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MODEL

COURSE

Radar Navigation at Operational Level

RADAR NAVIGATION,
RADAR PLOTTING AND
USE OF ARPA

- -
IMO

International Maritime Organization


Model Course 1.07

Navigation at the Operational Level

Radar Navigation, Radar Plotting


and
Use of ARPA
First published in 1991 by the
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION
4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR

Revised edition 1999

Printed in the United Kingdom


by CPC The Piinters, Poitsmouth

2 4 6 8 1 0 9 7 5 3

ISBN 92-801-61 10-5

IMO PUBLICATION

Sales number: T107E

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IMO wishes to express its sincere appreciation to the


IVorwegian Maritime Directorate for its valuable
assistance and co-operation.

Copyright O IMO 1999

All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may, for sales purposes,
be produced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted
in any form or by any means, electronic, electrostatic,
magnetic tape, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise,
without prior permission in writing from the
International Maritime Organization.
CONTENTS

Foreword v

Introduction 1

Part A1 : Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting - Course Framework 5


Aims
0bjective
Entry standards
Course certificate, diploma or document
Course intake limitations
Staff requirements
Teaching facilities and equipment
Teaching aids
IMO references
Textbooks

Part B1: Course Outline and Timetable


Course outline
Course timetable

Part C1: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


lntroduction
1 Describe the basic theory and operation of a marine radar system
2 Set up and operate radar in accordance with manufacturer's instructions
3 Perform manual radar plotting
4 Use radar to ensure safe navigation
5 Use radar for avoid collisions or close encounters

Part D l : Instructor Manual - Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting 21


lntroduction
Exercises
Case studies
Example of lesson plan

Part A2: Use of ARPA - Course Framework


Aims
Objectives
Entry standards
Course certificate, diploma or document
Course intake limitations
Staff requirements
Teaching facilities and equipment
Teaching aids, IMO references and textbooks
Part B2: Course Outline and Timetable
Course outline
Course timetable

Part C2: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


Ir~troduction
6 Describe an ARPA system
7 Operate an ARPA system

Part D2: lnstructor Manual - Use of ARPA


General
Lectures
Simulator exercises
Preparing and conducting simulator exercises
Recommended scenarios
Monitoring of exercises
Debriefing
Guidance on specific subject areas
Guidance notes
Example of lesson plan

Appendix to lnstructor Manual

Attachment: Guidance on the implementation of IMO model courses.


Foreword

Since its inception the International Maritime Organization has recognized the importance of
human resources to the development of the maritime industry and has given the highest
priority to assisting developing countries in enhancing their maritime training capabilities
through the provision or improvement of maritime training facilities at national and regional
levels. IMO has also responded to the needs of developing countries for postgraduate training
for senior personnel in administration, ports, shipping comparlies and maritime training
institutes by establishing the World Maritime University in Malmo,Sweden, in 1983.

Following the earlier adoption of the International Convention on Standards of Training,


Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, a number of IMO Member Governments
had suggested that IMO should develop model training courses to assist in the implementation
of the Convention and in achieving a more rapid transfer of information and skills regarding
new developments in maritime technology. IMO training advisers and cons~~ltants also
subsequently determined from their visits to training establishments in developing countries
that the provision of model courses could help instructors improve the quality of their existing
courses and enhance their effectiveness in meeting the requirements of the Convention and
implementing the associated Conference and IMO Assembly resolutions.

In addition, it was appreciated that a comprehensive set of short model courses in various
fields of maritime training would supplement the instruction provided by maritime academies
and allow administrators and tecl-11-~icalspecialists already employed in maritime
administrations, ports and shipping companies to improve their knowledge and skills in certain
specialized fields. IMO has therefore developed the current series of model courses in
response to these generally identified needs and with the generous assistance of Norway.

These model courses may be used by any training institution and the Organization is prepared
to assist developing countries in implementing any course when the requisite financing is
available.

W. A. O'NEIL

Secretary-General
Introduction

Purpose of the model courses

The purpose of the IMO model courses is to assist maritime training institutes and their
teaching staff in organizing and introducing new training courses, or in enhancing, updating
or supplementing existing training material where the quality and effectiveness of the training
courses may thereby be improved.

It is not the intention of the model course programme to present instructors with a rigid
"teaching package" which they are expected to "follow blindly". Nor is it the intention to
substitute audio-visual or "programmed" material for the instructor's presence. As in all training
endeavours, the knowledge, skills and dedication of the instructors are the key components
in the transfer of knowledge and skills to those being trained through IMO model course
material.

Because educational systems and the cultural backgrounds of trainees in maritime subjects
vary considerably from country to country, the model course material has been designed to
identify the basic entry requirements and trainee target group for each course in universally
applicable terms, and to specify clearly the technical content and levels of knowledge and skill
necessaryto meet the technical intent of IMO conventions and related to its recommendations.

Use of the model course

To use the model course the instructor should review the course plan and detailed syllabus,
taking into account the information provided under the entry standards specified in the course
framework. The actual level of knowledge and skills and the prior technical education of the
trainees should be kept in mind during this review, and any areas within the detailed syllabus
which may cause difficulties because of differences between the actual trainee entry level and
that assumed by the course designer should be identified. To compensate for such
differences, the instructor is expected to delete from the course, or reduce the emphasis on,
items dealing with knowledge or skills already attained by the trainees. He should also identify
any academic knowledge, skills or technical training which they may not have acquired.

By analysing the detailed syllabus and the academic knowledge required to allow training in
the technical area to proceed, the instructor can design an appropriate pre-entry course or,
alternatively, insert the elements of academic knowledge required to support the technical
training elements concerned at appropriate points within the technical course.

Adjustment of the course objective, scope and content may also be necessary if in your
maritime industry the trainees completing the course are to undertake duties which differ from
the course objectives specified in the model course.

Within the course plan the course designers have indicated their assessment of the time which
should be allotted to each area of learning. However, it must be appreciated that these
allocations are arbitrary and assume that the trainees have fully met all entry requirements of
the course. The instructor should therefore review these assessments and may need to re-
allocate the time required to achieve each specific learning objective or training outcome.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Lesson plans

Having adjusted the course content to suit the trainee intake and any revision of the course
objectives, the instructor should draw up lesson plans based on the detailed syllabus. The
detailed syllabus contains specific references to the textbooks or teaching material proposed
to be used in the course. Where no adjustment has been found necessary in the learning
objectives of the detailed syllabus, the lesson plans may simply consist of the detailed syllabus
with keywords or other reminders added to assist the instructor in making his presentation of
the material.

I Presentation

The presentation of concepts and methodologies must be repeated in various ways until the
instructor is satisfied that the trainee has attained each specific learning objective or training
objective. The syllabus is laid out in learning objective format and each objective specifies a
required performance or, what the trainee must be able to do as the learning or training
outcome. Taken as a whole, these objectives aim to meet the knowledge, understanding and
proficiency specified in the appropriate tables of the STCW Code.

Implementation

For the course to run smoothly and to be effective, considerable attention must be paid to the
availability and use of:

Properly qualified instructors


Support staff
Rooms and other spaces
Equipment
Suggested references, textbooks, technical papers
Other reference material.

Thorough preparation is the key to successful implementation of the course. IMO has
produced a booklet entitled "Guidance on the implementation of IMO model courses", which
deals with this aspect in greater detail.
INTRODUCTION

Training and the STCW 1995 Convention

The standards of competence that have to be met by seafarers are defined in Part A of the
STCW Code in the Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers
Convention, as amended in 1995. This IMO model course has been revised and updated to
cover the competences in STCW 1995.

In common with the Convention, the course is organised under the seven functions at three
levels of responsibility. Specifically this course covers the radar navigation and ARPA parts
of the function Navigation at the Operational Level.

For ease of reference, the course is divided into separate sections.

Part A provides the framework for the course with its aims and objectives and notes on the
suggested teaching facikties and equipment. A list of useful teaching aids, IMO references
and textbooks is also included.

Part B provides an outline of lectures, demonstrations and simulator exercises for the course,
together with a suggested sequence and timetable. From the teaching and learning point of
view, it is more important that the trainee achieves the minimum standard of competence
defined in the STCW Code than that a strict timetable is followed. Depending on their
experience and ability, some students will take longer to become proficient in some topics than
in others.

Part C gives the Detailed Teaching Syllabus. This is based on the theoretical and practical
knowledge specified in the STCW Code. It is written as a series of learning objectives, in other
words what the trainee is expected to be able to do as a result of the teaching and training.
Each of the objectives is expanded to define a required performance of knowledge,
understanding and proficiency. IMO references, textbook references and suggested teaching
aids are included to assist the teacher in designing lessons.

Part D contains an Instructor Manual with additional explanations, exercises and an exarr~ple
lesson plan.

'The Convention defines the minimum standards to be maintained in Part A of the STCW
Code. Mandatory provisions concerning Training and Assessment are given in Section A-116
of the STCW Code. These provisions cover: qualification of instructors; supervisors as
assessors; in-service training; assessment of competence; and training and assessmentwithin
an institution. The corresponding Part B of the STCW Code contains non-mandatoryguidance
on training and assessment.

The criteria for evaluating competence specified in the competence tables of Part A of the
STCW Code have to be used in the assessment of all competences listed in those tables.
RADAR NAVIGA1-IONAND PLOTING

Explanatory note

Radar Navigation, Plotting and Use of ARPA

The course consists of seven main training objectives or training outcomes. Objectives 1-5
deal entirely with Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting.

Objectives 6 and 7 deal with ARPA.

There are separate Parts A, B, C and D for objectives 1-5 and 6-7. Parts A l , B1, C1 and D l
refer to Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting. Parts A2, B2, C2 and D2 refer to ARPA.

This allows the course to be taught:

as a complete unit covering all training objectives 1-7;

only as a Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting course covering objectives 1-5.

The Radar Navigation only course is consistent with the note in Table A-Ill1 of the STCW
Code which says:

"Training and Assessment in the use of ARPA is not required for those who serve exclusively
on ships not fitted with ARPA. This limitation shall be reflected in the endorsement issued to
the seafarer concerned".

Trainees requiring to extend radar navigation and plotting skills to include the use of ARPA
may follow a course based on objectives 6 and 7. Instructors s h o ~ ~include
ld a review of radar
navigation and plotting, the depth of which will depend on the needs of the trainees.

Validation

The information contained in this document has been validated by the Sub-Corrrmittee on
Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for use by technical advisers, consultants and
experts for the training and certification of seafarers so that the minimum standards
implemented may be as uniform as possible. Validation in the context of this document means
that no grounds have been found to object to its content. The Sub-committee has not granted
its approval to the document, as it considers that this work must not be regarded as an official
interpretation of the Convention.

In reaching a decision in this regard, the Sub-committee was guided by the advice of a
Validation Group comprised of representatives designated by ILO and IMO.
PART A l : COURSE FRAMEWORK

Part A1 : Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting:


Course Framework
Aims
This course provides training in the basic theory and use of radar for officers in charge of a
navigational watch. It is based on the guidance on training in radar observation and plotting
and in the operational use of ARPA in Section 6-1/12 of the International Convention on
Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978, as amended in
1995 (STCW 1995). This model course aims to meet the minimum training standards in Table
A-Ill1 of STCW 1995. This guidance supersedes the recorr~mendationsannexed to
Resolutions A.482(Xll) and A.483(Xll) adopted by IMO in 1981.

This model course aims to meet the mandatory minimum requirements for knowledge,
understanding and proficiency in Table A-Ill1 of STCW 1995. The aspects covered include
the theory necessary to understand how radar information is obtained and displayed, the
limitations and accuracy of that information, the formation and recognition of unwanted
responses, the correct use of operational controls to obtain an optimal display and checks on
performance of the set.

The various modes of display available and the choice of a suitable mode for a particular
application are covered, together with the effect that changes in the course or speed of "own"
or target ship have on the appearance of the display.

The course also covers the recognition of critical targets, the measurement of bearings and
distances, and the use of these for fixing the ship's position and maintaining a plot of the
movement of other ships as an aid to collision avoidance. Exercises in the application of the
International Regl-~lations
for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG) make use of the resulting
plots.

