9 1X ..........87

vi

[ A] Duncan

[ B] Duncan

[C ]

{F ( )}

Fi ( ) i

G p ,q pq

Gp, p p

H i, j i i

[I ]

[K ]

[M ]

i p q
i
T p ,q

[S ]

U ( )

vii
V ( )

{ X ( )}

p i
X p ,i ( )

p i
X '
p ,i ( )

{Y ( )}

{ f ( t )}

fi ( t ) i

i , p, q

kr r

mr r

r, s

sr , sr* r

{ x ( t )}

{ r } r

{r } r

viii
{ }
r r


r i r i

r r

r r generalized coordinate

r r

r r

r r

r' r

r
r ,s
s

ix

modal assurance criterionMAC

MAC

xi
Abstract

This paper adopts a dual-point measurement technique to predict the


resonance frequency and operation modes of a high speed rotor at
different operating speed. The effect of balance policy on the operating
mode shapes of a rotor has also been investigated. Displacement signals
measured at two different points of a rotating shaft are used to estimate
the operation mode shapes at the main operating frequency based on the
definition of transmissibility function. To verify the feasibility of this
technique, the dynamic parameters, i.e. natural frequencies, damping ratio
and normal modes of a stationary rotor are measured in advance by
applying the traditional frequency response method for comparison. The
values of modal assurance criterion (MAC) and mode shape diagrams
indicate that both methods are in a good agreement on the normal modes
when the system is undamped or lightly damped. However, a significant
difference is observed for highly damped modes. The dual-point
measurement technique is applicable to investigate the effect of rotating
speed on measured operation modes at different speed. Results indicate
that the rotating speed may affect the dynamic parameters of a rotating
shaft significantly.
Furthermore, the dynamic unbalance effect on the response of a
rotating shaft has also been studied in this thesis. Results indicate that the
position of the unbalance is quite sensitive to the response of a rotating

xii
shaft. The sensitivity of unbalance and its position is dependent on the
operation mode correspondence to the driving speed. The measured
results indicate the dual-point measurement is quite available to study the
dynamic responses of a rotating shaft or rotor.

Key Wordsdual-point measurement, resonance frequency, operation

mode

xiii

1.1

experimental modal analysisEMA

modal parameter

fast fourier transformFFT

frequency response functionFRF

curve fitting

operating condition

operation mode

Braun S. Levran J. [2] 1986

1.2

1983 Trethewey, M. W.

Evensen, H. A.,Shaptou, W. R. [1]

1986

Braun S. Levran J. [2]

Dossing, O. [3,4] 1987 1988

1988 Yeager, M. ,Shapton, W. R. Seevens, R. W. [5]

modal assurance criterionMAC

1989 Juang J. Wright J. [6]

response appropriation method

operating shapes1990 Pan, J., Vold H., Allemang R. [7,8,9,10]

1990

[11] T L

1992 Johansen, S., and Madsen, K. D.

[12]

1993 [13]

1997 Richardson, M. H. [14]

Hermans

et al. [15]

3
1999 William D., and Chang W, J. [16]

Herman and Hermans [17]

2000 Vold, H.,

Schwarz, B. and Richardson, M. [18]

[19]

2001

Wang, B. T. [20] operational deflection shapeODS

2001 [21]

2002 [22]

2002

Batel, M. [23]

Schwarz, B. and Richardson, M. [24] 2003

2004 Feldmaier et al. [25]

2004 B. Schwarz, M.H. Richardson

4
[26]

auto & cross power spectrum [31]2005

[27] 2006 [28]

2008 Surendra N. Ganeriwala

(Suri), Zhuang Li, Richardson, Mark [29]

1.3

2.1

2.1.1

[ M ]{&&x ( t )} + [ K ]{ x ( t )} = { f ( t )} 2. 1

[ M ] [ K ] { f ( t )}

{ x ( t )} r 2
r

{ r } orthogonal

{ } [ M ]{ } = m
T
r s r r ,s
2. 2

{ } [ K ]{ } = k
T
r s r r ,s
2. 3

mrkr r modal massmodal stiffness

r ,s croneckers delta function

kr
r2 = , r = 1,2,L, N 2. 4
mr

r r nature frequency

6
1 < 2 < ..... < N

{ }
{ } =
r
r
2. 5
mr

{r } r

{ f ( t )}

{ x ( t )}

{ f ( t )} = {F ( )} e it

2. 6
{ x ( t )} = { X ( )} e it

[30]

