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CHAPTER 4:

CIRCLES

Standard of Competence:
3. To compose circles equations and its tangent lines
Basic of Competences:
3.1. To compose circles equations that satisfy given conditions
Indicators:
To formulate circles equations which have centers (0 , 0) and (a , b)
To determine the center and radius of the circle of which its equation is
known.
To determine circle equation that satisfies certain criteria.
3.2. To determine the equation of tangent line at a circle in various situation
Indicators:
To sketch a line is tangent to a circle and determining its properties
To formulate the equation of tangent line that passes through a point at the
circle.
To formulate the equation of tangent line that its slope is known.
To formulate the equation of tangent line that passes through a point outside
the circle

In order to learn this topic you need to know two important things
1. The distance formula
a. the distance from a point A(x1 , y1) to a point B(x2 , y2) is
d = |AB| = ( x 2 x1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y1 ) 2
b. the distance from a point P(x1 , y1) to a line g Ax + By + C = 0 is
Ax1 + By1 + C
d=
A2 + B 2
2. The definition of the circle

Definition:
A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a
point (center).

Distance from the center to any point of it is called
radius (r).

4.1 THE CIRCLE EQUATIONS

Student objectives:
The students will be able to:
1. Find the equation for a circle given the center and radius
2. Find the equation for a circle given the center and a point on the circle
3. Find the equation for a circle given the center and a tangent line to the
circle
4. Find the center and radius for a circle given the circle equation
5. Determine the position of a point to a circle.

Module of Mathematics 1
A. Standard form of an equation for a circle
1. The equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r
The equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r is x2 + y2 = r2
or in set notation l {(x , y) | x2 + y2 = r2 }
Y
Proof:
P(x , y) |OP| = r
r
O X
( x 0) 2 + ( y 0) 2 = r (Distance formula)
x2 + y2 = r
x2 + y2 = r 2 (Square both sides)
Proven.
Examples:
1. Find the equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius 3.
Solution:
The equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r is
x2 + y2 = r2
r = 3 x2 + y2 = 9
So the equation for the circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r is
x2 + y2 = 9
In set notation l {(x , y) | x2 + y2 = 9}
2. Find the equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and passing through
a point P(2 , 3).
Solution:
x2 + y2 = r2
through P(2 , 3) (2)2 + (3)2 = r2
4 + 9 = r2
r2 = 13
hence :
x2 + y2 = 13
So the equation for the circle with center at O(0 , 0) and passing through
a point P(2 , 3) is x2 + y2 = 13
In set notation l {(x , y) | x2 + y2 = 13}
3. Find the equation for a circle with center at O(0 , 0) and tangent to a
line g x 2y = 10
Solution: Y
a line g x 2y = 10
x 2y 10 = 0 g x 2y = 10

A = 1 , B = 2 , C = 10 O r X
10
The radius is the distance from
O(0 , 0) to the tangent line g is: 5 P(x , y)

x1 2 y1 10
r=d=
12 + (2) 2
0 2(0) 10
O(0 , 0) r =
5
10
r= =2 5
5
2
r = 20
So the equation for the circle with center at O(0 , 0) and tangent to a line g
x 2y = 10 is x2 + y2 = 20

Module of Mathematics 2
Position of points to a circle L x2 + y2 = r2
1. A point P(m , n) is inside the circle L m2 + n2 < r2
2. A point P(m , n) is on the circle L m2 + n2 = r2
3. A point P(m , n) is outside the circle L m2 + n2 > r2
Exercise 1
1. Find the equation for circles with center at O(0 , 0) and radius:
a. r = 5 c. r=4
b. r = 23 d. r=6
2. Find the equation for circles with center at O(0 , 0) and pass through
points:
a. (1 , 3) c. (3 , 4)
b. (2 , 4) d. (5 , 7)
3. Determine radius of the following circles:
a. x2 + y2 = 16 c 4x2 + 4y2 = 100
2 2
b. x + y = 24 d 16x2 + 16y2 = 9
4. Find the equation for circles with center at O(0 , 0) and tangent to the
following lines:
1
a. 4x 3y + 10 = 0 c. y = x + 15 y
2
b. 5x + 12y + 26 = 0 d. y = 3 x + 12
5. Determine the position of the following points to the circle x2 + y2 = 5
a. (1 , 1) c. (0 , 2)
b. (2 , 1) d. (3 , 2)
6. Find the value of a , if:
a. a point P(a , 2) is on the circle x2 + y2 = 13
b. a point P(a , a) is on the circle x2 + y2 = 32

2. The equation for a circle with center at M(a , b) and radius r


The equation of a circle with center M(a , b) and radius r is
(x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2 in set notation l {(x , y) | (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2}

Proof:
|MP| = r
( x a ) 2 + ( y b) 2 = r
( x a ) 2 + ( y b) 2 = r 2 (Square both sides)
Proven !