Objective
Atrainee successfuIly completing this course and meeting the required performance standards
will recognize when radar should be in use; will select a suitable mode and range setting for
the circumstances; will be able to set the controls for optimal performance; and will be aware
of the limitations of the equipment in detecting targets and in terms of accuracy.

When within range of the coast, the trainee will be able to compare the radar display with the
chart, select suitable conspicuous land targets and use these targets to fix his position.

The trainee will also be aware of the need to maintain a continuing plot of ship targets which
may pose a potential threat of collision; and he will be able to derive from the plot the
necessary information about other ships' courses, speeds and nearest approaches to enable
action to be taken in ample time, in accordance with COLREG to prevent a close-quarters
situation arising.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLO'TTING

Entry standards
This course is principally intended for candidates for certification as officers in charge of a
navigational watch. Before entering the course, trainees should have completed a minimum
period of six months at sea and preferably have gained some experience of bridge
watchkeeping.

Trainee officers for certification as officer in charge of a navigational watch should have
completed, or be following a planned and structured programme of training. Shipboard training
should include tasks or projects relating to bridge work and watchkeeping duties. Instructors
may find evidence of the standard attained by trainees in the prospective officer's training
record book.

The course would also be of value to others using radar, e.g. those working in such craft as
harbour and customs patrol launches, in which case the entry standards may be adjusted to
suit the particular circumstances. However, the intake of trainees for each course should
normally have similar backgrounds.

Course certification, diploma or document


On successful completion of the course and assessments, a document may be issued
certifying that the holder has successfully completed a course of training which meets or
exceeds the level of knowledge and competence specified in Table A-Ill1 of STCW 1995.

A certificate may be issued only by centres approved by the Administration.

Course intake limitations


Course intake should be limited to not more than two or three trainees per available radar
display to allow each trainee sufficient practice in the operation of the equipment.

Staff requirements
The instructor shall have appropriate training in instructional techniques and training methods
(STCW Code Section A-116). Depending on the complexity of the exercises set, an assistant
instructor with similar experience is desirable if more than four own-ship stations are in use for
practical exercises.

Teaching facilities and equipment


The course requires a marine radar simulator with an instructor station and sufficient own-ship
displays to accommodate the nurr~berof trainees.

The equipment must incorporate at least two own-ship stations (STCW Code A-1112 Part 1
paragraph 4.3). It must be capable of simulating the operational capabilities of navigational
radar equipment which meets all applicable performance standards of IMO. The performance
standards for radar equipment are given in Assembly resolutions A.222(Vll), A.278(Vlll),
A.477(Xl I) and A.832(19).

A plotting table, plotting charts and instruments should be provided adjacent to each set. A
classroom equipped with a blackboard or flipchart and an overhead projector, slide projector
or viewgraph, as appropriate, is also needed for teaching the theoretical part of the course.
PART Al: COURSE FRAMEWORK

Teaching aids (A)


A1 Instructor Manual (Part D of this course)
A2 Video cassette player
A3 ARPA Video: Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), Code No. 154

Available from: Videotel Marine International Limited


84 Newman Street
London W1 P 3LD, UK
Tel: 44 (0)20 7299 1800
Fax: 44 (0)20 7299 1818

A4 Manufacturer's Operational Manual (Radar)


A5 Manufacturer's Operational Manual (ARPA)

IMO references (R)


R1 STCW 95 (IMO-938)
R2 IMO Workshop Material on Implementationof the Revised STCW Convention (IMO-972)
R3 Assembly resolution A.477(Xll): Performance standards for radar equipment
R4 The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (IMO-904)
R5 Assembly resolution A.823(19): Performance standards for automatic radar plotting aids
R6 Assembly resolution A.424(XI): Performance standards for gyro compasses
R7 Assembly resolution A.478(XII): Performance standards for devices to indicate speed
and distance
R8 Assembly resolution A.824(19): Performance standards for devices to indicate speed
R9 Assembly resolution A.422(XI): Performance standards for automatic radar plotting
aids

Textbooks (T)
TI W. Burger, Radar Observer's Handbook for Merchant Navy Officers, 7th ed. (Glasgow,
Brown, Son and Ferguson, 1983) (ISBN 0-85174-443-5)
T2 A.N. Cockcroft and J.N.F. Lameijer, A guide to the Collision Avoidance Rules, 5th ed.
(Oxford, Heinemann Professional Publishing, 1996) (ISBN 0-434-90274-8)
T3 R. Lownsborough and D. Calcutt, Electronic Aids to Navigation: Radar and ARPA
(London, Edward Arnold, 1993) (ISBN 0-340-59258-3)
T4 Capt. H Subramaniam, Shipborne Radar, (Vijaya Publications, Mumbai)
[T5 A.G. Bole and W.O. Dineley, Radar and ARPA Manual (Oxford, Heinemann
Professional Publishing, 1990) (ISBN 0-434-90118-O).] Out of print 1998

Details of distributors of IMO publications that maintain a permanent stock of all IMO
publications may be found on the IMO web site at http://www.imo.org

IMO Assembly Resolutions applicable to navigation and watchkeeping simulation are listed in
a footnote to the STCW Code Section 8-1/12, paragraph 37.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Part B1: Course Outline and Timetable

Function: Navigation at the Operational Level

Competence: Use of radar and ARPA to maintain safety of navigation

Course Outline
Knowledge, understanding and proficiency Lecture Demonstration Simulator
Hours Hours Hours
1 Describe the Basic Theory and Operation of a Marine
Radar System
1.1 Fundamental principles of radar 4.0 1.O
1.2 Safe distances 0.25
1.3 Radiation hazards and precautions 0.25
1.4 Characteristics of radar sets and factors affecting
performance 3.0
1.5 Factors external to the radar set affecting detection 2.0
1.6 Factors which might cause faulty interpretation 1.O
1.7 Performance standards - Resolution A.477(Xll) 1.O

11.5 1.O
2 Set Up and Operate Radar in Accordance with
Manufacturer's Instructions
2.1 Set up and maintain radar display 2.0 2.0 1.O
2.2 Measure ranges and bearings 1.O 1.O 1.O

3.0 3.0 2.0


3 Perform Manual Radar Plotting
3.1 Construct the relative motion triangle 2.0 0.5
3.2 Determine course, speed and aspect of other ships 2.0 1.O
3.3 Determine CPA and TCPA 1.O 1.O
3.4 Recognize the effect of course and speed changes 1.O 1.O
3.5 Report radar plot data 0.5 1.O

6.5 4.0
0.5
4 Use Radar to Ensure Safe Navigation
4.1 Fix vessel's position by radar 0.5 1.O
4.2 Identify aids to radar navigation and safety 0.5
4.3 Use parallel indexing in radar navigation 1.O 1.O 1.O

2.0 1.o 2.0


5 Use Radar to Avoid Collisions or Close Encounters
5.1 Application of COLREGS to avoid collision or close
encounters 2.0 4.0

2.0 4.0
Subtotal 1-5 (Radar Navigation and Radar
Plotting) 25.0 5.5 12.0
PART B1: COURSE OUTLINE AND TIMETABLE

Function: Navigation at the Operational Level

Competence: Use of radar and ARPA to maintain safety of navigation

- - - - - --

Course Outline continued


Knowledge, understanding and proficiency Lecture Demonstration Simulator
Hours Hours Hours
6 Describe an A RPA System
6.1 ARPA system display characteristics 0.5
6.2 IMO performance standards for ARPA 0.5
6.3 Acquisition of targets 0.25
6.4 Tracking capabilities and limitations 0.25 2.0'
6.5 Processing delays 0.5

2.0 2.0
7 Operate an ARPA System
7.1 Set up and maintain an ARPA display 0.5
7.2 Obtain target information 0.5
7.3 Errors of interpretation of target data 1 .O
7.4 Errors in displayed data identified and explained 1.5 0.5
7.5 System operational tests to determine data accuracy 0.5 0.5
7.6 Risks of over-reliance on ARPA 1 .O
7.7 Obtain information from ARPA displays 14.0*
7.8 Application of COLREGS

4.0
16.0
Subtotals 6-7 (Use of ARPA) 6.0 0.0 18.0

Totals 1-7 (whole course) 1 31.0 5.5 30.0

* Since Required performance 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5; and 7.3, 7.6, 7.7 and 7.8 are handled
simultaneously, it is impractical to recommend separate simulator time for each
performance element.

The lecture hours and simulator hours are for guidance only. Instructors may wish to
reduce the time allocated to lectures, and increase the time spent on demonstrations and
the simulator depending on the needs of the trainees.
A
0
Function: Navigation at the Operational Level

Competence: Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting

Course Timetable
L = Lecture D = Demonstration S = Simulator
Period/Day Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5

1st Period 1 Fundamental Theory 1.4 Radar set 2 Settlng Up and 2.2 Measurement of 3.2 Course, speed and
(1H hrs.) characteristics Maintaining Displays range and bearing aspect of other ships
(continued) (continued)
2.1 Use of controls
(continued)

2nd Period 1.1 Fundamental 1.4 Radar set 2.1 Use of controls 2.2 Measurement 3.2 Course, speed and
(1H hrs) principles characteristics (continued) concluded aspect of other ships
(continued) (concluded) (concluded)
3 Plotting
1.5 Extemal factors 3.3 CPA and TCPA
affecting detection 3.1 Relative motion

3rd Period 1.1 Fundamental 1.5 External factors 2.1 Use of controls 3.1 Relative motion 3.3 CPA and TCPA
(1% hrs) principles affecting detection (continued) (concluded) (concluded)
(continued) (concluded)
3.4 Speed changes

4th Period 1.1 Fundamental 1.6 Factors which may 2.1 Use of controls 3.2 Course, speed and 3.4 The effect of course
(I1%hrs) principles cause faulty (concluded) aspect of other ships andspeedchanges
(concluded) Interpretation (concluded)

1.2 Magnetic compass 1.7 Performance


safe distances standard

1.3 Radiation hazards

1.4 Radar set


characteristics
Period/Day Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 9 Day 10

1st Period 3.5 Reporting format and 4.3 Parallel Indexing 5.1 COLREG and the
(1H hrs) procedures techniques use of radar
(concluded) (concluded)

5 Radar and COLREG 6 Review and Flnal


Assessment
5.1 COLREG and the
use of Radar

2nd Period 4 The Use of Radar in 5.1 COLREG and the use of 6 Review and Final
(1 H hrs) Navigation radar (continued) Assessment
(continued)
4.1 Position fixing

3rd Period 4.2 Aids to radar navigation 5.1 COLREG and the use 6 Revlew and Anal
(1M hrs) of radar (continued) Assessment
4.3 Parallel indexing (concluded)
techniques

4th Period 4.3 Parallel indexing 5.1 COLREG and the use
(1(/2 hrs) techniques (continued) of radar (continued)

Teaching staff should note that timetables are suggestions only as regards sequence and length of time allocated to each objective. These factors may be
adapted by lecturers to suit individual groups of trainees depending on their experience, ability, equipment and staff available for training.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Part C1: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


Introduction

The detailed teaching syllabus is presented as a series of learning objectives. The objective,
therefore, describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that the specified knowledge or
skill has been transferred and competence achieved.

Thus each training outcome is supported by a number of related performance elements in


which the trainee is required to be proficient. The teaching syllabus shows the Required
performance expected of the trainee in the tables that follow.

In order to assist the instructor, references are shown to indicate IMO references and
publications, textbooks and teaching aids that instructors may wish to use in preparing and
presenting their lessons.