{ X ( )} = ( ){ }
N

r r 2. 7
r =1

r ( ) r {r }

2. 1

( ) ( [ M ] + [ K ]){ } = {F ( )}
N
2
r r 2. 8
r =1

7
{ } {F ( )}
T

r ( ) = r
2. 9
r2 2

{ } {F ( )}
T

{ X ( )} =
N
r
{ } 2. 10
r =1 r2 2 r

i Fi ( ) p

N i rp
X p ,i ( ) = r
F ( ) 2. 11
r =1
2 2 i
r

r i r p r i p i

q X q ,i ( )

q p

q transmissibility function

X p ,i ( )
Tpi,q ( ) = 2. 12
X q ,i ( )

p q

8
H p ,i ( )
Tpi,q ( ) = 2. 13
H q ,i ( )

X p ,i ( )
H p ,i ( ) = Fr ( ) = 0 r i
Fi ( )

X q ,i ( )
H q ,i ( ) = Fr ( ) = 0 r i
Fi ( )

= s (1 + ) 1 2. 14

2. 12 A

p
Tpi ,q ( ) =
s
2. 15
s q
s

s s

p q

2. 15 s

i p q s

node point i q

2.1.2

Bendat Piersol [31]

cross power spectrum

2. 1 Fi ( )

X p ,i ( ) X q ,i ( ) X p ,i ( ) X q,i ( )

X p ,i ( ) = X p ,i ( ) + U ( ) 2. 16

X q,i ( ) = X q ,i ( ) + V ( ) 2. 17

10
U ( )
X p,i() ()
X 'p,i ()
Fi () Linear
Xq,i() ()
System Xq' ,i ()
V ( )

2. 1

11
U ( )V ( )

GX
p ,i , X p ,i
( ) = G X p ,i , X p ,i ( ) + G ( ) X p ,i ,V
2. 18
+GU , X q ,i
( ) + G ( ) U ,V

U ( ) V ( ) gaussian distributed noise

GX
p ,i , X q ,i
( ) G X p ,i , X q ,i ( ) 2. 19

2
{ }
m
GX
p , i , X q , i
( ) = X ( ) p ,i

X
q ,i (
) s 2. 20
m s =1
s

X q,i ( ) = X q ,i ( )

X p ,i ( ) = H p ,i ( ) Fi ( )

X q ,i ( ) = H q ,i ( ) Fi ( )

GX
p , i , X q , i
( ) 2 H ( ) H ( ) G ( )
p ,i

q ,i Fi , Fi 2. 21

H p ,i ( ) H q ,i ( )

12
Fi ( ) 2. 21

2.1.3

signal to noise ratio

[32]

S ( ) 2

= 2. 22
N 1 2 ( )

coherence

( )
2
GX
2 ( ) = p ,i , X q ,i
2. 23
GX
p ,i , X p ,i
( ) G X q ,i , X q ,i ( )

GX
p ,i , X p ,i
( ) G X q ,i , X q ,i ( ) X p ,i
X q,i auto power

spectrum

GX p ,i , X p ,i
( ) G X p ,i , X p ,i ( ) + G ( ) U ,U 2. 24

GX q ,i , X q ,i
( ) G X q ,i , X q ,i ( ) + G ( ) V ,V 2. 25

13
2. 192. 242. 252. 23

1
2 ( ) =
GU ,U ( ) GV ,V ( ) 2. 26
1 + 1 +
GX , X ( ) GX , X ( )
p ,i p ,i q ,i q ,i

U ( ) V ( ) GU ,U ( ) GV ,V ( )

GX p ,i , X p ,i
( ) G X q ,i , X q ,i ( ) r

2. 262. 22

14
2.2

[ M ]{&&x ( t )} + [C ]{ x& ( t )} + [ K ]{ x ( t )} = { f ( t )} 2. 27

Duncan [30]

