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These parameters can be categorized into three groups: (1) blast design parameters, (2) explosive
properties, and (3) rock and discontinuities properties. The burden, spacing between blastholes, bench
height, geometric stiffness ratio (benchheight/burden), drill-hole diameter, hole length, charge depth,
stem height, subdrilling, drilling pattern (square or staggered), hole inclination (vertical or inclined),
blasting type (production or controlled), blasting direction, and blasting sequence (instantaneous or
delayed) are all controllable blast design parameters. In this group of parameters, the burden,
stemming, powder factor, delay timing, and geometric stiffness ratio have the most impact on
backbreak. Konya and Walter (1991) revealed that a higher stiffness ratio can decrease backbreak.
They also concluded that backbreak increases when the burden and/or stemming increases. (Stochastic
Modeling Approach for the Evaluation of Backbreak due to Blasting Operations in Open Pit
Mines ; Hal 2 alinea 2)

Parameter ini
Dapat dikategorikan menjadi tiga kelompok: (1) desain ledakan
Parameter, (2) sifat peledak, dan (3) batuan dan
Sifat diskontinuitas. Beban, jarak antar
Ledakan ledakan, tinggi bangku, rasio kekakuan geometris (bangku
Tinggi / beban), diameter lubang bor, panjang lubang, muatan
Kedalaman, tinggi batang, subdrilling, pola pengeboran (persegi atau
Terhuyung), inklinasi lubang (vertikal atau miring), peledakan
Jenis (produksi atau kontrol), peledakan arah, dan
Urutan peledakan (seketika atau tertunda) adalah semua parameter desain
ledakan terkendali. Dalam kelompok parameter ini, beban, stemming, powder
factor, delay timing,
Dan rasio kekakuan geometris memiliki dampak paling besar
Backbreak Konya dan Walter (1991) mengungkapkan bahwa yang lebih tinggi
Rasio kekakuan bisa menurunkan backbreak. Mereka juga menyimpulkan
Bahwa backbreak meningkat saat beban dan / atau stemming
Meningkat.

2. Low-density explosives will produce low blasthole pressures and investigations have shown that the
lower the blasthole pressure, the less the amount of damage from backbreak (Bhandari 1997). (Hal 2
alinea 2)
3. Iverson et al. (2010) recently evaluated the extent of blast damage from a fully coupled explosive
charge and they showed that backbreak can be reduced by decoupling the charge. (Hal 3, alinea 1)
Saran untuk mengurangi backbreak
4. The third group of parameters contains the physical and mechanical properties of rock and
discontinuities, which include density, porosity, dynamic compressive strength, dynamic tensile
strength, shear strength, dynamic elastic properties, hardness and grain size of intact rock, and
orientation of discontinuities, strength, roughness, and infilling material properties of discontinuities.
All these parameters are uncontrollable and have a vital role in terms
of the rock damage due to blasting (backbreak). Homogeneous rock with high compressive and tensile
strength characteristics does not crack around a charged blasthole as much as rock of low strength,
which is already fractured (Bhandari 1997). (Hal 3 alinea 2) - Analisa Geotek
5. Jia et al. (1998) used numerical modeling and concluded that joints with a dip angle greater than the
friction angle can be considered as one of the most important causes of backbreak. (Hal 3, Alinea 2)
Penyebab Backbreak. (Sudut Kemiringan > Sudut geser dalam / Kohesi)