The material listed in the course framework has been used to structure the detailed teaching
syllabus; in particular,

Teaching aids (indicated by A)


IMO references (indicated by R) and
Textbooks (indicated by T)

will provide valuable information to instructors. The abbreviations used are:

pa: paragraph

The following are examples of the use of references:

"A?" refers to the Instructor Manual in Part D of this model course

"R7-Annex pa 2.1" refers to Assembly Resolution A.478(Xll), paragraph 2.1 of the Annex

"TI" refers to the Radar Observer's Handbook

Note

In designing lessons from the Detailed Teaching Syllabus, instructors should aim to produce
exercises which enable students to demonstrate the practical application of the course theory
and knowledge. In particular students must develop an understanding of the implications of
possible errors and other factors affecting radar performance and accuracy. The practical
significance of these factors to the proper use of radar as an aid to navigation is as important
as the knowledge itself.
PART C1: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

lM0 Textbooks, Teaching


Function: Navigation at the Operational Level Reference Bibliography Aid

Competence: Knowledge of the Fundamentals of R1


STCW Code
Radar and Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA) Table A-llll

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency:


Ability to operate and to interpret and analyse
information obtained from radar

Objectives are:

1 Describe The Basic Theory and Operation of


a Marine Radar System

2 Set Up and Operate Radar in Accordance


with Manufacturer's Instructions

3 Perform Manual Radar Plotting

4 Use Radar to Ensure Safe Navigation

5 Use Radar to Avoid Collisions or Close


Encounters

6 Describe an ARPA System

7 Operate an ARPA System.


RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

R1 STCW
1 Describe the Basic Theory and Code B-1112
Operation of a Marine Radar System
(12.5 hours)

Required performance:
1.1 Fundamental principles of radar are
described correctly (5 hours)

.1 explains the principles of range and bearing measurement pa 4.1

.2 states the function and siting of components pa 4.1

Required performance:

1.2 Safe distances are explained correctly


(0.25 hour)

.1 explains the importance of not storing radar spares nearer


to magnetic compasses than the specified safe distances pa 4.3

Required performance:

1.3 Radiation hazards and precautions are


stated correctly (0.25 hour)

.1 states the safety precautions necessary in the vicinity of


open equipment and the radiation hazard near antennae pa 4.4
and open waveguides

Required performance:

1.4 Characteristics of radar sets and factors RI STCW TIK~


affecting performance and accuracy are Code B-1/12
explained with reference to detection of
targets (3 hours)

.1 states the relationship between maximum range and pulse


recurrence frequency pa 4.1

.2 'states the relationship between detection range and


transmitted energy (power and pulse length) pa 4.1

.3 states the relationship between minimum range and pulse


length pa 4.1

.4 explains the effects on bearing and range accuracy of


beam width, heading marker error, centring error, yawing, pa 4.1
parallax, variable range marker, gyro error
PART C1: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.5 explains the effects on bearing and range discrimination of


beam width, spot size, plan position indicator tube size, pulse
length, gain

Required performance:

1.5 Factors external to the radar set affecting radar


R1 STCW TIIT3
detection are clearly identified (2 hours) Code B-1/12

.1 uses the equation for the distance to the radar horizon and
explains the relationship between antenna location and
detection ranges

.2 explains the effect of variations in refraction on radar detection


range (super refraction, sub refraction, surface duct, elevated
duct)

.3 states the effect of precipitation on radar detection ranges


(rain, hail, snow, fog)

.4 identifies blind areas and shadow areas, permanent blind and


shadow sectors and their relationships to the antenna location

.5 states how characteristics of targets influence their detection


range (aspect, shape, composition, size)

.6 explains how clutter may mask targets (sea clutter, rain


clutter)

,Required performance:

1.6 Factors which might cause faulty R1 STCW ~1m3


interpretation of the radar picture are correctly Code B-1/12
identified and explained (1 hour)

.1 explains the cause and effect of interference

.2 explains the cause and effect of side echoes '

.3 explains the cause and effect of indirect echoes

.4 explains the cause and effect of multiple echoes


.5 explains the cause and effect of second trace echoes
.6 states the effect on radar performance of power lines and
bridges crossing rivers and estuaries
.7 explains the effect of the ship in seaway
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

Required Performance:

1.7 Performance standards for radar equipment are RI s~cw


Code
outlined in the context of resolution A.477(Xll) :ill2
(1 hour)

.1 lists the performance standards contained in Res A.477(Xll) pa 4.2

.2 states required accuracy (range and bearing measurement) Pa 4.1

.3 states required discrimination (range and bearing) pa 4.1

2 Set Up and Operate Radar in Accordance


with Manufacturer's Instructions (8 hours)
Required performance:

2.1 Set up and maintain optimum radar display RI STCW T3


Code B-1112
(5 hours)

.1 operates main controls (power, antenna)

.2 operates transmitter controls (standbyltransit, pulse length, pa 8.3.1


PRF)

.3 adjusts receiver controls to give an optimal picture (tuning, pa 5.1, 5.2


gain, linearllogarithmic gain, sensitivity time control, fast time pa 8.3
control)

.4 adjusts display controls (brilliance, illumination, focus, shift, pa 5.8


range selector, range rings, VRM, EBM, mechanical cursor,
heading marker, clearscan, anti-clutter)

.5 demonstrates correct order of making adjustments and states pa 8.3


the criteria for optimum setting of the controls

.6 states that small or poor echoes may escape detection pa 8.3

.7 describes the effects of saturation by receiver noise pa 8.3

.8 states the importance of frequent changes in range scale pa 8.5

.9 identifies different types of display mode (true motion, relative


motion - unstabilized, relative motion - stabilized, north up, pa 8.1
course up, ship's head up)

.10 explains the advantages and limitationsof the different types of pa 8.1, 15
display mode

.ll explains the need for compass input for relative stabilized pa 8.2
display, and compass and log input for true motion display pa 8.3.2

.12 identifies effects of transmitting compass error on stabilized pa 8.2


and true motion display
PART C1: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.I
3 identifies effects of transmitting log error on true motion display, pa 8.3.2
manual speed input error
.I4 operates special controls (presentation, speed, re-set, course Pa 8 3 8 . 4
made good correction, compass repeater)
.15 identifies maladjusted controls and explains their effects and pa 8.3, 8.4
dangers
.I6 detects and corrects maladjustments pa 8.3

.17 states effects of incorrect speed setting and CMG correctionon pa 8.3.2
true motion displays
. -
pa 8.3
.18 describes the purpose and use of the performance monitor
.19 records radar data: (performance monitor readings, pa 8.5
modifications, blind and shadow sector diagram)
.20 explains how propagationconditions can affect target detection Pa 5-6

Required performance: R1 STCW T3


Code B-1112

2.2 Measure ranges and bearings accurately pa 9.1


(3 hours) pa 9.2

.I states methods and accuracy of measuring ranges (fixed range pa 9.3


markers, VRM)
pa 9.4
.2 measures ranges with emphasis on accuracy pa 9.5
.3 explains the methods and accuracies of measuring bearings pa 9.6
(rotatable cursor, EBL)
pa 9.7
.4 measures bearings with emphasis on accuracy
.5 checks and corrects error in range and bearing R1

3 Perform Manual Radar Plotting (11 hours)


R1 STCW
Required performance: Code B-1/12
pa 10, 11.4
3.1 Construct the relative motion triangle (2.5 h o u r s )
pa 10
.1 explains a relative motion triangle, various vectors and angles
.2 constructs a relative motion triangle on a plotting chart pa 10
.3 constructs a relative motion triangle on a reflection plotter,
where available

Required performance: R l STCW T I /-I-3


Code B-1112
3.2 Determine the course, speed and aspect of
other ships (3 hours) pa 10
pa 12.1.1
.1 determines course, speed and aspects of other ships from a
relative presentation (stabilised and unstabilised)
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.2 determines course, speed and aspect of other ships from a true pa 10


presentation pa 12.1.2

.3 takes ranges and bearings at frequent, regular intervals pa 11.4

.4 states the factors affecting the accuracy of derived course, pa 16


speed and aspect

.5 determines set and rate of current from observations of fixed pa 14


target

.6 explains the track made over the ground by own ship pa 14.1

Required performance:
T1TT3

3.3 Determine the closest point of approach (CPA) RI s~cw


and time to closest approach (TCPA) (2 hours) B-1112

.1 determines CPA and TCPA with relative presentation pa 13.1


(stabilised and unstabilised)
pa 13.2
.2 determines CPA and TCPA with true presentation
pa 13.1, 13.2
.3 states the factors affecting the accuracy of CPA and TCPA
pa 13.1, 13.2
obtained by plotting

Required performance:
3.4 Recognise the effect of course and speed RI s ~ c w
changes (2 hours) Code 8-1/12

.1 recognizes the effects of changes of course andlor speed by pa 14.1


other ships

.2 compares between visual and radar observations pa 12.2

.3 explains the delay between change in the course or speed and pa 14.2
detection of that change

.4 states the advantages of compass stabilization of a relative pa 15


display

.5 explains the effect of changes in own-ship course or speed pa 16


on the observed movement of targets (stabilised relltrue; or
unstabilised)

.6 states the hazards of small changes of course andlor speed in pa 14.3


relation to accuracy and direction
PART C1: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

Required performance:
3.5 Report radar plot data (1.5 hours)

.I makes a report stating the elements: bearing, range, CPA,


TCPA, course, aspect, speed

4 Use Radar to Ensure Safe Navigation R1 STCW T I /T3 A1


(5 hours) Code 6-1112

Required performance:

4.1 Fix a vessel's position by radar (1.5 hours)


.1 states the characteristics of good, radar conspicuous objects

.2 states the characteristics of objects which give poor radar


responses

.3 fixes the position fixing based on radar bearings and radar


ranges

.4 explains possible errors and how to minirnise them

.5 cross checks the accuracy of radar against other navigational


aids

.6 compares features displayed by radar with chatted features

Required performance:
R1 STCW T1/T3
4.2 Identify aids to radar navigation and safety Code 8-1/12
(0.5 hour)
.I passive aids (corner reflector) (recognition and use)

.2 active aids (rarnark, racon, echo enhancers, transponders)


(recognition and use)

.3 SARTS (recognition and use)

.4 data source information on active and passive aids


RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

Required performance:

4.3 Use parallel indexing technique in radar R1 STCW T I IT3


navigation (3 hours) Table A-Ill1
pa 9,10
sets up and uses a PI line by electronic means
constructs and uses a PI line on a reflection plotter, where fitted
takes correct action when an echo departs from the PI line
uses more than one PI line
constructs and uses lines for two range scales (construction
and use)
states the importance of 'wheel over"
demonstrates use of "wheel over"
states the importance of safety margins
demonstrates use of safety margins

.I0 interprets real motion of vessel from a tracked echo

.lltakes appropriate action to counteract for current:

- on a straight course
-when vessel is manoeuvring

. I 2 demonstrates use of a line of turn

. I 3 constructs and uses PI for radial turns

5 Use Radar to Avoid Collisions or Close RIIR~


Encoi~nters(6 hours)
Required performance:
R1 STCW
5.1 Apply COLREG to avoid collision or close Code 8-1112
encounter (6 howrs) pa 10, 17

.I uses the radar as a means of lookout, and states importance Pa 17.2* 17.8
of continuous plotting

.2 lists the factors which determine a safe speed, with emphasis pa 17.2
on factors related to radar
pa 17.1
.3 lists factors which provide a good plot to avoid collisionlclose pa 17.3
encounter pa 17.4

.4 makes substantial alteration of course or speed to avoid pa 17.4


collisionlclose encounter

.5 states times when radar is to be used in clear weather by pa 17.5, 17.6


day, at night when there are indications that visibility may
deteriorate, and at all times in congested waters
PART D l : INSTRUCTOR MANUAL (RADAR)

Part D l : Instructor Manual - Radar Navigation and


Radar Plotting
Introduction

Lessons on fl-~ndamentaltheory should give the trainees a knowledge of radar parameters,


radar propagation and target characteristics.

A simple block diagram like the one below, showing where the radar parameters are defined,
may be used.