[ M ]{ x& ( t )} [ M ]{ x& ( t )} = 0 2. 28

{ f ( t )}
[ A]{ y& ( t )} + [ B ]{ y ( t )} = 2. 29
{ 0}

{ x ( t )}
{ y ( t )} =
{ &
x ( t )}
2. 30
[C ] [ M ] [ K ] [ 0 ]
[ A] = , [ B] =
[ M ] [ 0] [ 0] [ M ]

2. 27

[ A ]{ y& ( t )} + [ B ]{ y ( t )} = {0} 2. 31

15
2N 2N

sr { r } [33] r

r (
sr , s* = r r i 1 2 r ) 2. 32

* r r

modal damping ratio

{ }
{ } =
r
2. 33
s { }
r
r r

[ A] [ B ]

{ } [ A]{ } = a
T
r s r r ,s
2. 34

{ } [ B ]{ } = b
T
r s r r ,s
2. 35

br
sr = , r = 1,2,...,2 N 2. 36
ar

{Y ( )} = ( ){ }
2N

r r 2. 37
r =1

16
2. 29

{ F ( )}
r ( ) ( i [ A] + [ B ]){ r } =
2N

2. 38
r =1
{0}

[ A] [ B ]

T { F ( )}

( r r ) r ( ) { r}
i a + b = 2. 39
{0}

2. 33

{ } {F ( )}
T

( ) = r
2. 40
a ( i s )
r
r r

{ r }T {F ( )}{ r } { r* }T { F ( )}{ r* }
{ X ( )} =
N
+ 2. 41
r =1 ar ( i sr ) ar* ( i sr* )

i Fi ( ) p


U +
r p ,i r p ,i
i V
X p ,i ( ) = 2
N
r F ( ) 2. 42
r =1 + 2i
2 i


r r r

17

r
U p ,i = 2 r Re r Qp ,i 2 Im r Q p ,i 1 r2 2. 43

Vp ,i = 2Re r Qp ,i
r 2. 44

p r i
r
Q p ,i = r
2. 45
ar

2. 422. 12 p q


U p ,i + i rVp ,i
r
r
N


r =1 r + 2ir r
2 2

Tpi,q ( ) = 2. 46

U q ,i + i rVq ,i
r
r
N


r =1 r + 2ir r
2 2

r << 1 Fi ( )

X p ,i X q ,i

damped resonance frequency s '

18
s 1 s

s2 r =1
2
Im ( Q ) + i Re ( Q )
p ,i
r
r p ,i r

Tpi,q ( ) '
s 1
2 Im ( r Qq ,i ) + i s Re ( r Qq ,i )
s
2
s r =1 r
2. 47
Q p ,i N 2Im ( r Qp ,i )
+ s

s2 s
+
r = s +1 r2
Qq ,i N 2 Im ( r Qq ,i )
+ s

s2 s
+
r = s +1 r2

's = s 1 2 s2

s 1

Qp
Tpi,q ( ) ' = s
2. 48
s
s
Qq

2. 45

p
Tpi,q ( ) = ' = s
2. 49
s
s
q

X p ,i X q ,i

19

U +
N r p , i r p ,i
i V

GX ' ( ) 2 2 r
r =1 + 2i
p , i , X 'q , i


r r r


2. 50

U
N r p ,i r q , i
i V

2 r G ( )
r =1 r 2ir r F , F
2 i i

GF , F ( )
i i

s 1 2 s2 X p ,i X q ,i

2. 49

q p

20

3.1

3. 1

MAC C

3.1.1

FFT

21
FRF)

3. 2 3. 3

3. 4

22
3. 1

23
3. 2

24
3. 3

25
3. 4

26
12

3. 5

3. 6 2 Z

transient window

exponential window 3. 7

B&K-3560B

coherence

leakage

3. 8 0400Hz 800

H 2,2 ( ) i = 2 , j = 2

3. 9(a)

H 2,9 ( ) 3. 10(a)

i = 2 , j = 9 9 2

3. 9(a) 3. 10(a)

3. 9(b) 3. 10(b)

3. 9(a) 3. 10(a)

27
1

28
3. 5

29
3. 6

30
3. 7 B&K-3560B

31
3. 8

32
[dB/1.00 g/N] Frequency Response H1(Response,Excitation) - Input (Magnitude)
Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer
10

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60
-70
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
[Hz]

(a) i = 2, j = 2 H 2,2 ( )

