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CALLAO STATE UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC


ENGINEERING

PROFESSIONAL COLLEGE OF ELECTRICAL


ENGINEERING

TRANSVERSAL TOPIC: MARIO VARGAS


LLOSAS LIFE
GRAMMAR:
FUNCTION. Using the simple past with when clauses to talk
about the order of events in the past.

FORM. Using pronouns to replace direct and indirect objects to


avoid repeating nouns in a description of a persons life.
SONG: The Sound of Silent Simon and Garfunkel

COURSE: Foreign Language I English I

PROFESSOR: Mg. Bluidson Pablo, Cardenas Ledesma

STUDENT: Manrique Atencio, Jerson Fredy

GROUP - CYCLE: 02 T 5

ACADEMIC SEMESTER: 2017 A

CALLAO 2017
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Index:
Dedication... 3
Objectives... 4
1. Chapter One: Grammar Topic
Review...6
Simple Past with when clauses..7
Direct and Indirect Objects... 9

2. Chapter Two: Transversal Topic


Mario Vargas Llosa...... 11

3. Chapter Three: Song


Simon and Garfunkel: Life and Music Career....................... 15
The Sound of Silent: Description, Meaning and Lyrics.. 16
Grammar analysis.... 18

Conclusions.. 20
References.......... 21

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Dedication
I dedicate this work, first to God because he is who keeps us every moment.
To my parents for giving me their advices and all things that I have.
To my professors who are always giving me their experiences to make me a
better professional.

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Objectives:
To learn how to use when clauses to talk about the past
To learn how to replace nouns and phrases with direct and indirect
pronouns.
To know a little more about the best Peruvian writer in our history, Mario
Vargas Llosa

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CHAPTER ONE
GRAMMAR TOPIC

PAST TENSE

WITH WHEN CLAUSES

DIRECT AND INDIRECT

OBJECTS

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REVIEW
PAST TENSE
If we want to talk about when clauses, we need to know the structure of sentences
in past first. We will do a brief review of the grammatical rules in the past tense.

SIMPLE PAST

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


Noun + Verb (Past Tense) Noun + did not + Verb Did + noun + Verb (Base
+ Complement. (Base Form) + Form) + Complement.
Complement.

My girlfriend and I ate You did not go to the Did you like the new
hamburgers yesterday party last weekend. professor?
My son grew up in his Carol and Ivan did not Did you visit your
grandparents house go to college together. uncles on last
vacations?

TO BE (PAST FORM)

Affirmative Negative Interrogative


Noun + was/were + Noun + was/were + not + Was/were + noun +
Complement. Complement. Complement.

Sammy was in my You were not in the Were they in the


house for my birthday. last exam. meeting?
Jean and Michael Chris was not sick for Where were Miriam
were couple two years a long time. and Marie last night?
ago.

Sentences with when clauses are more easily if we know the past tense perfectly.

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TIME CLAUSES AND THE ORDER OF PAST EVENTS
When we talk about facts that succeeded in past, it is common that we connect
sentences along the time. Time clauses can show the order of events in the past.
After an Italian duchess brought ice cream to France, it became popular.
Before there were freezers, people needed ice to make frozen desserts.
When scientists found new ways to make ice cream, it became cheaper.
Ice cream became cheaper when scientists found new ways to make it.

PAST WITH WHEN CLAUSES


Now we are going to talk about when clauses. We use when to refer to the time that
something started.
I played in a football club when I was young.
I bought a lot of things when I traveled to Machu Picchu.
You and your family visited me when I was sick.
Claudia and Carlos worked together when they were in USA.

FUNCTION. The action in when clause happens at the same time or before the other
event in the sentence
John got a dog when he was six. (The clauses were occurring at the same
time.)
Mark was so happy when he knew his son was born. (First his son was born
and then he was so happy.)

FORM RULES
1. When clauses can go at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

When Jane got a new car, she was excited.


I loved going to the theater when I was at the university.
I played videogames every day when I lived with my parents.
When I broke my leg, my friends always visited me.

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2. When we make temporal phrases we must take into account that they are formed
by a main and a subordinate phrase (of time). You must consider this to place
the comma if the subordinate goes before (The subordinate phrase always goes
with when). We always use comma if a when clause comes at the beginning.

When Steve was eighteen, he was accepted into the army ().
When Steve was eighteen he was accepted into the army (X).
I felt in love when I saw her for the first time ().
I felt in love, when I saw her for the first time (X).

3. ANSWERING QUESTIONS WITH TIME CLAUSES


We often answer information questions with when clauses. In conversation, these
answers do not usually contain a main clause (we only need a subordinate
clause).