SCANNER

+
\

uOWUTOrc MhGNEm LOCW O S U U T m

t
TWSGEI\
GAYIANO
MrnVTTER
CRCUrS lm- I- NTEmEDUE
RMXIEmv
ALPLFER
NNWG

f+q
"b

RANCEWR
AND
W R M i
...................
CRCUlTS
I

' I
:. II
. I
:I
.I Basic block diagram
ROTAWN AHD
........:' II
- , - - , - a
of a radar set
N A M W ) m
SYNCHROHEUTDH

The aim is to achieve the proper use of operational controls through a combination of
theoretical and practical instruction. The controls should first be explained in the classroom,
both on the block diagram and on projected overhead transparencies or slides of the radar set.
The practical training should take place on a radar simulator, where the students may obtain
realistic training in the use of all the radar controls. In addition the trainees may also
demonstrate switching on, setting up the controls and use of the performance mor~itoron a
.functional radar set. If both are available trainees should demonstrate the setting-up
procedure on both the real radar and the simulator.
RADAR NAVIGA1-IONAND PLOl7ING

Plotting should first be taught in the classroom with the use of plotting diagrams. Each trainee
should be given enough time on the radar set or siniulator to become familiar with plotting.
Exercises should preferably be undertaken in real time in order to increase the trainees'
awareness of the hazards of the improper use of radar data and to improve their plotting
techniques.

As with plotting, radar navigation should initially be taught in the classroom and practice should
be given on a radar simulator to familiarize each trainee with the concepts. A radar equipped
training vessel is a useful alternative to a radar simulator to practise radar navigation.

Collision avoidance using radar is best taught in class, followed by exercises.

Exercises
When using a radar simulator, each trainee should take part in a number of plotting and
collision-avoidance exercises in which the trainee will be required to observe the movements
of ships as seen on a radar display and assess the collision risks involved and the actions
taken by those ships to avoid collision.

At the preliminary stages of this training, simple plotting exercises should be designed to
establish a sound appreciation of plotting geometry and relative motion concepts. The degree
of complexity of exercises should increase throughout the training course until the trainee has
mastered all aspects of the subject.

Each exercise should be followed by a discussion amongst all the trainees to analyse the
exercise and review the actions taken.

Case Studies
Simulation of previous collision incidents and a review of court judgements can be an effective
means for trainees to learn from earlier navigational errors.

. The effects of making successive small alterations in course, the so-called 'radar assisted
collision', where a target is observed on radar but insufficient action is taken to avoid a
collision, is one type of case study with valuable learning benefits.
Example of Lesson Plan
COURSE: Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting LESSON NUMBER: ........... DURATION: 60 minutes

Training Area: ............3.4 .........................,......


KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND PROFICIENCY TEACHING TEXTBOOK IMO AAI INSTRUCTOR TIME
Required performance (In teaching sequence with memory keys) METHOD REF. AID GUIDELINES MlNS

3 Perform Manual Radar Plotting Lecture and


Demonstration
3.4 The effect of course a n d speed changes o n t h e display R1 STCW
Code B-1/12
.1 Effects of Changes

Need for continuous plot; the fact that plotted points do not lie on
straight line or that the distance between points is not
proportional to the time interval indicates a change in course or
speed or both provided no alteration of own-ship - new course
and speed cannot be determined until shlp steady on new
- -
values not easy to decide when that occurs use of true plots.

.2 Compares visual and radar observations

.3 Delay Between Change in Course/Speed and Detection


Random errors in range and bearing measurements - time
needed to establish that change is taking place -small changes
take longer to detect.

.4 Stabilization R1 STCW '


Code 8-1/12
Reduces random errors in bearings - bearings unaffected by
-
yawing avoids the need to know ship's exact head at every
bearing -avoids smearing of echoes during yawing or alteration of
-
course nearly always preferable to head-up unstabilized

.5 Effect of Changes in Own-Ship Course and Speed R1 STCW


Code B-1/12
Derive from new WO line on plotting diagram -effect of changes
of speed on target echo often mistaken for change of course of
target - meeting, crossing, overtaking situations -
virtually
impossible to detect alteration by target at same time as own
-
alteration keep plotting

The various effects may be demonstrated on a marine radar simulator. Alternatively, the instructor may illustrate individual effects both for small and large alterations
by overhead projector transparencies, slides or hand-outs to trainees.
10
W
RADAR NAVIGA1-IONAND PLOTTING

Part A2: Use of ARPA: Course Framework


Aims
This section of the course provides training in the basic theory and use of radar and automatic
radar plotting aids (ARPA) for officers in charge of a navigational watch on vessels equipped
with ARPA. It aims to meet the rrlirlimum training standards in Table A-1111 of the STCW Code.

The methods by which the ARPA acquires targets, tracks them and derives information on
their movements are covered in sufficient depth to allow an appreciation of the limitations of
detection and accuracy, and the dangers of over-reliance on ARPA.

Other aspects covered include the different types of ARPA in use and their various displays;
the content of IMO resolution A.823(19) - Performance standards for automatic radar plotting
aids; tests for the malfunctioning of equipment; the effects of inaccuracies in the input of
course and speed; the selection of speed input to the ARPA; and the response of the system
to changes in course and speed of own-ship or target.

The exercises provide practice in the setting up of the radar; the selection of operational
alarms and ARPA facilities, and the use of these to derive information on other ships, i.e. the
movement, the ranges at closest points of approach (CPA), and the times to closest points of
approach (TCPA); the recognition of potential threats; and the use of ARPA to determine the
action to take to avoid close quarters situations in accordance with the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREG), and the subsequent monitoring of
such action.

Objective
Those who successfully complete this course will be able to choose an appropriate mode of
display; select plotting and graphics controls suitable to the circumstances; make appropriate
use of operational alarms; acquire and track those targets which present a potential threat of
collision; extract the information needed on course, speed and nearest approach to enable
early action to be taken to avoid a close quarters situation; and make use of ARPA to confirm
and monitor their actions.

They will understand the dangers of over-reliance on the automatic acqt~isitionand tracking
of targets and on operational alarms. They will also be aware of the performance standards
set out in IMO Assembly Resolution A.823(19), and factors (including errors in course and
speed inputs) which may affect the accuracy of derived information; and they will realize the
need to check the accuracy of inputs and the correct functioning of the ARPA.

Entry standards
Those wishing to enter this part of the course should have completed a course of training in
Radar Navigation and Radar Plotting, and meet the standards of competence specified in Part
C1 of this model course.
PART A2: USE OF ARPA: COURSE FRAMEWORK

Course certificate, diploma or document


On successfu\ completion of the course and assessments, a document may be issued
certifying that the holder has successfully completed a course of training which meets or
exceeds the level of knowledge and competence specified in Table A-Ill1 of STCW 1995.

A certificate may be issued only by centres approved by the Administration.

Course intake limitations


The course intake will be limited by the availability of ARPA sets or simulators and should not
exceed three trainees per set during exercise in their use.

Staff requiremen ts
The instructor shall have appropriate training in instructional techniques involving the use of
simulators. He should also be thoroughly familiar with the operation of the equipment to be
used in the course, (STCW Code A-116, pa 7). Depending on the complexity of the exercises
set, if more than three sets are in use, an additional similarly qualified instructor is desirable
to assist during exercises

Teaching facilities and equipment


The course requires ARPA simulation equipment able to simulate the operational capabilities
of ARPAs which meet all applicable performance standards adopted by the IMO. The general
performance standards for simulators used in training are given in the STCW Code Section
A-1/12 paragraph 1, with additional performance standards applicable to radar simulation and
ARPA simulation specified in Section A-1112, paragraphs 4 and 5.

Plotting tables, plottingcharts and instruments are required, adjacent to each set. Aclassroom
equipped with an overhead projector and a blackboard or flipchart will also be required for
teaching the theoretical part of the syllabus.

Teaching aids, IMO references and textbooks


A list of teaching aids and documents is given on page 7 of this book.
RADAR NAVIGATIONAND PLOTTING

Part B2: Course Outline and Timetable

Function: Navigation at the Operational Level

Competence: Use of radar and ARPA to maintain safety of navigation

Course Outline
Knowledge, understanding and proficiency Lecture Demonstration Simulator
Hours Hours Hours

6 Describe an ARPA System


6.1 ARPA system display characteristics 0.5
6.2 IMO performance standards for ARPA 0.5
6.3 Acquisition of targets 0.25
6.4 Tracking capabilities and limitations 0.25 2.0*
6.5 Processing delays 0.5

2.0 2.0
7 Operate an ARPA System
7.1 Set up and maintain an ARPA display 0.5
7.2 Obtain target information 0.5
7.3 Errors of interpretation of target data 1.O
7.4 Errors in displayed data identified and explained 1.5 0.5
7.5 System operational tests to determine data accuracy 0.5 0.5
7.6 Risks of over-reliance on ARPA 1.O
7.7 Obtain information from ARPA displays 14.0'
7.8 Application of COLREGS

4.0
16.0
Subtotals 6-7 (Use of ARPA) 6.0 18.0

* Since Required performance 6.3, 6.4 and 6.5; and 7.3, 7.6, 7.7 and 7.8 are handled
simultaneously, it is impractical to recommend a separate simulator time for each
performance element.
PART B2: COURSE OUTLINE AND TIMETABLE

U)
Y
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a
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0
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- PIij
P in

- a zg
- .-
Function: Navigation at the Operational Level

Competence: The Operational Use of ARPA


Course Timetable
L = Lecture S = Simulator
PeriodlDay Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4
Morning Session 6.1 Principal ARPA Systems (L) 7.1 Setting up and Maintaining 7.7 Obtaining Information from 7.7 Obtaining Information from
Dlsplays (S) ARPA Dlsplays (S) ARPA Displays (S)
62 iMO PerformanceStandards for
ARPA (L) 7.2 Representation of Target (continued)
lnformation (S)
6.3 Acquisition of Targets (S)
7.3 Errors in Interpretation(L) (S)

Afternoon Session 6.4 Tracking Capabllitles and 7.4 Errors in Displayed Data (L) 7.7 Obtaining Informationfrom 7.8 Application of COLREG (S)
Limitations (L) (S) (s) ARPA Dlsplays (S)
(continued)
6.5 Processing Delays (L) (S) 7.5 System Operational Tests (L)
(S)
7.6 Risks of Over-reliance on
ARPA (L)
See footnote

' Footnote: Since ~e~uired~erformance


6.3,6.4 and 6.5; and 7.3, 7.6, 7.7 and 7.8 are handled simultaneously, it is Impracticalto recommend a separate simulator
time for each.

Note: Short breaks can be taken between periods as necessary or convenient.


Total teaching contact time: 24 hours
Additional periods of discussion/workshopcan be arranged as necessary or convenient.
PART C2: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Part C2: Detailed Teaching Syllabus

Introduction

The detailed teaching syllabus is presented as a series of learning objectives. The objective,
therefore, describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that the specified knowledge or
skill has been transferred and competence achieved.

Thus each training outcome is supported by a nurr~berof related performance elements in


which the trainee is required to be proficient. The teaching syllabus shows the Required
performance expected of the trainee in the tables that follow.

