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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Chapter 1 Introduction

Electronic devices
Semiconductor materials
Integrated circuits

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Electronic Devices
Device characteristic I-V curve

R
J

+ Va

?
1/R
Va

Figure 8.7 Ideal I-V characteristics


of a pn junction diode.

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

MOSFET key semiconductor device

?
Figure 11.41 ID vs. VDS curves for an n-
channel enhancement-mode MOSFET

Why so? Aim of this course

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Semiconductor Materials
Semiconductors: materials with conductivity intermediate between those
of conductors and insulators. Conductivity (W-1cm-1)
10-18 10-12 10-6 100 106

insulator semiconductor conductor

And, the conductivity of


semiconductors can be varied over
orders of magnitude by changes in
temperature, optical excitation,
impurity contents and applied bias.

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Insulators Semiconductors Conductors


Many ceramics

Superconductors
Alumina

Diamond Inorganic Glasses

Mica Metals
Polypropylene
Soda silica glass
PVDF Degenerately
Doped Si
PET Borosilicate Pure SnO2 Alloys
Intrinsic Si

SiO2 Amorphous Te Graphite NiCr Ag


As2Se3 Intrinsic GaAs

10-18 10-15 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 100 103 106 109 1012
Conductivity (W m)-1
Range of conductivites exhibited by various materials
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Department of Materials Science and Engineering Third Edition, S.O. Kasap ( McGraw-Hill, 2005)

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)


Imetal-semiconductor-metal

Ag CuFeS2 Ag

Imetal-semi-metal

Imetal
Ag Ag

Imetal

NATIONAL CHENG KUNG UNIVERSITY From The Physics of Semiconductors, M. Grundmann 6


Department of Materials Science and Engineering ( Springer-Verlag 2010.)

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Elemental IV-IV III-V II-VI


(group IV) compounds compounds compounds

C SiC AlP AlAs ZnS


Si SiGe AlSb ZnSe
Ge GaN GaP ZnTe
GaAs CdS
GaSb CdSe
InP InAs CdTe
InSb

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Integrated Circuits
Integrated circuits = many devices on a semiconductor substrate
First integrated device 1958, Jack Kilby @TI
(2000 Nobel Prize in physics)

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

IC evolution

1961:
the 1st planar IC
(Fairchild)
4 bipolar transistors
1971: 4004 Microprocessor 2000: Intel Pentium 4
(the 1st Intel microprocessor) Processor
2300 transistors 42,000,000 transistors
Min. feature size = 10 mm Min. feature size = 180 nm
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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Intel 45nm dual-core


processor die
Min. feature size = 45 nm

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Intel Itanium wafer

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Example of IC: Operational Amplifier mA741

Circuit diagram

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

mA741- the chip

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Difference in the size

15 cm
0.32 cm

10 cm 0.64 cm

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Growth of Single Crystal

Figure 1.20 (a) Model of a crystal puller

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Grow single crystal Si - Czochralski

Using a single-crystal seed, pulling


the crystal out from the Si melt
(@1417 C)

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Czochralski method

Seed ()

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Diamond & Zincblende Structure

Figure 1.10 Si unit cell Figure 1.13 GaAs unit cell

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Fig 1.75 Diamond cubic crystal structure and planes.

From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices,


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Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Third Edition, S.O. Kasap ( McGraw-Hill, 2005)

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Si FCC

Two Si atoms on each fcc lattice site


(also called diamond structure)

z
Diamond structure
y
x 8 lattice sites per unit cell, located on
0,0,0 , ,0 ,0, 0, ,
and , , , , , , , ,
[fcc sites + , , translation]
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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Silicon Single Crystal Wafers

A silicon ingot is a single crystal of Si. Within the bulk of the crystal, the atoms are
arranged on a well-defined periodical lattice. The crystal structure is that of
diamond. |Courtesy of MEMC, Electronic Materials Inc.
From Principles of Electronic Materials and Devices,
NATIONAL CHENG KUNG UNIVERSITY
Third Edition, S.O. Kasap ( McGraw-Hill, 2005)
Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

Wafer Fabrication

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

From Solid State Electronic


Devices, 6th Ed., Streetman and
Banerjee, ( Pearson
Education, Inc., 2006.)

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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

IC top-view

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2017/9/6

Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

IBM Copper chip (late 1997)

23.1 mm
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Physics of Semiconductor Materials and Devices (Jen-Sue Chen)

IC cross-section

Lead-tin
Passivation 2, nitride alloy bump
Passivation 1, USG From Introduction to Semiconductor
Manufacturing Technology,, H.Xiao (
Prentice-Hall, 2001)
Metal 4 Copper
Tantalum
barrier layer
FSG

Metal 3 Copper FSG


Nitride etch
stop layer
FSG
Nitride
Metal 2 Copper seal layer

FSG
Tungsten plug Tantalum
M1 Cu Cu FSG
barrier layer
FSG
T/TiN barrier &
Tungsten local PSG Tungsten adhesion layer
Interconnection
STI n+ n+
USG p+ p+ pMOSFET
P-well PMD nitride
N-well
P-epi barrier layer
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