When did you start studying English?


When I was 12. (Only when clause).

When did you get the idea for your invention?


When I saw clouds in the sky

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OBJECTS
What is an object?
An object is one of the five major elements of clause structure. The other four are
subject, verb, adjunct and complement.
Objects are typically noun phrases (a noun or pronoun and any dependent words
before or after it). Objects normally follow the verb in a clause:
Everyone likes her. She knows everyone.
They didnt take their mountain bikes with them.
A: Have you seen the car keys?
B: Yes I had them earlier.

There are direct objects and indirect objects. A direct object (in bold) is the thing
or person that is affected by the action of the verb. An indirect object
(underlined) is usually a person (or animal) who receives a direct object:
They gave her a present when she left.
Can you get me some butter?

A. DIRECT OBJECTS
A direct object shows who or what the action of the verb affects:
That computer hasnt got a mouse.
Nobody writes letters these days.
Does she play tennis?

B. INDIRECT OBJECTS
An indirect object is usually a person or an animal. The indirect object
(underlined) receives or is affected by the direct object (in bold). An indirect object
always needs a direct object with it and always comes before the direct object:
She gave the dog its dinner.
Do I owe you some money?

C. VERBS AND OBJECTS


Some verbs (often called transitive verbs) need an object to complete their
meaning. Some verbs (often called intransitive verbs) do not take an object.
Some verbs need both a direct object and an indirect object. Some verbs can
take a wh-clause or a that-clause as an object.

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Some examples of verbs and objects:

verb + object We really enjoyed the evening. Thanks.


verb + no object Paula smiled and left.
verb + two objects They gave us coffee.
verb + wh-clause I cant believe what he told me.
verb + that-clause I know (that) youre telling the truth.

Many phrasal verbs (underlined below) take an object:

We wont give out your email address to other companies.

Theyve put the price of fuel up again.

All prepositional verbs (underlined below) take an object after the preposition:

I dont listen to the radio much.

It depends on the weather.

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CHAPTER TWO
TRANSVERSAL TOPIC

MARIO VARGAS LLOSA

LIFE

BOOKS

AWARDS

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MARIO VARGAS LLOSA
THE MOST TRANSCENDENTAL WRITER OF PERU

Mario Vargas Llosa is a Peruvian writer, politician and


journalist. Born in Arequipa (March 28, 1936). He spent
his childhood between Bolivia and Peru. He studied
Literature and Law at the San Marcos National
University and began to collaborate professionally in
newspapers and magazines, being editor of Los
Cuadernos de Composicin and the magazine
Literatura.

In 1958 he was awarded with the scholarship "Javier


Prado" at the Madrid University, where he obtained a
PhD in Philosophy and Letters. A year later he moved
to Paris, where he worked in different places until he
got a job into the France Press Agency and later on the
French Television Radio, where he met numerous Spanish-American writers.

He published his first work, Los jefes (1959), with hardly twenty-three years, and
with his novel La ciudad y los perros (1963) gained a prestige among the Ibero-
American writers like Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Carlos Fuentes or Julio Cortzar.

In 1965 he joined to the Cuban magazine Casa de las Amricas as a member of


his editorial board and remained in it until 1971.

Then he travels to New York, invited to the World Congress of the PEN Club, and
installs his residence in London, where he works as a professor of Hispanic
American Literature at Queen Mary College.

During this period he also worked as a


translator for UNESCO in Greece, until
1974 his life and that of his family lapsed in
Europe, residing in Paris, London and
Barcelona.

In 1975 he began a series of


cinematographic works and in 1976 he was
elected president of the PEN International
Club, a position he held until 1979.

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In the 80s he became an active participant in Peruvian
politics. Leader of the Democratic Front, Mario Vargas
Llosa appeared as the head of list in the Peruvian elections
of 1990, in which he was defeated by Alberto Fujimori.

After that, he decided to move to Europe and devote


himself entirely to literature; in 1993 he obtained Spanish
nationality, and a year later he was appointed member of
the Spanish Royal Academy. Mario Vargas Llosa has
been distinguished, among many other awards, with
prizes like Prince of Asturias (1986), Cervantes (1994) and
Nobel of Literature (2010).