In order to assist the instr~~ctor,


references are shown to indicate IMO references and
publications, textbooks and teaching aids that instructors may wish to use in preparing and
presenting their lessons.
- 9,

'The material listed in the course framework has been used to structure the detailed teaching
syllabus; in particular,

Teaching aids (indicated by A)


IMO references (indicated by R) and
Textbooks (indicated by T)

will provide valuable information to instructors. The abbreviations used are:

pa: paragraph

The following are examples of the use of references:

" A l n refers to the Instructor Manual in Part D of this model course;

"R7-Annex pa 2.1" refers to Assembly Resolution A.478(XII), paragraph 2.1 of the Annex;

"TI" refers to the Radar Observer's Handbook

Note

In designing lessons from the Detailed Teaching Syllabus, instructors should aim to produce
exercises which enable students to demonstrate the practical application of the course theory
and knowledge. In particular students must develop an understanding of the implications of
possible errors and other factors affecting radar performance and accuracy. The practical
significance of these factors to the proper use of radar as an aid to navigation is as important
as the knowledge itself.
RADAR NAVIGAl*ION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

Describe an ARPA System

Required performance:

6.1 ARPA systems display characteristics are ~5 ~ 3 ~ 5 AI


R1 STCW A2
described correctly (0.5 hour) Code 8-1/12 A3

.1 describes different display characteristics:


- vectors
- graphics
- digital read-out
- potential points of collision (PPC)
- predicted areas of danger (PAD)

.2 describes different ways in which targets may be acquired pa 21

Required performance:

6.2 IMO performance standards for automatic R5, ~9 ~3 A1


R1 STCW
radar plotting aids (ARPA) are outlined Code 8-1112
correctly (0.5 hour)

.I states IMO performance standards for ARPA relating to


accuracy
.2 states the requirements for acquisition and tracking of targets
.3 lists operational warnings required
.4 states which data which should be available in alphanumeric
form
.5 describes the effects of sensor errors for ARPA equipment
complying with IMO performance standards
.6 states the performance standards for gyro and log inputs
.7 states the performance standards for range and bearing
accuracy and discrimination of radar

Required performance:
R1 STCW
6.3 Criteria for acquisition of targets are outlined Code 8-1112
correctly (Ihour)
pa 29
.I states the criteria for target acquisition
pa 29
.2 states the criteria for automatic selection of targets given in
the set's instruction manual
pa 25.2
.3 lists the criteria to be used for manual acquisition of targets
pa 29
.4 states the maximum number of targets which may be acquired

.5 states that targets may be deleted if not posing a potential pa 30.1


threat (when tracking limit has been reached)
PART C2: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.6 describes appropriate use of suppression of target acquisition pa 32.7


over certain areas

.7 states that targets first appearing closer than guard ring will not pa 25.1
be acquired

Required performance:

6.4 Tracking capabilities and limitations are R1 STCW T3


Code B-1/12
described correctly ( I hour)
.I describes target tracking by ARPA pa 25.1

.2 describes how targets are lost and alarm activated pa 25.3

.3 states common circumstances leading to 'target swop" pa 25.4

.4 describes the effect of 'target swop" on displayed data pa 25.4

Required performance:

6.5 Processing delays are outlined correctly R1 STCW T3


Code B-1/12
(1 hour)

.I explains the delay in the display of processed ARPA data after Pa 26


target acquisition

.2 explains delay in the display of new data when the target ship Pa 26
manoeuvres

.3 states that there may be a delay of up to three minutes before Pa 26


full accuracy of derived information may be attained after
acquisition or manoeuvre of the target

7 Operate an ARPA System RI

Required performance:
R1 STCW T3
7.1 Set up and maintain an ARPA display correctly Code B-1/12
(0.5 hour)
.I sets up an appropriate display presentation for the required
task and current situation (stabilised relative motion and true
motion displays)

.2 adjusts radar controls for the optimum display of echoes

.3 uses log and gyro compass inputs

.4 manually selects, acquires and monitors critical targets

.5 sets up automatic acquisition and exclusion areas


RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.6 uses the appropriate time scale for vectors or graphics to pa 32.2


produce information required

.7 identifies differences between information shown in sea pa 32.2


stabilized mode and ground stabilized mode

.8 selects appropriate mode for the circumstances pa 32.2

.9 sets up echo-referencing in the true motion mode

Required performance:

7.2 Operate ARPA to obtain target information RI STCW


Code B-1112
(0.5 hour)
pa 12.1.3,
.1 operates display in true and relative modes to obtain true and pa 30.4
relative vectors in each display mode

.2 states the benefits of switching between true and relative pa 30.4


vectors
.3 uses graphic display of PPCs and PADS pa 30.1

.4 determines threat of collision by forward extrapolation of pa 30.1


vectors and by the use of PADs

.5 uses target history display pa 31.0

.6 uses trial manoeuvre (approximations depending on the pa 30.1


model of own-ship manoeuvring characteristics) pa 30.2

.7 refers to equipment manual for a description of the


manoeuvring characteristics model used

.8 sets and acknowledges operational warnings pa 27

.9 states benefits and limitations of operational warnings pa 27

.10 sets area rejection boundaries to avoid spurious interference Pa 27

Required performance:
R1 STCW
7.3 Outline possible errors of interpretation of Code B-1112
target data

.I identifies consistently vectors in the wrong mode (a common pa 30.1


error)

.2 derives information from vectbrs with numeric display

.3 explains that re-acquired "lost target" may temporarily show a pa *'


course and speed suggesting an alteration when none has
occurred

.4 states data from PADs and PPCs displayed apply only to own- pa 30
ship and targets do not indicate mutual threats between
targets
PART C2: DETAILED TEACHING SYLLABUS

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

.5 states that the length of line from target to PAD or PPC is not
an indicator of target speed

.6 states that history displays may not be in same mode as pa 30.3


vectors

.7 states that a change of direction in the relative history display pa 30.4


does not necessarily imply that the target has altered course

.8 explains that incorrect interpretation of ARPA may lead to


dangerous misunderstanding pa 30

Required performance:

7.4 Factors which might cause errors in displayed R1 STCW


Code B-1/12
data are identified and clearly explained
(2 hours)
.I identifies bearing errors in the radar installation due to: pa 23
- backlash
- ship motion
- asymmetrical antenna beam
- azimuth quantization

.2 explains errors in range generated by:


- rolling of own-ship
- range quantization
.3 explains that unreliable indications are given when smoothing
filter in the tracker combines with alterations in own-ship
courselspeed
pa 23
.4 explains the effects of heading and speed errors on derived R6, R7
information

.5 states that smoothness of the displayed history track is an


indication of satisfactory tracking by ARPA

Required performance:

7.5 Use system operational tests to determine RI STCW


data accuracy (1 hour) Code B-1/12 T3E5

.I uses self-diagnostic routines


pa 28.1
.2 operates test programmes to check performance against
known solutions

.3 demonstrates performance check, including trial manoeuvre Pa 33


by manual plotting

.4 takes correct action after malfunction of ARPA pa 28.2


RADAR NAVIGATION A N D PLOTTING

Knowledge, understanding and proficiency IMO Textbooks, Teaching


Reference Bibliography Aid

Required performance:

7.6 Risks of over reliance on ARPA are identified RI STCW ~3 AI


and explained correctly (1 hour) Code 8-1112

.I demonstrates use of ARPAand explains the need to comply with pa 20.2


basic principles in keeping a navigational watch

.2 reacts correctly to operational alarms (new target, collision pa 20.1


warning)

.3 avoids small predicted passing distances (CPA and bow pa 20.1


crossing ranges)

.4 explains that sensor input alarms only operate on failure of input pa 27


and do not respond to inaccurate inputs

Required performance:
7.7 Obtain information from ARPA displays R1 STCW
Code 8-1112
.I obtains information in both true and relative modes
Pa 34
.2 identifies critical targets
.3 determines relative course and speed of targets

.4 determines CPA and TCPA of targets

.5 determines true course and speed of targets

.6 uses displays of past positions for detecting changes in course


or speed of target pa 34.5

.7 uses trial manoeuvre facility to check validity of intended


alteration of course and or speed pa 34.7

.8 identifies effects of changes in own-ship course andlor speed


pa 12,
pa 34.6
Required performance:

7.8 Apply COLREG to vessels in sight of each other R4 ~3


and in restricted visibility R1 STCW
Code 8-1/12

.1 takes correct action to avoid close quarters situations or


potential collision situations pa 35

.2 monitors subsequent situation and resumes original course and


speed only when safe to do so pa 35
PART D2: INSTRUCTOR MANUAL (ARPA)

Part 02: Instructor Manual - Use of ARPA


General
'This manual reflects the views of the course designer on methodology and organization and
what he considers relevant and important in the light of his experience as an instructor.
Although the guidance given should be of value initially, the instructor should work out his own
methods and ideas, refine and develop what is successful and discard ideas which do not
work.

Preparation and planning constitute an important factor in the successful presentation of the
course. Attention is drawn to the flow chart on page 27, which illustrates how the different
subjects are related to one another. It will be advantageous to point out these inter-
relationships to the students.

Lectures

The practical exercises and training sessions on the ARPA equipment or simulators constitute
the main content of the course. Nevertheless, provision is made for a number of classroom
lectures to cover subjects requiriog a theoretical explanation.

As far as possible, such lessons should be presented within a familiar context and make use
of practical examples. They should be well illustrated with diagrams, photographs and charts
where appropriate and be related to matter learned during simulator exercises.

An effective manner of presentation is to develop a technique of giving information and then


reinforcing it. For example, first tell the trainees what you are going to present to them; then
cover the topic in detail; and, finally, summarize what you have told them. The use of an
overhead projector and the distribution of copies of the transparencies as trainee hand-outs
contribute to the learning process.

Simulator exercises

Exercises should be carried out on ARPA equipment or ARPA simulators to enable trainees
to acquire the necessary practical skills. They should provide training in the use of the various
display modes available. It is desirable not to stress any particular mode. Trainees will
probably have their own individual preferences when starting the course but should be
encouraged to become familiar with a variety of modes so that they can adapt the use of the
equipment to the particular situation concerned.

Preparing and conducting simulator exercises

Apart from the basic exercises in the use of ARPA facilities, exercises should produce the
greatest impression of realism. The following scenarios are suggested as suitable for the
production of exercises in the use of ARPA.
RADAR NAVIGATIONAND PLOlTING

Recommended scenarios

-The choice of scenario is governed by the simulator facilities available. However, the following
are recommended, where feasible:

Open sea scenario


The open sea scenario is suitable for exercises in the basic use of ARPA and the revision of
radar plotting techniques including the use of reflection plotters. By having no navigational
obstructions and only moderate traffic, trainees can concentrate on monitoring and operating
ARPA functions, or on plotting techniques.

The workload should be moderate at first; it should then increase as the trainees gain in ability.
It is recommended to start with between 3 and 5 targets and to avoid close quarters situations,
as the object is to teach the operation of the various facilities, such as acquiring targets,
determil-ring the available data and I-~nderstandingthe graphic displays.

This stage should be followed by more complex exercises introducingthreat assessment and
the use of trial manoeuvres. Evasive action should involve two or more targets with course
and speed of own-ship to be resumed when safe to do so.

A traffic separation scheme (TSS) in a strait or narrow channel and adjacent waters.
This TSS scenario is recommended for exercises in the application of COLREG provisions in
and near traffic separation shames. Relevant charts, sailing directions and any associated
mariner's routing guide will contain information on the planning and execution of passages
through such waters. Exercises which involve entering, leaving and crossing traffic lanes
should be constructed. Trainees should also have to contend with strong tidal streams. By
varying the number of targets introduced, the instructor can make exercises as demanding as
required. Emphasis should be placed on radar navigation and track keeping in addition to the
need to corr~plywith rule 10 and all other rules of COLREG.

When it is only possible to simulate a narrow channel in which no TSS is established, the
instructor may introduce a typical TSS on the charts provided. Additional navigational hazards
can also be added if it is necessary to increase the difficulty of the exercise.

Monitoring of exercises

During exercises the instructor will be responsible for monitoring and sailing the target ships,
recording the exercise and making a summary for the purposes of debriefing. Trainees will
expect target ships to act in compliance with COLREG, and the instructor should control the
target ship accordingly. However, even an experienced instructor may occasionally fail to
comply when controlling a number of targets, and any resulting incidents should be recorded
and dealt with at the debriefing. This is realistic inasmuch as some ships do fail to comply with
the regulations.
If a second instructor is available the instructor should monitor the trainees at work. The
instructor's task will vary according to the trainees' abilities and competence. At first the
instructor may find it necessary to assist and guide them in the use of the equipment; later, the
instructor should follow their work closely but should avoid interrupting them.
PART D2: IIVSTRUCTOR MANUAL (ARPA)

Debriefing

The time spent on debriefing should occupy between 15% and 20% of the total time used for
simulator exercises. Various facilities may be available to assist in debriefing, such as
playback (in which the whole exercise is recorded and any sequence is available for
discussion), plotters (which record the tracks made by own-ship, and are a valuable tool in
exercises involving traffic separation schemes) or loggingequipment (which provides a printout
of own-ships' manoeuvres).

'The instructor should refer to the summary made during the exercise to raise important points
and to direct the discussion among the trainees.