Position of points to a circle L (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2


1. A point P(m , n) is inside the circle L (m a)2 + (n b)2 < r2
2. A point P(m , n) is on the circle L (m a)2 + (n b)2 = r2
3. A point P(m , n) is outside the circle L (m a)2 + (n b)2 > r2
Examples:
1. Find the equation for a circle with center at (3 , 2)
and passes through a point ( 7 , 1)
Solution:
The equation for circle with center at P(3 , 2) is (x 3)2 + (y +2)2= r2
Passes through the point (7 , 1) (7 3)2 + (1 + 2)2 = r2
16 + 9 = r2
r2 = 25
So the equation for the circle is (x 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25

Module of Mathematics 3
2. Find the equation for a circle with center at A(1 , 3) and tangent to
the line 2x + 3y + 6 = 0
Solution:
Radius of circle is the distance from the center A(1 , 3) to the line
2x + 3y + 6 = 0.
2 x1 + 3 y1 + 6
r=d=
x1 + x 2
2 2

2(1) + 3(3) + 6 13
Center at A(1 , 3) r = = = 13
2 2 + 32 13
The equation for the circle with center A(1 , 3) and radius r = 13
(x (1))2 + (y 3)2 = ( 13 )2
(x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 13
So the equation for the circle is (x + 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 13
Exercise 2:
1. Determine a center and radius of the following equation for circles:
a. (x 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 16 c. (x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 13
2 2
b. (x 4) + (y + 2) = 9 d. (x + 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 20
2. Determine the equation for the following circles with conditions:
a. center at (2 , 1) and radius r = 3 unit
b. center at (3 , 2) and radius r = 23
3. Determine the equation for the following circles with conditions:
a. center at (3 , 2) and passes through a point (4 , 3)
b. center at (2 , 3) and passes through a point (1 , 1)
4. Determine the equation for the following circles that satisfy the given
conditions:
a. center at (1 , 3) and tangent to a line g 2x + 3y + 2 = 0
b. center at (2 , 4) and tangent to a line h 4x 3y + 5 = 0
5. The center of circles are at a line y = 3, the circles are tangent to Y-
axis and a line 3x 3y = 0. Find equation for the circles.
6. Determine the position of the following points to the circle
L (x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 8
a. P(3 , 1) c. R(1 , 2)
b. Q(1 , 3) d. S(2 , 3)
7. Determine the limits of value b, if given:
a. (1 , b) is inside a circle L ( x 3)2 + (y + 3)2 = 8
b. (b , b) is out side a circle L (x + 4)2 + (y + 1)2 = 4
8. Known a point A(2 , 5) and a circle L (x +1)2 + (y 3)2 = 9.
a. determine the position of the point A
b. calculate the shortest distance the point A to the circle L.
B. General form of an equation for a circle
1. Stating general form of an equation for a circle
The general form of an equation for a circle can be stated with the equation:
x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0 (A, B, and C are real numbers)
or
Ax2 + Ay2 + Bx + Cy + D = 0 (A, B, C, and D are real numbers, A 0

Example:
Find the general form of equation for the circle that satisfies the given
conditions:
a. Center at (1 , 3) and radius 4
3
b. Center at (3 , 4) and radius
2

Module of Mathematics 4
Solution:
a. The equation for the circle that has center (1 , 3) and radius 4 is
(x 1)2 + (y 3)2 = 42
(x2 2x + 1) + (y2 6y + 9) = 16
x2 + y2 2x 6y + 10 16 = 0
x2 + y2 2x 6y + 4 = 0
So, the general form equation for the circle that has center (1 , 3) and
radius 4 is x2 + y2 2x 6y + 4 = 0
3
b. The equation for the circle that has center (3 , 4) and radius is
2
3
(x (3))2 + (y (4))2 = ( )2
2
3
(x + 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = ( )2
2
9
(x2 + 6x + 9) + (y2 + 8y + 16) =
4
9
x2 + y2 + 6x + 8y + 25 =
4
4x2 + 4y2 + 24x + 32y + 100 = 9 (both sides are multiplied by 4)
4x2 + 4y2 + 24x + 32y + 91 = 0
So, the general form equation for the circle that has center (3 , 4) and
3
radius is 4x2 + 4y2 + 24x + 32y + 91 = 0
2
2. Determining the center and radius for the circle
Example:
Find the center and radius for the following equations:
a. x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 12 = 0
b. 4x2 + 4y2 8x + 16y + 11 = 0
c. x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0
Solution:
To find the center and the radius for the circle we use completing square
a. x2 + y2 + 4x 6y 12 = 0
x2 + 4x + y2 6y = 12
(x2 + 4x + 4) + (y2 6y + 9) = 12 + 4 + 9
(x + 2)2 + (y 3)2 = 25 (Completing the square)
(x + 2) + (y 3) = 5
2 2 2