[] Coherence(Response,Excitation) - Input
Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer
1

900m

800m

700m

600m

500m

400m

300m

200m

100m

0
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
[Hz]

(b) i = 2, j = 2

3. 9 i = 2, j = 2

33
[dB/1.00 g/N] Frequency Response H1(Response,Excitation) - Input (Magnitude)
Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer
0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

-80
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
[Hz]

(a) i = 2, j = 9 H 2,9 ( )

[] Coherence(Response,Excitation) - Input
Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer
1

900m

800m

700m

600m

500m

400m

300m

200m

100m

0
0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 400
[Hz]

(b) i = 2, j = 9

3. 10 i = 2, j = 9

34
.uff MescopeVES [34]

3. 1

3. 2

3. 11 46.5Hz

bode plot 3. 12 116Hz

3. 13 225Hz

3. 14 FRF

cascade plot

3. 11 46.5Hz

116Hz 7 8

225Hz 4 10

MAC MAC 1

MAC 0.005

35
3. 3 MAC

36
3. 1

Mode Frequency Damping Damping Ratio


No. (Hz) (Hz) (%)
1 46.6 1.9 4.08
2 116 12.4 10.6
3 225 16.5 7.31

37
3. 2

Mode Shape
Point Mode 1 (46.5Hz) Mode 2 (108Hz) Mode 3 (217Hz)
No. Mag. Phase Mag. Phase Mag. Phase
(g/N) (deg.) (g/N) (deg.) (g/N) (deg.)
1 2.31 326 13.6 349 12.8 275
2 4.39 328 18.0 359 10.3 321
3 7.21 328 20.5 358 8.72 342
4 8.97 330 20.3 2.31 3.67 348
5 9.93 329 13.6 360 4.72 190
6 10.6 329 7.55 353 11.3 183
7 10.6 329 2.21 247 15.2 179
8 10.3 332 11.3 203 12.8 188
9 9.15 330 17.2 195 8.53 182
10 7.01 329 23.1 182 1.45 75.3
11 3.86 321 23.8 173 14.1 4.72
12 2.67 321 26.6 180 18.4 359

38
(a) 46.5Hz

(b) 46.5Hz

3. 11 46.5Hz

39
(a) 116Hz

(b) 116Hz

3. 12 116Hz

40
(a) 225Hz

(b) 225Hz

3. 13 225Hz

41
1
Real (g/N)

0.0

-1

0.4

M#12
Imaginary (g/N)

0.2 M#11
M#10
0.0 M#9
M#8
M#7
M#6
-0.2 M#5
M#4
M#3
-0.4 M#2
M#1
0.0 100 200 300 400
Hz

3. 14 FRF

42
3. 3 MAC

FRF
MAC
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3
Mode 1 1.000 0.007 0.086
FRF Mode 2 0.007 1.000 0.065
Mode 3 0.086 0.065 1.000

43
3.1.2

3. 15 3. 16

12

3. 17

hanning window B&K-3560B

3. 18 0400Hz

800 25

3. 19 3. 20

46.5Hz

108Hz 678

217Hz 671011

3. 21

44

3. 22

46.5Hz 3. 23 108Hz

3. 24 217Hz

6.89%

3.55%

MAC

MAC

0.995

MAC 0.706 0.612 3. 5

MAC 3. 25 3. 26 3. 27

45
3. 15

46
3. 16

47
3. 17

48
3. 18

49
M#1 M#2 M#3 M#4 M#5 M#6 M#7 M#8 M#9 M#10 M#11 M#12

1E-3 46.5Hz
Log Magnitude ((mil)^2^2)

108Hz
217Hz
1E-4

1E-5

0.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


(@ 46.5) Hz

3. 19

50
M#1 M#2 M#3 M#4 M#5 M#6 M#7 M#8 M#9 M#10 M#11 M#12
1E-2

46.5Hz
1E-3
108Hz
Log Magnitude ((mil)^2)

217Hz

1E-4

1E-5

0.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400


(@ 46.5) Hz

3. 20

51
M#12
4
M#11
Magnitude (mil/mil)

M#10
3 M#9
M#8
M#7
2 M#6
M#5
1 M#4
M#3
M#2
0.0 M#1
0.0 100 200 300 400
Hz

3. 21

52
3. 4

mil/mil deg. mil/mil deg. mil/mil deg.