Guidance on specific subject areas

The paragraphs below contain guidance on the coverage of the subject areas listed in the
course outline. The instructor should develop a methodology based on his own experience,
but at the same time he should remember that the IMO references indicate the required
training under each heading. Many of the subjects contain objectives which are relevant to
exercises at all levels; and their inclusion in any exercise can reinforce the learning process.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOll-ING

Guidance Notes
6.1 ARPA systems display characteristics 0.5 hour

The object of this subject area is to make trainees aware of the various display characteristics
and facilities available on ARPA sets in common use, such as the presentation of vectors,
potential points of collision, predicted areas of danger and navigation lines. WI-~ileattending
this course trainees will become familiar with particular sets, but should know how to use
alternative presentations which they may subsequently use.

6.2 IMO Performance Standards for ARPA 0.5 hour

The intention is to provide an appreciation of the performance standards for ARPA and, in
particular, the standards relating to accuracy. The trainee should not expect a greater
accuracy than that specified in the performance standards.

6.3 Acquisition of targets 1 hour

ARPA is limited as to the number of targets which may be acquired for teaching. When using
manual acquisition, the trainee should learn to judge which targets are most relevant so that
the number acquired is kept within limits. When automatic acquisition is used the trainee
should be able to instruct the computer to select appropriate targets for tracking by the use
of guard rings and area exclusion boundaries.

6.4 Tracking capabilities and limitations 1 hour

The way in which ARPA tracks a target and the reasons for "lost target" and "target swop"
should be explained in the classroom and then demonstrated on the ARPA or on the
simulator. These effects will occasionally occur during exercises, thus adding some realism
and ensuri~gthat trainees are familiar with some of the unwanted effects connected with
tracking.

6.5 Processing delays 1 hour

Trainees should be introduced in the classroom to the delays inherent in the display of
processed ARPA information, particularly on acquisition and re-acquisition or when a tracked
target manoeuvres.

The instructor should ensure that trainees observe these delays while carrying out exercises
to induce a more critical atti.tude to the displayed data on first acquiring a target or when a
target manoeuvres.
PART D2: INSTRUCTOR MANUAL (ARPA)

7.1 Set up and maintain an ARPA display 0.5 hour

Setting up and maintaining displays should be practised throughout the exercises. Trainees
should develop skills in using different modes and display presentations. The choice of mode
and presentation should be adapted to the actual situation and should not be dictated by habit.
For instance, a North up, true motion presentation will perhaps be the best when navigating
in very poor visibility, when both navigational obstructions and traffic have to be considered,
but a course up, relative motion presentation is o p t i m ~ ~for
m comparing the radar picture with
what is seen through the bridge windows.

The 12-mile range scale is recommended for tracking targets and providing a general view of
the traffic flow, allowing ample time to take avoiding action. The use of shorter range scales
is preferred when monitoring a close quarters situation or negotiating narrow passages.

'The instructor should encourage trainees to make use of the full range of control settings to
optimize the display of information for the current circumstances.

7.2 Obtain target information 0.5 hour


The principal objectives in the use of ARPA are to collect information on the traffic flow in the
area, assess the threat of close quarters situations, and facilitate the adjustment of the
passage plan in the light of circumstances.

The safest way to deal with this task is to consider the total traffic and navigational scenario.
The navigator should be able to visualize the traffic flow and determine how it will affect his
intended passage plan.

The beneft of graphic representation is that the navigator can take account of the total picture.
Although the exact course, speed, CPA and TCPA of a particular target may be of interest, it
is also important to be able to judge the possible interaction between other ships.

Some important points should be made:

.I The concept of true and relative vectors must be thoroughly demonstrated to ensure
that the trainee understands what information is represented by each type and that
failure to recognize which vector is being shown by the display can be disastrous.

.2 Although the ARPA indicates which type of vector is in use, it car1 be overlooked.
Trainees should be strongly recommended to adopt a routine of setting a time scale
of six minutes for true vectors and a time equal to the minimum acceptable TCPA for
relative vectors. Thus, true vectors are short, relative vectors more extended. This
would be the normal setting, but the trainees should also be cautioned not to neglect
the additional valuable information which can be obtained by varying the time scale.

.3 Trainees should be recommended to monitor the ARPA in true vector presentation


and check CPA and TCPA by switching to relative presentation.

.4 The method by which PADS (predicted areas of danger) are constructed should be
explained to the trainees.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTrlNG

7.3 Errors of interpretation of target data

The trainee should be made aware of errors that are not inherent in the ARPA system, but that
result from misunderstanding, inexperience or careless observation by the operator.

The common errors of interpretation result from:

.I failure to detect or acquire a target;


.2 confusion of true and relative vectors;
.3 uncritical acceptance of presented data; and
.4 combination of afterglow or target history with a vector from the wrong mode.

Past positions of the targets indicate to the observer whether the target has manoeuvred, but
it is important to note that this only holds if true vectors are presented in true motion mode and
relative vectors in relative motion.

7.4 Errors in displayed data identified and explained 1.5 hours

The errors can be divided into two groups:

.I errors generated in the radar installation itself or introduced by log and gyro input,
and
.2 errors arising from the processing of the radar data.

An explanation can be given in lectures and the effects of some of the errors demonstrated
on the simulator.

7.5 System operational tests to determine data accuracy 1 hour

The different methods of testing the ARPA for malfunction should be explained. The
equipment may incorporate self-diagnostic test routines to monitor the correct operation of
various circuits. Trainees should be made familiar with this procedure.

The diagnostic routines may also be executed at the request of the operator and trainees
should practise this procedure as well. In addition, they should check data accuracy by
manual plotting.

7.6 Risks of over-reliance on ARPA

The instructor should emphasize that ARPA is only a navigational aid and its limitations,
including those of its sensors, make over-reliance on it dangerous.

Emphasis m ~ ~be s tplaced on the need to keep a proper look-out in addition to using ARPA,
so as to comply at all times with the provision of rule 5 of COLREG and the basic principles
and operational guidance for officers in charge of a navigational watch.
PART D2: INSTRUCTOR MANUAL (ARPA)

7.7 Obtain information from ARPA display

Training should begin with simple exercises involving a few targets and no navigational
problems. 'The workload should be increased as trainees exhibit greater skill, until they are
eventually executing and monitoring passages through confined and congested waters.

The task of obtaining information is principally solved in two ways:

I by using the alphanumeric display the CPA, TCPA, course, speed, range and
bearing of a single target can be obtained; and
.2 by viewing the graphic display, different types of information can be obtained,
depending on the mode used. The information about every tracked target is
obtained simultaneously and the interaction between them can be anticipated.

The identification of critical echoes may be carried out as follows:

.I if the CPAITCPA limits are properly set, the collision warning alarm will identify the
echo;
.2 a relative vector extended to the area around the sweep centre will present CPA and
TCPA graphically;
.3 true vectors may also be used, and since the ends of true vectors predict future
positions it is possible to see how close a ship will come by extending the vector, with
the TCPA being read from the vector time scale setting; and
.4 the target data command will give an alphanumeric display of data for the particular
target of interest, but this procedure will only provide information for one target at a
time, while the former methods display information on all targets.

This example underlines the fact that there are many ways of obtaining information from
ARPA and that trainees should therefore be trained to use all available methods. The large
array of controls may induce some reluctance on the part of trainees, but the instructor must
do his utmost to encourage them to use the full range of display modes and presentations.

A brief comment should be made on the limitations of vectors for indicating changes in
course and speed. The vectors shown are a compromise between the desire not to indicate
an alteration when none has occurred and the indication of actual changes as quickly as
possible. The instructor can demonstrate the behaviour of the displayed vectors by giving
trainees the opportunity to compare the instructor's display, when manoeuvring, with their
own ARPAs.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

The motive for operating the trial manoeuvre facility should be to test the validity of an intended
manoeuvre before executing it. It enables the navigator to comply more certainly with rule 8
of the collision regulations in making, within ample time, a positive manoeuvre large enough
to be readily apparent, thus avoiding a succession of small alterations.

It should be emphasized that the purpose of the trial manoeuvre is to assist the navigator to:

.I avoid close quarters situations; and


.2 follow his intended route with minimum deviation.

To achieve these aims it is advisable to make use of the facility well in advance. Modern
ARPAs are fitted with a "time to manoeuvren(TTM) function which makes this possible. The
trial function is not intended as a means of sorting out close quarters situations, but as a
means of avoiding them.

Many ARPAs include the handling characteristics of own-ship in the calculations. The actual
parameters for the ship in which it is fitted are included in the processor programme. If this
facility is not included the navigator must make allowance for them. In any case he should
take account of other factors which cause the actual manoeuvre to differ from that calculated
by the ARPA.

7.8 Application of COLREG

After the initial period in which the operation of ARPA is introduced, all exercises will involve
the application of COLREG. Trainees will man their own-ships and sail them according to a
general voyage plan given by the instructor, who will monitor the scene and control the
manoeuvres of target ships (see the appendix to this manual).
Example of Lesson Plan
COURSE: Use of Radar and ARPA LESSON NUMBER: DURATION: 60 minutes
Training Area: Acquisition of Targets
- - - - - - -

KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING AND PROFICIENCY TEACHING TEXTBOOK lMO REF INSTRUCTOR TIME
Reauired ~erformance(In teachina seauence with memow kevs) METHOD GUIDELINES MINS.

6.3 Acquisition of Targets ~3 R1 A1


STCW Code
.I Acquisition
B-W 2 15
Demonstration on
-
Automatic or manual tracking gates - automatic, reducedworkload - set
target can be missed

.2 Crlteria For Automatic Selection Lecture

-
Refer to equipment manual based on range, CPA, TCPA, bearing -
often just range
Demonstration and
.3 Manual Acquisition discussion

User makes threat assessment - own criteria - discuss preferences


.4 Llmlt of Acquired Targets Lecture

-
Automatic and manual minimum in performance standards - actual
in equipment manual
Lecture and
.5 Deletion of Targets demonstration
If limit reached delete least threatening targets, e.g. those past CPA,
large CPA or long TCPA

.6 Area Rejection Boundaries Lecture and


demonstration
Problem of acquiring land targets - very close targets in channels -
need to watch for excluded ship targets

.7 Intrusion Alarms Lecture and


demonstration
Guard rings - danger of setting at too great a distance - no alarm for
target first appearing inside guard ring
APPENDIX TO INSTRUCTOR MANUAL

Appendix to Instructor Manual


1. Example of a manual plotting problem

In addition to the textbook examples referred to in the instructor manual, the example of
plotting in Fig. 1 below gives a general idea of a suitable level of difficulty to present to the
students on commencing the course.

Figure 1. Example of a manual plotting problem

"Own ship" is heading 2 2 5 ' ~at 15 knots. The following observations are made, all bearings
being true:

Target A Target B Target C

Work out course, speed, CPA, TCPA and aspect for the three target ships.

Determine the action which s h o ~ ~be


l d taken at 09 and calculate the resultant CPAs and the
TCPAs for each target.

Objective: To consider the effect of evasive action when two or more ships are threatening.

The effect of the avoiding action taken for one target must be taken into consideration with
regard to the avoidance of other targets.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Figure 1.
APPENDIX TO INSTRUCTOR MANUAL

2. Examples of open sea scenarios (Figs. 2 to 5 below).

Figure 2. "Own ship" and five target ships. The objective of the exercise is to practise basic
ARPA facilities.
RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Figure 3. Example of a situation requiring action in compliance with COLREG 1972.


APPENDIX TO INSTRUCTOR MANUAL

Figure 4. Exarr~pleof a situation requiring action in compliance with COLREG 1972.


RADAR NAVIGATION AND PLOTTING

Figure 5. Four "own ships" and three target ships operating in the scenario. The objective of
the exercise is to practise the observance of COLREG 1972 and exercise decision-making
based on the use of ARPA and plotting techniques.

1-2-3-4: "Own ships" (if available)

10-11-12: Target ships


Attachment

GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF


MODEL COURSES
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Contents
Part 1 Preparation

Part 2 Notes on Teaching Technique

Part 3 Curriculum Development

Annex A1 Preparation checklist

Annex A2 Example of a Model Course syllabus in a subject area

Annex A3 Example of a lesson plan for annex A2


GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Part 1 - Preparation
1 Introduction
1.1 The success of any enterprise depends heavily on sound and effective preparations.