So the center is (2 , 3) and the radius is 5.


b. 4x2 + 4y2 8x + 16y + 11 = 0
4x2 8x + 4y2 + 16y = 11
4(x2 2x) + 4(y2 + 4y) = 11
4(x2 2x + 1) + 4(y2 + 4y + 4) = 11 + 4 + 16
4(x 1)2 + 4(y + 2)2 = 9 (Completing the square)
9
(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = (Both sides are divided by 4)
4
3
(x 1)2 + (y + 2)2 = ( ) 2
2
3
So the center is (1 , 2) and the radius is
2
c. x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0
x2 + Ax + y2 + By = C
A B A2 B 2
(x2 + Ax + ( ) 2 ) + (y2 + By + ( ) 2 ) = C + +
2 2 4 4

Module of Mathematics 5
A 2 B A2 B 2
(x + ) + (y + )2 = + C
2 2 4 4

From the equation, we get:


A B
The center is ( , )
2 2
The radius is
A2 B 2
r2 = + C
4 4
A2 B 2
r= + C
4 4

Conclusion:

A center and radius of the general form circle


L x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0 are determined by formula:
A B A2 B 2
Center ( , ) Radius r = + C
2 2 4 4

Example:
Find the center and radius from the following equation for the circles:
a. x2 + y2 4x 6y 3 = 0
b. 9x2 + 9y2 + 18x + 36y 19 = 0
Solution:
a. x2 + y2 4x 6y 3 = 0
A = 4 ; B = 6 ; and C = 3
4 6
The center of the circle is ( , ) (2 , 3)
2 2
( 4) 2 ( 6) 2
The radius of the circle is r = + (3)
4 4
r = 4+9+3
r = 16 = 4
2 2
So, the circle x + y 4x 6y 3 = 0 has a center (2 , 3) and radius 4.

b. 9x2 + 9y2 + 18x + 36y 19 = 0


19
x2 + y2 + 2x + 4y =0
9
19
A = 2 ; B = 4 ; and C =
9
The center of the circle is (1 , 2)

The radius of the circle is

19
r = 1+ 4 +
9
9 + 36 + 19 64 8
r= = =
9 9 3

Module of Mathematics 6
So the circle 9x2 + 9y2 + 18x + 36y 19 = 0 has a center (1 , 2) and
8
radius
3
3. The power of a point
The power of a point P(h , k) to a circle L x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0 is
KP(h , k) = h2 + k2 + Ah + Bh + C = 0
Using the power of a point, we can determine the position of the point
to the circle.
If the point P(h , k) is inside the circle, then KP(h , k) < 0
If the point P(h , k) is on the circle, then KP(h , k) = 0
If the point P(h , k) is outside the circle, then KP(h , k) > 0
Example:
Given the circle L x2 + y2 4x + 6y 12 = 0.Determine the position
of the following points to the circle:
a. A(1 , 3)
b. B(1 , 2)
Solution:
a. KA(1 , 3) = (1)2 + (3)2 4(1) + 6(3) 12 = 30
Because KA(1 , 3) < 0, then the point A is inside the circle L.
b. KB(1 , 2) = (1)2 + (2)2 4(1) + 6(2) 12 = 9
Because KB(1 , 2) > 0, then the point B is outside the circle L

If the position of a point P(h , k) is outside the circle L x2 + y2 + Ax +


By + C = 0, then the distance of the line is tangent that made from the
point P to the circle L is determined by formula:

PS = K P
With S is the point of tangency and Kp is the power of point P to the
circle L.