Mode 1 (46.5Hz) Mode 2 (108Hz) Mode 3 (217Hz)
Mag. Phase Mag. Phase Mag. Phase
X1/X1 1.41 2 1.02 -1 0.97 9
X2/X1 1.80 -2 1.31 0 1.20 6
X3/X1 3.06 1 1.52 -11 1.33 12
X4/X1 3.77 3 1.49 -22 1.06 -8
X5/X1 4.19 4 1.36 -37 0.94 -37
X6/X1 4.45 4 1.21 -54 0.92 -60
X7/X1 4.65 2 1.34 -79 0.88 -102
X8/X1 4.39 -1 1.37 -103 0.91 -125
X9/X1 3.84 1 1.36 -119 0.61 -132
X10/X1 3.19 -2 1.41 -139 0.34 -159
X11/X1 1.98 -8 1.60 -170 0.69 79
X12/X1 1.44 -14 1.57 178 1.08 72

53
(a) 46.5Hz

(b)

3. 22

54
(a) 108Hz

(b)

3. 23

55
(a) 217Hz

(b)

3. 24

56
3. 25

57
3. 26

58
3. 27

59
3. 5 MAC

Traditional FRF method

MAC Normal mode

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3


Dual-point measurement

Mode 1 0.995 0.012 0.075


Normal mode

Mode 2 0.341 0.706 0.222

Mode 3 0.180 0.335 0.612

60
3.2

3.2.1

3. 28 DAIU-208P

7500rpm

ADRE for window

polar plot
bode plot
waterfall plot

3. 29

3. 30

3. 31 3. 32

10000rpm

7000rpm 3. 33 3 7

11 3. 34 3 7 11

61

1X

47.4Hz 96.6Hz

46.6Hz

1.69%5796rpm 96.6Hz

108Hz 10.55%

3. 35 3 7

11

62
3. 28 DAIU-208P

63
3. 29

64
3. 30

65
3. 31

66
3. 32

67
(a) 3

(b) 7

(c) 11

3. 33 3711

68
(a) 3

(b) 7

(c) 11
3. 34 3711

69
(a) 3

(b) 7

(c) 11
3. 35 3711

70
3.2.2

47.4Hz 96.6Hz

B&K-3560B

.uff MescopeVES

3. 36 3. 37

3. 38 3. 39

3. 6

MAC MAC 0.992 0.487

MAC

5%25%

3. 40 3. 41 0%25%

3. 42 3. 43 0%25% 3.

71
7 3. 8 MAC 3.

40 3. 41 3. 7 3. 8 MAC

72
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 47.2 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8

7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

3. 36 47.4Hz

73
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 96.6 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8
7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

3. 37 96.6Hz

74
3. 38

75
3. 39

76
3. 6 MAC

Traditional FRF method

MAC Normal mode

Mode 1 Mode 2
Dual-point measurement

Mode 1 0.992 0.001


Operation mode

Mode 2 0.428 0.487

77
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 47.2 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8

7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

the 1st resonance freq.47.4Hz 5% higher than the 1st resonance


freq.49.7Hz

10% higher than the 1st resonance 15% higher than the 1st resonance
freq.52Hz freq.54.4Hz

20% higher than the 1st resonance 25% higher than the 1st resonance
freq.56.7Hz freq.59.1Hz

3. 40 0%25%

78
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 47.2 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8

7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

the 1st resonance freq.47.4Hz 5% lower than the 1st resonance


freq.44.9Hz

10% lower than the 1st resonance 15% lower than the 1st resonance
freq.42.6Hz freq.41.2Hz

20% lower than the 1st resonance 25% lower than the 1st resonance
freq.37.9Hz freq.35.38Hz

3. 41 0%25%

79
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 96.6 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8
7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

the 2nd resonance freq.96.6Hz 5% higher than the 2nd resonance


freq.101Hz

10% higher than the 2nd resonance 15% higher than the 2nd resonance
freq.106Hz freq.111Hz

20% higher than the 2nd resonance 25% higher than the 2nd resonance
freq.116Hz freq.120Hz