1.2 Although the IMO model course "package" has been made as comprehensive as possible, it is
nonetheless vital that sufficient time and resources are devoted to preparation. Preparation not only
involves matters concerning administration or organization, but also includes the preparation of any
course notes, drawings, sketches, overhead transparencies, etc., which may be necessary.

2 General considerations
2.1 The course 'package" should be studied carefully; in particular, the course syllabus and associated
material must be attentively and thoroughly studied. This is vital if a clear understanding is to be
obtained of what is required, in terms of resources necessary to successfully implement the course.

2.2 A "checklist", such as that set out in annex Al, should be used throughout all stages of preparation to
ensure that all necessary actions and activities are being carried out in good time and in an effective
manner. The checklist allows the status of the preparation procedures to be monitored, and helps in
identifying the remedial actions necessary to meet deadlines. It will be necessary to hold meetings of
all those concerned in presenting the course from time to time in order to assess the status of the
preparation and "trouble-shoot" any difficulties.

2.3 The course syllabus should be discussed with the teaching staff who are to present the course, and
their views received on the particular parts they are to present. A study of the syllabus will determine
whether the incoming trainees need preparatory work to meet the entry standard. The detailed
teaching syllabus is constructed in "training outcome" format. Each specific outcome states precisely
what the trainee must do to show that the outcome has been achieved. An example of a model course
syllabus is given in annex A2. Part 3 deals with curriculum development and explains how a syllabus
is constructed and used.

2.4 The teaching staff who are to present the course should construct notes or lesson plans to achieve
these outcomes. A sample lesson plan for one of the areas of the sample syllabus is provided in
annex A3.

2.5 It is important that the staff who present the course convey, to the person in charge of the course,
their assessment of the course as it progresses.

3 Specific considerations
3.1 Scope of course
In reviewing the scope of the course, the instructor should determine whether it needs any adjustment
in order to meet additional local or national requirements (see Part 3).

3.2 Course objective


3.2.1 The course objective, as stated in the course material, should be very carefully considered so
that its meaning is fully understood. Does the course objective require expansion to encompass any
additional task that national or local requirements will impose upon those who successfully complete
the course? Conversely, are there elements included which are not validated by national industry
requirements?

3.2.2 It is important that any subsequent assessment made of the course should include a review of
the course objectives.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

3.3 Entry standards


3.3.1 If the entry standard will not be met by your intended trainee intake, those entering the course
should first be required to complete an upgrading course to raise them to the stated entry level.

Alternatively, those parts of the course affected could be augmented by inserting course material
which will cover the knowledge required.

3.3.2 If the entry standard will be exceeded by your planned trainee intake, you may wish to
abridge or omit those parts of the course the teaching of which would be unnecessary, or which could
be dealt with as revision.

3.3.3 Study the course material with the above questions in mind and with a view to assessing
whether or not it will be necessary for the trainees to carry out preparatory work prior to joining the
course. Preparatory material for the trainees can range from refresher notes, selected topics from
textbooks and reading of selected technical papers, through to formal courses of instruction. It may be
necessary to use a combination of preparatory work and the model course material in modified form.
It must be emphasized that where the model course material involves an international requirement,
such as a regulation of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and
Watchkeeping (STCW) 1978, as amended, the standard must not be relaxed; in many instances, the
intention of the Convention is to require review, revision or increased depth of knowledge by
candidates undergoing training for higher certificates.

3.4 Course certificate, diploma or document


Where a certificate, diploma or document is to be issued to trainees who successfully complete the
course, ensure that this is available and properly worded and that the industry and all authorities
concerned are fully aware of its purpose and intent.

3.5 Course intake limitations


3.5.1 The course designers have recommended limitations regarding the numbers of trainees who
may participate in the course. As far as possible, these limitations should not be exceeded; otherwise,
the quality of the course will be diluted.

3.5.2 It may be necessary to make arrangements for accommodating the trainees and providing
facilities for food and transportation. These aspects must be considered at an early stage of the
preparations.

3.6 Staff requirements


3.6.1 It is important that an experienced person, preferably someone with experience in course and
curriculum development, is given the responsibilityof implementing the course.

3.6.2 Such a person is often termed a "course co-ordinator" or 'course director". Other staff, such
as lecturers, instructors, laboratory technicians, workshop instructors, etc., will be needed to
implement the course effectively. Staff involved in presenting the course will need to be properly
briefed about the course work they will be dealing with, and a system must be set up for checking the
material they may be required to prepare. To do this, it will be essential to make a thorough study of
the syllabus and apportion the parts of the course work according to the abilities of the staff called
upon to present the work.

3.6.3 The person responsible for implementing the course should consider monitoring the quality of
teaching in such areas as variety and form of approach, relationship with trainees, and communicative
and interactive skills; where necessary, this person should also provide appropriate counselling and
support.

3.7 Teaching facilities and equipment


Rooms and other services
3.7.1 It is important to make reservations as soon as is practicable for the use of lecture rooms,
laboratories, workshops and other spaces.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Equipment
3.7.2 Arrangements must be made at an early stage for the use of equipment needed in the spaces
mentioned in 3.7.1 to support and carry through the work of the course. For example:
.1 blackboards and writing materials
.2 apparatus in laboratories for any associated demonstrations and experiments
.3 machinery and related equipment in workshops
.4 equipment and materials in other spaces (e.g. for demonstrating fire fighting, personal
survival, etc.).

3.8 Teaching aids


Any training aids specified as being essential to the course should be constructed, or checked for
availability and working order.

3.9 Audio-visual aids


Audio-visual aids (AVA) may be recommended in order to reinforce the learning process in some
parts of the course. Such recommendations will be identified in Part A of the model course. The
following points should be borne in mind:
.1 Overhead projectors
Check through any illustrations provided in the course for producing overhead projector (OHP)
transparencies, and arrange them in order of presentation. To produce transparencies, a supply of
transparency sheets is required; the illustrations can be transferred to these via photocopying.
Alternatively, transparencies can be produced by writing or drawing on the sheet. Coloured pens are
useful for emphasizing salient points. Ensure that spare projector lamps (bulbs) are available.

.2 Slide projectors
If you order slides indicated in the course framework, check through them and arrange them in order
of presentation. Slides are usually produced from photographic negatives. If further slides are
considered necessary and cannot be produced locally, OHP transparencies should be resorted to.

.3 Cine projector
If films are to be used, check their compatibility with the projector (i.e. 16 mm, 35 mm, sound, etc.).
The films must be test-run to ensure there are no breakages.

.4 Video equipment
It is essential to check the type of video tape to be used. The two types commonly used are VHS and
Betamax. Although special machines exist which can play either format, the majority of machines play
only one or the other type. Note that VHS and Betamax are not compatible; the correct machine type
is required to match the tape. Check also that the TV raster format used in the tapes (i.e. number of
lines, frameslsecond, scanning order, etc.) is appropriate to the TV equipment available. (Specialist
advice may have to be sought on this aspect.) All video tapes should be test-run prior to their use on
the course.

.5 Computer equipment
If computer-based aids are used, check their compatibility with the projector and the available
software.

.6 General note
The electricity supply must be checked for voltage and whether it is AC or DC, and every precaution
must be taken to ensure that the equipment operates properly and safely. It is important to use a
proper screen which is correctly positioned; it may be necessary to exclude daylight in some cases. A
check must be made to ensure that appropriate screens or blinds are available. All material to be
presented should be test-run to eliminate any possible troubles, arranged in the correct sequence in
which it is to be shown, and properly identified and cross-referenced in the course timetable and
lesson plans.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

3.10 IMO references


The content of the course, and therefore its standard, reflects the requirements of all the relevant IMO
international conventions and the provisions of other instruments as indicated in the model course.
The relevant publications can be obtained from the Publication Service of IMO, and should be
available, at least to those involved in presenting the course, if the indicated extracts are not included
in a compendium supplied with the course.

3.11 Textbooks
The detailed syllabus may refer to a particular textbook or textbooks. It is essential that these books
are available to each student taking the course. If supplies of textbooks are limited, a copy should be
loaned to each student, who will return it at the end of the course. Again, some courses are provided
with a compendium which includes all or part of the training material required to support the course.

3.12 Bibliography
Any useful supplementary source material is identified by the course designers and listed in the model
course. This list should be supplied to the participants so that they are aware where additional
information can be obtained, and at least two copies of each book or publication should be available
for reference in the training institute library.

3.13 Timetable
If a timetable is provided in a model course, it is for guidance only. It may only take one or two
presentations of the course to achieve an optimal timetable. However, even then it must be borne in
mind that any timetable is subject to variation, depending on the general needs of the trainees in any
one class and the availability of instructors and equipment.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Part 2 - Notes on Teaching Technique


1 Preparation
1.1 Identify the section of the syllabus which is to be dealt with.

1.2 Read and study thoroughly all the syllabus elements.

1.3 Obtain the necessary textbooks or reference papers which cover the training area to be presented.

1.4 Identify the equipment which will be needed, together with support staff necessaryfor its operation.

1.5 It is essential to use a "lesson plan", which can provide a simplified format for co-ordinating lecture
notes and supporting activities. The lesson plan breaks the material down into identifiable steps,
making use of brief statements, possibly with keywords added, and indicating suitable allocations of
time for each step. The use of audio-visual material should be indexed at the:'correct point in the
lecture with an appropriate allowance of time. The audio-visual material should be test-run prior to its
being used in the lecture. An example of a lesson plan is shown in annex A3.

1.6 The syllabus is structured in training outcome format and it is thereby relatively straightforward to
assess each trainee's grasp of the subject matter presented during the lecture. Such assessment may
take the form of further discussion, oral questions, written tests or selection-type tests, such as
multiple-choice questions, based on the objectives used in the syllabus. Selection-type tests and
short-answer tests can provide an objective assessment independent of any bias on the part of the
assessor. For certification purposes, assessors should be appropriately qualified for the particular
type of training or assessment.

REMEMBER - POOR PREPARATION IS A SURE WAY TO LOSE THE INTEREST OF A GROUP

1.7 Check the rooms to be used before the lecture is delivered. Make sure that all the equipment and
apparatus are ready for use and that any support staff are also prepared and ready. In particular,
check that all blackboards are clean and that a supply of writing and cleaning materials is readily
available.

2 Delivery
2.1 Always face the people you are talking to; never talk with your back to the group.

2.2 Talk clearly and sufficiently loudly to reach everyone.

2.3 Maintain eye contact with the whole group as a way of securing their interest and maintaining it (i.e.
do not look continuously at one particular person, nor at a point in space).

2.4 People are all different, and they behave and react in different ways. An important function of a
lecturer is to maintain interest and interaction between members of a group.

2.5 Some points or statements are more important than others and should therefore be emphasized. To
ensure that such points or statements are remembered, they must be restated a number of times,
preferably in different words.

2.6 If a blackboard is to be used, any writing on it must be clear and large enough for everyone to see.
Use colour to emphasize important points, particularly in sketches.

2.7 It is only possible to maintain a high level of interest for a relatively short period of time; therefore,
break the lecture up into different periods of activity to keep interest at its highest level. Speaking,
writing, sketching, use of audio-visual material, questions, and discussions can all be used to
accomplish this. When a group is writing or sketching, walk amongst the group, looking at their work,
and provide comment or advice to individual members of the group when necessary.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTA1-IONOF MODEL COCIRSES

2.8 When holding a discussion, do not allow individual members of the group to monopolize the activity,
but ensure that all members have a chance to express opinions or ideas.

2.9 If addressing questions to a group, do not ask them collectively; otherwise, the same person may
reply each time. Instead, address the questions to individuals in turn, so that everyone is invited to
participate.

2.10 It is important to be guided by the syllabus content and not to be tempted to introduce material which
may be too advanced, or may contribute little to the course objective. There is often competition
between instructors to achieve a level which is too advanced. Also, instructors often strongly resist
attempts to reduce the level to that required by a syllabus.

2.11 Finally, effective preparation makes a major contribution to the success of a lecture. Things often go
wrong; preparedness and good planning will contribute to putting things right. Poor teaching cannot
be improved by good accommodation or advanced equipment, but good teaching can overcome any
disadvantages that poor accommodation and lack of equipment can present.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COLIRSES

Part 3 - Curriculum Development


I Curriculum
The dictionary defines curriculum as a "regular course of study", while syllabus is defined as "a
concise statement of the subjects forming a course of study". Thus, in general terms, a curriculum is
simply a course, while a syllabus can be thought of as a list (traditionally, a "list of things to be
taught").