THE MOST IMPORTANT BOOKS OF MARIO VARGAS LLOSA

Los jefes (1959)


La ciudad y los perros (1963)
La casa verde (1966)
Los cachorros (1967)
Conversacin en La Catedral (1969)
Pantalen y las visitadoras (1973)
La ta Julia y el escribidor (1977)
La Fiesta del Chivo (2000)
El Paraso en la otra esquina (2003)
Travesuras de la nia mala (2006)
El sueo del celta (2010)
El hroe discreto (2013)
Cinco esquinas (2016)

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CHAPTER THREE
SONG

THE SOUND OF
SILENT

SIMON AND
GARFUNKEL

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SIMON & GARFUNKEL

Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk rock duo consisting of singer-
songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. They were one of the
best-selling music groups of the 1960s and became counterculture icons
of the decade's social revolution, alongside artists such as the Beatles,
the Beach Boys, and Bob Dylan. Their biggest hitsincluding "The
Sound of Silence" (1964), "Mrs. Robinson" (1968), "The Boxer" (1969),
and "Bridge over Troubled Water" (1970)reached number one on
singles charts worldwide.

Their often rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements, which


resulted in their breakup in 1970. Their final studio record, Bridge over
Troubled Water (released in January of that year), was their most
successful, becoming one of the world's best-selling albums.

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THE SOUND OF SILENT

ARTIST: Simon and Garfunkel


ALBUM: Wednesday Morning, 3 A.M.
RELEASE YEAR: 2002
AWARDS: Grammy Hall Fame
GENDER: Pop

MEANING:
Although the meaning of the letter is written after the assassination of John F.
Kennedy, the final message can be translated into many spiritual, ethical and
personal feelings of each.

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LYRICS

Hello darkness, my old friend


I've come to talk with you again
Because a vision softly creeping
Left its seeds while I was sleeping
And the vision that was planted in my brain
Still remains
Within the sound of silence

In restless dreams I walked alone


Narrow streets of cobblestone
'Neath the halo of a street lamp
I turned my collar to the cold and damp
When my eyes were stabbed by the flash of a neon light
That split the night
And touched the sound of silence

And in the naked light I saw


Ten thousand people, maybe more
People talking without speaking
People hearing without listening
People writing songs that voices never share
And no one dared
Disturb the sound of silence

Fools, said I, you do not know


Silence like a cancer grows
Hear my words that I might teach you
Take my arms that I might reach you
But my words, like silent raindrops fell
And echoed in the wells of silence

And the people bowed and prayed


To the neon god they made
And the sign flashed out its warning
In the words that it was forming
And the sign said, the words of the prophets are written on the subway walls
And tenement halls
And whispered in the sounds of silence

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GRAMMAR ANALISIS:

Verbs Nouns

Have Darkness
Come Friend
Talk Vision
Leave Seed
Sleep Brain
Plant Sound
Remain Silence
Walk Dream
Turn Street
Stab Cobblestone
Split Halo
Touch Lamp
Say Collar
Speak Eyes
Write Flash
Share Neon
Disturb Light
Know Night
Grow People
Hear Voices
Teach Cancer
Reach Words
Fall Raindrops
Make Wells
Warn Sign
Whisper Prophets
Pray Subway walls
God
Tenement Halls

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Adjectives Pronouns

Old I
Softly You
Restless We
Narrow
Cold
Damp
Naked
Fool

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Conclusions
The when clauses help us to specify the moment in things was occurring.
Direct and Indirect objects are used to replace things that have named before.
Mario Vargas Llosa is the highest representative of our literature at an
international level.

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References

- CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY TIME CLAUSES


http://www.cambridge.org/grammarandbeyond/wp-
content/uploads/2013/10/Grammar-and-Beyond-level-2-unit-5.pdf

- CAMBRIDGE DICTIONARY OBJECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS


http://dictionary.cambridge.org/es/gramatica/gramatica-britanica/about-words-
clauses-and-sentences/objects

- OPEN MIND 2ND EDITION UNIT 11 GREAT LIVES PAGES 110 114.

- BLUEBLOC - TIME CLAUSES


http://www.blueblocnotes.com/grammar/time-clauses

- BIOGRAFIAS Y VIDAS MARIO VARGAS LLOSA


https://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/v/vargas_llosa.htm

- GOOGLE PLAY MUSIC LYRICS SOUND OF SILENT


https://play.google.com/music/preview/Txkxnbyzin3zzyp7565mphyo66y?lyrics=1&u
tm_source=google&utm_medium=search&utm_campaign=lyrics&pcampaignid=kp-
lyrics

- WIKIPEDIA SIMON AND GARFUNKEL


https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_and_Garfunkel

- YOUTUBE THE SOUND OF SILENCE ORIGINAL VERSION FROM 1964


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zLfCnGVeL4

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