3. 42 0%25%

80
3DView: Frequency Response H1(Response Excitation) - Input Working : Input : Input : FFT Analyzer [Complex] 96.6 Hz (13

12
11
10
9
8
7
6

Amp: 1.0, Dwell: 10


Dir(g): X,Y,Z Persp: +10

the 2nd resonance freq.96.6Hz 5% lower than the 2nd resonance


freq.91.7Hz

10% lower than the 2nd resonance 15% lower than the 2nd resonance
freq.86.9Hz freq.82.1Hz

20% lower than the 2nd resonance 25% lower than the 2nd resonance
freq.77.2Hz freq.72.5Hz

3. 43 0%25%

81
3. 7

Traditional FRF
method
MAC Normal mode
Mode 1 Mode 2
(46.6Hz) (108Hz)
25% lower than the 1st resonance freq. (35.38Hz) 0.934 0.086
20% lower than the 1st resonance freq. (37.75Hz) 0.921 0.092
Dual-point measurement

15% lower than the 1st resonance freq. (40.13Hz) 0.920 0.085
Operation mode

10% lower than the 1st resonance freq. (42.50Hz) 0.971 0.023
5% lower than the 1st resonance freq. (44.88Hz) 0.986 0.002
the 1st resonance freq.(47.25Hz) 0.992 0.001
5% higher than the 1st resonance freq. (49.63Hz) 0.990 0.008
10% higher than the 1st resonance freq. (52.00Hz) 0.985 0.016
15% higher than the 1st resonance freq. (54.38Hz) 0.980 0.024
20% higher than the 1st resonance freq. (56.75Hz) 0.975 0.032
25% higher than the 1st resonance freq. (59.13Hz) 0.970 0.039

82
3. 8

Traditional FRF
method
MAC Normal mode
Mode 1 Mode 2
(46.6Hz) (108Hz)
25% lower than the 2nd resonance freq. (72.50Hz) 0.935 0.083
20% lower than the 2nd resonance freq. (77.25Hz) 0.905 0.118
Dual-point measurement

15% lower than the 2nd resonance freq. (82.13Hz) 0.785 0.241
Operation mode

10% lower than the 2nd resonance freq. (87.00Hz) 0.682 0.329
5% lower than the 2nd resonance freq. (91.75Hz) 0.522 0.455
the 2nd resonance freq. (96.63Hz) 0.428 0.487
5% higher than the 2nd resonance freq. (101.40Hz) 0.461 0.388
10% higher than the 2nd resonance freq. (106.30Hz) 0.507 0.292
15% higher than the 2nd resonance freq. (111.10Hz) 0.579 0.174
20% higher than the 2nd resonance freq. (115.90Hz) 0.644 0.090
25% higher than the 2nd resonance freq. (121.10Hz) 0.679 0.031

83
3.3

B&K 3560B

1X

MescopeVES

3. 9 1X

3. 44 3. 45

3. 9

1X

84
3

7 11

3. 9 :