2 Course content
The subjects which are needed to form a training course, and the precise skills and depth of
knowledge required in the various subjects, can only be determined through an in-depth assessment
of the job functions which the course participants are to be trained to perform (job analysis). This
analysis determines the training needs, thence the purpose of the course (course objective). After
ascertaining this, it is possible to define the scope of the course.

(NOTE: Determination of whether or not the course objective has been achieved may quite possibly
entail assessment, over a period of time, of the "on-the-job performancen of those completing the
course. However, the detailed learning objectives are quite specific and immediately assessable.)

3 Job analysis
A job analysis can only be properly carried out by a group whose members are representative of the
organizations and bodies involved in the area of work to be covered by the course. The validation of
results, via review with persons currently employed in the job concerned, is essential if undertraining
and overtraining are to be avoided.

4 Course plan
Following definition of the course objective and scope, a course plan or outline can be drawn up. The
potential students for the course (the trainee target group) must then be identified, the entry standard
to the course decided and the prerequisites defined.

5 Syllabus
The final step in the process is the preparation of the detailed syllabus with associated time scales;
the identification of those parts of textbooks and technical papers which cover the training areas to a
sufficient degree to meet, but not exceed, each learning objective; and the drawing up of a
bibliography of additional material for supplementary reading.

6 Syllabus content
The material contained in a syllabus is not static; technology is continuously undergoing change and
there must therefore be a means for reviewing course material in order to eliminate what is redundant
and introduce new material reflecting current practice. As defined above, a syllabus can be though of
as a list and, traditionally, there have always been an "examination syllabus" and a "teaching
syllabus"; these indicate, respectively, the subject matter contained in an examination paper, and the
subject matter a teacher is to use in preparing lessons or lectures.

7 Training outcomes
7.1 The prime communication difficulty presented by any syllabus is how to convey the "depth" of
knowledge required. A syllabus is usually constructed as a series of "training outcomes" to help
resolve this difficulty.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATIONOF MODEL COURSES

Thus, curriculum development makes use of training outcomes to ensure that a common minimum
level and breadth of attainment is achieved by all the trainees following the same course, irrespective
of the training institution (i.e. teachingllecturing staff).

Training outcomes are trainee-oriented, in that they describe an end result which is to be achieved by
the trainee as a result of a learning process.

In many cases, the learning process is linked to a skill or work activity and, to demonstrate properly
the attainment of the objective, the trainee response may have to be based on practical application or
use, or on work experience.

The training outcome, although aimed principally at the trainee to ensure achievement of a specific
learning step, also provides a framework for the teacher or lecturer upon which lessons or lectures
can be constructed.

A training outcome is specific and describes precisely what a trainee must do to demonstrate his
knowledge, understanding or skill as an end product of a learning process.

The learning process is the "knowledge acquisition" or "skill development" that takes place during a
course. The outcome of the process is an acquired "knowledgen, "understandingn, "skill"; but these
terms alone are not sufficiently precise for describing a training outcome.

Verbs, such as "calculatesn, "definesn, "explainsn, "listsn, "solves" and "states", must be used when
constructing a specific training outcome, so as to define precisely what the trainee will be enabled to
do.

In the IMO model course project, the aim is to provide a series of model courses to assist instructors
in developing countries to enhance or update the maritime training they provide, and to allow a
common minimum standard to be achieved throughout the world. The use of training outcomes is a
tangible way of achieving this desired aim.

As an example, a syllabus in training-outcome format for the subject of ship construction appears in
annex A2. This is a standard way of structuring this kind of syllabus. Although, in this case, an
outcome for each area has been identified - and could be used in an assessment procedure - this
stage is often dropped to obtain a more compact syllabus structure.

Assessment
Training outcomes describe an outcome which is to be achieved by the trainee. Of equal importance
is the fact that such an achievement can be measured OBJECTIVELY through an evaluation which
will not be influenced by the personal opinions and judgements of the examiner. Objective testing or
evaluation provides a sound base on which to make reliable judgements concerning the levels of
understanding and knowledge achieved, thus allowing an effective evaluation to be made of the
progress of trainees in a course.
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GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Annex A2 - Example of a Model Course syllabus in a subject area


Subject area: Ship construction

Prerequisite: Have a broad understanding of shipyard practice

General aims: Have knowledge of materials used in shipbuilding, specification of


shipbuilding steel and process of approval

Textbooks: No specific textbook has been used to construct the syllabus, but the
instructor would be assisted in preparation of lecture notes by referring to
suitable books on ship construction, such as Ship Construction by Eyres
( T I 2) and Merchant Ship Construction by Taylor (T58)
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

COURSE OUTLINE

Total hours
for each
Total hours for subject area
Knowledge, understanding and proficiency
each topic
of Required
performance

Competence:
3.1 CONTROL TRIM, STABILITY and STRESS
3.1 .IFUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF SHIP
CONSTRUCTION, TRIM AND STABlLlPl
.1 Shipbuilding materials
.2 Welding
.3 Bulkheads
-4 Watertight and weathertight doors
.5 Corrosion and its prevention
.6 Surveys and dry-docking
.7 Stability
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

Part C3: Detailed Teaching Syllabus


Introduction
The detailed teaching syllabus is presented as a series of learning objectives. The
objective, therefore, describes what the trainee must do to demonstrate that the
specified knowledge or skill has been transferred.

Thus each training outcome is supported by a number of related performance


elements in which the trainee is required to be proficient. The teaching syllabus
shows the Required performance expected of the trainee in the tables that follow.

In order to assist the instructor, references are shown to indicate IMO references
and publications, textbooks and teaching aids that instructors may wish to use in
preparing and presenting their lessons.

The material listed in the course framework has been used to structure the detailed
teaching syllabus; in particular,
Teaching aids (indicated by A)
IMO references (indicated by R) and
Textbooks (indicated by T)
will provide valuable information to instructors.

Explanation o f information contained in the syllabus tables


The information on each table is systematically organized in the following way.
The line at the head of the table describes the FUNCTION with which the training is
concerned. A function means a group of tasks, duties and responsibilities as
specified in the STCW Code. It describes related activities which make up a
professional discipline or traditional departmental responsibility on board.

The header of the first column denotes the COMPETENCE concerned. Each
function comprises a number of competences. For example, the Function 3,
Controlling the Operation of the Ship and Care for Persons on board at the
Management Level, comprises a number of COMPETENCES. Each competence is
uniquely and consistently numbered in this model course.

In this function the competence is Control trim, stability and stress. It is


numbered 3.1; that is, the first competence in Function 3. The term "competence"
should be understood as the application of knowledge, understanding, proficiency,
skills, experience for an individual to perform a task, duty or responsibility on board
in a safe, efficient and timely manner.

Shown next is the required TRAINING OUTCOME. The training outcomes are the
areas of knowledge, understanding and proficiency in which the trainee must be
able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding. Each COMPETENCE
comprises a number of training outcomes. For example, the above competence
comprises three training outcomes. The first is concerned with FUNDAMENTAL
PRINCIPLES OF SHIP CONSTRUCTION, TRIM AND STABILITY. Each training
outcome is uniquely and consistently numbered in this model course. That
concerned with fundamental principles of ship construction, trim and stability is
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES

uniquely numbered 3.1 .l.


For clarity, trainiug outcomes are printed in black type on
grey, for example TRAINING OUTCOME.

Finally, each training outcome embodies a variable nurr~ber of Required


performances - as evidence of competence. The instruction, training and learning
should lead to the trainee meeting the specified Required performance. For the
training outcome concerned with fundamental principles of ship construction, trim
and stability there are three areas of performance. These are:
3.1.1.1 Shipbuilding materials
3.1.1.2 Welding
3.1.I.3 Bulkheads

Following each numbered area of Required performance there is a list of activities


that the trainee should complete and which collectively specify the standard of
competence that the trainee must meet. These are for the guidance of teachers
and instructors in designing lessons, lectures, tests and exercises for use in the
teaching process. For example, under the topic 3.1.1.1, to meet the Required
performance, the trainee should be able to:
- state that steels are alloys of iron, with properties dependent upon the
type and amounts of alloying materials used 1
- state that the specifications of shipbuilding steels are laid down by
classification societies
- state that shipbuilding steel is tested and by classification society
surveyors who stamp it with approval marks
I and so on.
I
IMO references (Rx) are listed in the col~.~mn
to the right-hand side. Teaching aids
(Ax), videos (Vx) and textbooks (Tx) relevant to the training outconie and required
performances are placed immediately following the TRAINING OUTCOME title.

It is not intended that lessons are organized to follow the sequence of Required
performances listed in the Tables. The Syllabus Tables are organized to match with
the competence in the STCW Code Table A-1112. Lessons and teaching should
follow college practices. It is not necessary, for example, for ship building materials
to be studied before stability. What is necessary is that of the material is covered
and that teaching is effective to allow trainees to meet the standard of the Required
performance.
GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MODEL COURSES
/

/
. FUNCTION3: CONTROLLING THE OPERATION OF THE SHIP AND CARE FOR

G M 3.1p bntrol
.
~ trim,~stability
~and stress
~ ~ ~
PERSONS ON BOARD AT THE MANAGEMENT LEVEL

IMO reference
/

1 FUNDAMENTA~PRINCIPLES OF SHIP
C ~ ~ ~ T ~ ~ C T&l
TIO AND
N pSTAB1LlTY

\ r e a c h i q aids: Al, AW5, V6, V7

I -states that steelre alloys of iron, with properties dependent upon


the type and arws of alloying materials used
Of shipbuilding steels are laid down by

states that shipl)ing steel is tested and graded by classification


society sur-'eY(?o
l stamp it with approval marks
explains that mipel, graded A to E, is used for most parts of the

le steel may be used in areas of high stress,

igher tensile steel in place of mild steel


ht for the same strength

Dductility
Dhardness
itoughness
1'
divided by original length

explains: 1:
r yield point i;
B ultimate tensip

r modulus of e ,<

1
axplains that t s is related to the tendency to brittle fracture
b
zxplains that selcture may be initiated by a small crack or notch
n a plate

I that col+ns increase the chances of brittle fracture


- jtates m y mil6 unsuitable for the very low temperatures
nvolved in the ent of liquefied gases
P
- ists examples\stings or forgings are used in ship
;onstruction
- plains the a h of the use of aluminium alloys in the
;onstruction oPJctures
- dates that alul/lo~sare tested and graded by classification
~ocietysurvey1
- flplains how 9 Preserved in aluminium superstructures in the
event of fire
- describes the $cautions against corrosion that are needed
here aluminie connected to steelwork
Annex A3 - Example of a lesson plan for annex A2

Subject area: 3.1 Control trim, stability and stress Lesson number: 1 Duration: 3 hours

Training Area: 3.1.1 Fundamental principles of ship construction, trim and stability
-

Main element Teaching Textbook IMO AN aid Instructor Lecture Time


Specific training outcome in teaching sequence, with method reference guidelines notes (minutes)
memory keys
- -

1.1 Shipbuilding materials (3 hours)

States that steels are alloys of iron, with properties dependent Lecture T12, T58 STCW 1112, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 10
upon the type and amounts of alloying materials used A-1112 by the
lecturer

States that the specifications of shipbuilding steels are laid Lecture T12, T58 STCW 1112, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 20
down by classification societies A-1112 by the
lecturer

Explains that mild steel, graded A to E, is used for most parts Lecture T12, T58 STCW 1112, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 15
of the ship A-1112 by the
lecturer

States why higher tensile steel may be used in areas of high Lecture T12, T58 STCW 1112, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 10
stress, such as the sheer strake A-1112 by the
lecturer

Explains that use of higher tensile steel in place of mild steel Lecture T12, T58 STCW 1112, V5 to V7 A1 Compiled 15
results in a saving of weight for the same strength A-1112 by the
lecturer