Exercise 3:
1. From the following equations, which is a circle equation and which is
not a circle equation (give your reason when your answer is not a circle
equation).
a. x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 2 = 0
b. x2 y2 + 4x + 2y + 6 = 0
c. x2 + y2 8y 16 = 0
d. 4x2 + 4y2 + 8x 8y 28 = 0
e. x2 + y2 + 4xy + 6x + 8y 20 = 0
2. State in general form equations for the circle satisfy the following
conditions:
a. A center at ( 1 , 2) and radius 3
b. A center at (0 , 5) and radius 4
5
c. A center at ( 2 , 3) and radius
2
3. A circle with a center (2 , 4) tangent to Y-axis. Write down the circle
in general form.
4. By using completing the square, find the center and radius from the
following circles:
a. x2 + y2 + 4x = 0 c. 4x2 + 4y2 + 4x 8y 31 = 0
2 2
b. x + y 6x 18y +89 = 0 d. 9x2 + 9y2 + 6x 12y 13 = 0
5. By using the center and radius formula for general form of equation for
the circle, determine the center and the radius from the equations in
problem 4.

Module of Mathematics 7
6. Known the equation for the circle L x2 + y2 + px 10y + 4 = 0 tangent
to X-axis, determine:
a. The radius of the circle;
b. The value of p and the center of the circle
7. The following points are located at the following circles. Find the value
of q.
a. A point (q , 0) is located on the circle L x2 + y2 4x + 6y 23 = 0
b. A point (1 , 2) is located on the circle L x2 + y2 qx + 2y 5 = 0
8. A point P(2 , n) is located inside the circle L x2 + y2 4x 8y 5 = 0.
Determine the all values of n ( n natural number) are possible.

4.2 The position of a line to a circle

Student objectives:
The students will be able to determine the position of a line to a circle.

g
Y Y
g

B(x2,y2)


A(x1,y1) L L

O ( iii ) X
O X
(i)

a). In the figure ( i ), a line g intersects a circle L in the two distinct points, they
are points A(x1 , y1) and B(x2 , y2).
b). In the figure ( ii ), a line g intersects a circle L in the one point or it is called
the line g is tangent to the circle L at a point T(x1 , y1). The point T(x1 , y1) is
called a point of tangency.
c). In figure (iii), a line g doesnt intersect and also tangent to a circle L.
Let a line g ax + by + c = 0 and a circle L x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0, there are
three steps to determine the position of the line g to the circle L.
Step 1:
At the line g, express x as y function or y as x function.
Step 2:
Substitute x or y from the step 1 to the equation for the circle L. This substitution
will produce a quadratic equation result in x variable or in y variable, then find
the discriminant D of the quadratic equation.
Step 3:
The position of the line g to the circle L is determined by the discriminant D:
1). D > 0 the line g intersects the circle L at the two distinct points.
2). D = 0 the line g is tangent to the circle L.
3). D < 0 the line g doesnt intersect and also tangent to the circle L.
Example:
Without graphing on a Cartesian plane, determine the position of a line
g x + y + 4 = 0 to a circle L x2 + y2 + 8x 6 = 0
Solution:
o The line g x + y + 4 = 0 can be expressed y = x 4
o Substitute y = x 4 to the circle L ( x2 + y2 + 8x 6 = 0, obtained:
x2 + (x 4)2 + 8x 6 = 0
( x2 + x2 + 8x + 16 + 8x 6 = 0
( 2x2 + 16x + 10 = 0
( x2 + 8x + 5 = 0

Module of Mathematics 8
The value of discriminant of the quadratic function x2 + 8x + 5 = 0 is
D = (8)2 4 (1)(5) = 64 20 = 44.
o Because D = 44 ( , then the line g intersects the circle L at two distinct points.

Exercise 4:
1. Sketch the graph of a line g and a circle L on the Cartesian plane, then
mention position of the line g to the circle L.
a. g ( x = 1 and L ( x2 + y2 2x + 4y 11 = 0
b. g ( x + y = 3 and L ( x2 + y2 + x 6y 15 = 0
2. Without sketching the graph of a line g ( x 2y + 2 = 0 and a circle L (
x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y 3 = 0, determine the position of the line g to the
circle L.
3. Known a circle g ( x + y 8 = 0 and a circle L( x2 + y2 8x 2y + 12 =
0.
a. Show that the line g intersects the circle L in two distinct points.
b. Find the intercept points coordinates.
c. Calculate the distance of an intersecting segment line at the circle.
4. Known a circle L x2+y2+2x4y8=0. Show that a line g3x2y6=0 is
tangent to the circle then determine its point of tangency.

4.3 The equation of a tangent line of a circle


Student objectives:
The students will be able to:
1. Determine the equation of a tangent line of a circle, which passes through
a point on the circle.
2. Determine the equation of a tangent line of a circle, which has a given
slope.
3. Determine the equation of a tangent line of a circle, which passes through
a point outside the circle.
4. Determine the equation of a polar line of a circle.