1. 0.4 0

1X

2. 0.4 0

0.4

0 0.4 0

3. 0.4 0

4. 0.4 0 0.4 180

85

5. 0.4 0

86
3. 9 1X
Points: X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 X10 X11 X12
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 1.44 1.74 2.53 3.53 4.71 4.19 4.29 4.31 4.36 3.01 2.32 1.53
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 149 130 133 110 125 131 129 108 121 127 124 115
Run-0
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 1.6 1.92 2.96 2.29 2.28 1.74 1.62 0.68 0.65 1.75 1.49 1.73
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 280 264 284 240 225 229 232 218 127 128 64 57
Run-0Run-1 PL2()0.4gm/0
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 2.91 4.11 5.72 7.63 8.94 8.94 9.66 9.04 8.33 6.69 5.43 3.89
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 167 148 142 142 142 140 148 139 140 141 150 147
Run-1
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 1.75 1.82 3.15 2.88 3.1 2.77 2.48 1.76 1.13 1.41 0.21 0.61
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 228 225 246 218 206 212 212 209 195 138 45 42
Run-1Run-2 PL1()0.4gm/0 +PL3()0.4gm/0()
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 3.15 4.24 6.1 7.78 9.52 9.6 10.1 9.27 8.85 7.2 5.67 3.98
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 170 154 148 142 147 146 154 140 144 146 153 148
Run-2
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 1.86 2.3 3.39 3.56 3.7 3.44 3.15 2.25 1.43 2.51 1.31 2
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 280 259 269 232 220 215 219 198 172 148 82 75
Run-2Run-3 PL1()0.4gm/0()
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 2.32 3.02 4.16 5.82 7.46 6.73 7.48 7 6.91 5.05 4.16 2.81
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 158 142 134 133 138 134 145 132 136 135 145 141
Run-3
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 0.15 0.26 1.13 1.59 2.21 2.22 2.52 2.26 1.86 1.03 1.01 0.67
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 106 225 254 205 198 209 221 212 218 215 271 288
Run-3Run-4 PL1()0.4gm/0 +PL3()0.4gm/180 ()
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 1.47 1.71 2.48 3.35 4.83 4.13 4.2 4 4.39 3.02 2.27 1.37
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 134 116 113 109 119 117 123 111 119 119 125 123
Run-4
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 2.08 2.09 1.48 2.01 2.53 1.51 1.78 2.2 2.66 2.5 3.83 3.62
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 113 114 100 129 149 163 211 229 253 264 296 288
Run-4Run-5 PL3()0.4gm/0()
47.3Hz 1X Amp. 2.49 3.42 4.53 6.6 7.41 7.1 8.07 7.78 6.81 5.15 4.34 2.95
(2840rpm) 1X Phase 164 144 143 139 138 140 142 135 133 137 140 138
Run-5
96.6Hz 1X Amp. 4.57 4.25 3.84 3.69 2.93 2.21 2.13 2.93 3.12 3.93 4.19 4.68
(5980rpm) 1X Phase 319 311 308 280 261 224 207 174 153 157 133 132

87
2838rpm47.3Hz 5796rpm96.6Hz

3. 44

88
2838rpm47.3Hz 5796rpm96.6Hz

3. 45

89

MAC

90

[1] Trethewey, M. W., Evensen, H. A., Shaptou, W. R., Combination of
Multiple Input Models and Experimental Modal Analysis for

Identification of Structure Noise Generating Mechanisms With

Application to Forge Hammers, Noise Control Engineering Journal,


21 (1983).
[2] Braun S. and Levran J., Determination of Modal Deformations by
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pp.32-38 (Jan. 1986).

[3] Dossing, O., Operational Deflection Shapes Background,

Measurement and Application, Proceedings of the 5th International


Modal Analysis Conference, 1372 (1987).
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Deflection Shapes, Sound and Vibration, p.18 (Aug. 1988).
[5] Yeager, M., Seevens, R. W. and Shapton, W. R., Correlation of
Operating Deflection Shapes and Modal Test Data, Proceeding of the
6 th ASME, U.S.A., (1988).
[6] Juang J. and Wright J., A Multi-Point Force Appropriation Method
Based upon a Singular Value Decomposition Approach, Seventh
ASME, Las Vegas, Nevada, pp.317-323 (Jan. 1989).
[7] Pan, J., Vold H. and Allemang R., Unbiased Estimation of the
Operation Shapes, Fifteenth International Seminar on Modal
Analysys, Leuven, Belgium, pp.1357-1363 (Sep. 1990).

91
[8] Pan, J., Vold H. and Allemang R., An Application of Unbiased
Estimation of Operating Shapes, Ninth International Modal Analysis
Conference, Florence, Italy, (Apr. 1991).
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Operating Shapes of a Highly-Damped Strucnlre, Eighth
International Modal Analysis Conference, Kissimrnee, U.S.A.,
pp.290-294 (Jan. 1990).
[10] Pan, J., Vold H. and Allemang R., Operating Shapes Estimation as a
Function of Dynamic Loads, Eighth International Modal Analysis
Conference, Kissimmee, U. S. A., pp.307-312 (Jan. 1990).

[11]

(1990)

[12] Johansen, S. and Madsen, K. D., Operating Deflection Shapes a


Fast Developing Technique, Proceeding of the 10th International
Modal Analysis Conference, San Diego, California, 2 pp.1181-1188
(1992).

[13]

(1993)

[14] Richardson, M. H., Is it a Mode Shape, or an Operating Deflection

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[15] Hermans, L. Herman, V., Mathieu, L. and Coppens, D., Modal


Parameter Extraction From In-Operation Data, Proceeding of the
15th International Modal Analysis Conference, Orlando, Florida, 1

92
pp.531-539 (1997).
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Identification During Normal Operating Conditions: an Overview of
the Eureka Project Sinopsys, Proceeding of the 17th International
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Deflection Shapes from Non-Stationary Data, Sound and Vibration,
(June 2000).

[19]

2171-2182

(2001)

[20] Wang, B. T., "Determination of Mode Shapes from the Operational


Deflection Shape," The 8th International Congress on Sound and
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[21]

(2001)

[22]

(2002)

[23] Batel, M., Operational Modal Analysis Another Way of Doing

93
Modal Testing, Sound and Vibration, (Aug. 2002).
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Operating Data," Sound and Vibration Magazine, (Jan. 2003).
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Modal Analysis Tests for Correlating an Automobile Rear
Suspension Model, Proceeding of the 22th IMAC, Dearborn,
Michigan, Paper No.s08p.03.
[26] B. Schwarz and M.H. Richardson, Measurements Required for
Displaying Operating Deflection Shapes, Proceedings of IMAC
XXII, (Jan. 2004).

[27]

25 (2005)

[28]

25-27 (2006)

[29] Surendra N. Ganeriwala (Suri), Zhuang Li, Richardson and Mark


Using Operating Deflection Shapes to Detect Shaft Misalignment
in Rotating Equipment, Proceedings of International Modal
Analysis Conference (IMAC XXVI), (Feb. 2008).
[30] Leonard Meirovitch, Analytical Methods in Vibration, Macmillan
Company, New York, U. S. A., (1967).

[31] Bendat J.S. and Piersol A.G., Random Data Analysis and

Measurement Procedures, Wiley, New York, (1971).


[32] Bendat J. S. and Piersol A. G., Engineering Applications of

94
Correlation and Spectral Analysis, Wiley, New York, (1980).

[33] Ewins D. J.,Modal TestingTheory and Practice, Reserch Studies

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[34] Vibrant Technology Inc., 2001, ME ScopeVES Operatiing Manual.

95
A 0

X p ,i ( )
Tpi,q ( ) = A- 1
X q ,i ( )

2-11

a p ,i + b p ,i + c p ,i
Tpi,q ( ) =(1+ ) = A- 2
0
aq ,i + bq ,i + cq ,i

1 i r p 2
( )
N
a p ,i = r
B ( 2 + )
l2
r =1 0 2
l = +1

i p
( )
N
l2

b p ,i = 2

( 2 + )
2 0
l = +1

N
c p ,i = r i r p
2

( 02 )(B2 ) ( 2 + )
r = +1 r

lim ( 2 + ) = 0 A- 3
0

96
A- 2A- 3

p A- 4
lim T i ( )


q
0 p , q 0 =(1+ )

97
B

cross power spectrum AB

2m
GA, B ( ) = lim
m m

r =1
A ( ) r B* ( ) r

B- 1

m *complex conjugate

value

2m *
GX ' ' ( ) = mlim X p ,i ( ) + U ( ) r X q ,i ( ) + V ( ) r
p ,i , X q ,i m r =1

B- 2

GX ' '
p ,i , X q ,i
( ) = GX p ,i , X q ,i
( ) + GX p , i ,V
( )
B- 3
+GU , X q ,i ( ) + GU ,V ( )

gaussian distributed noise

2m
lim U ( ) r = 0 B- 4
m m
r =1

98
2m
lim
m m

r =1
V ( ) r = 0

B- 5

m B- 3

GX ' '
p ,i , X q ,i
( ) GX p ,i , X q ,i
( ) B- 6

auto power spectrum

GX ' '
p ,i , X p ,i
( ) GX p ,i , X p ,i
( ) + GU ,U ( ) B- 7

GX ' '
q ,i , X q ,i
( ) G X q ,i , X q ,i
( ) + GV ,V ( ) B- 8

99
C MAC

modal assurance criterionMAC

{r } {s }

* 2
{r } {s }
T

MAC ({r } ,{s } ) =


({ } { } ) ({ } { } )
r
T
r
*
s
T
s
*

MAC 1 0

100