A. The equation of tangent line of a circle, which passes through a point


on the circle
1. For the circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r
A line g is tangent to the circle
L x2 + y2 = r2 at a point of tangency Y
T(x1 , y1).
y
o The slope of OT is mOT = 1 T(x1,y1)
x1 y1
o Because g is perpendicular to OT X
O x1
x1
then m g = g
y1
Lx2 + y2 = r2
o The equation of tangent line g is
y y1 = m g ( x x1 )
x1
y y1 = ( x x1 )
y1
y1 y y i = x1 y + x1
2 2
So, the equation of a tangent
x1 x + y1 y = x1 + y1
2 2 line of the circle L x2 + y2 = r2
is g x1x + y1y = r2
x1 x + y1 y = r 2

Example:

Module of Mathematics 9
Determine the equation of the tangent line to a circle L x2 + y2 = 25
passes through the point A(3 , 4).

Solution:
The point A(3 , 4) is on the circle L x2 + y2 = 25, x1 = 3 and y1 = 4
The equation of the tangent line is x1x + y1y = r2
3x + 4y = 25
So the equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = 25 at the point
A(3 , 4) is 3x + 4y = 25.

2. For the circle with center at M(a , b) and radius r

The equation of the tangent line to the circle L (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2


at a point T(x1 , y1) is ( x1 a )( x a ) + ( y1 a )( y a ) = r 2

Example:
Determine the equation of tangent line to a circle L(x 2)2+(y 1)2=10,
passes through a point (3 , 4).
Solution:
Because the point (3 , 4) is on the circle L (x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 10, then
the equation of tangent line is (x1 2)(x 2) + (y1 1)(y 1) = 10
(3 2)(x 2) + (4 1)(y 1) = 10
x 2 + 3y 3 = 10
x + 3y = 13.
So, the equation of tangent line to the circle L (x 2)2 + (y 1)2 = 10 at
a point (3 , 4) is x + 3y = 13

3. For the circle in general form

The equation of a tangent line to the circle in general form


L x2 + y2 + Ax + By + C = 0 at a point T(x1 , y1) is
1 1
x1 x + y1 y + A( x + x1 ) + B ( y + y1 ) + C = 0
2 2

Example:
Determine the equation of tangent line to the circle
L x2 + y2 2x 10y + 17 = 0 that passes through a point (4 , 5).
Solution:
The equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 2x 10y + 17 = 0
is: x1 x + y1 y ( x + x1 ) 5( y + y1 ) + 17 = 0
4x + 5y (x + 4) 5( y + 5) + 17 = 0
4x + 5y x 4 5y 25 + 17 = 0
3x 12 = 0
3x = 12
x = 4.
So, the equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 2x 10y+17 = 0
that passes through a point (4 , 5) is x = 4.

B. The equation of tangent line of a circle which has a slope m


1. For the circle with center at O(0 , 0) and radius r
The equation of the circle is L x2 + y2 = r2. Let the equation of tangent
line with slope m is g y = mx + n.
Substitute y = mx + n to the x2 + y2 = r2

Module of Mathematics 10
x2 + (mx + n)2 r2 = 0
x2 + m2x2 + 2mnx + n2 r2 = 0
(1 + m2)x2 + 2mnx + n2 r2 = 0
Because the line is tangent to the circle, then D = 0
(2mn)2 4 (1 + m2) (n2 r2) = 0
4m2n2 4n2 + 4r2 4m2n2+ 4m2r2 = 0
4n2 = 4r2 4m2r2
n2 = r2(m2 + 1) (both sides are divided by 4)
n = r m2 + 1
So the equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = r2 is
y = mx r m 2 + 1

Conclusion:
The equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = r2 with its slope
m is y = mx r m 2 + 1

Example:
Find the equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = 16 with its
slope is 2 .
Solution:
The equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = 16, with its
slope is 2
y = mx r (2) 2 + 1
y = mx
The equation of tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = 16, with its
slope 2 is y = mx n
y = mx + n
y = mx r m 2 + 1
y = 2x 4 (2) 2 + 1
So the equation of tangent line y = 2x 4 5

2. For the circle with center at A(a , b) and radius r

The equation of tangent line to the circle L (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2 is :


y b = m(x a) r m 2 + 1

Example :
Determine the equation of tangent line to a circle (x 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 1
which has a slope 1.
Solution:
m = 1 and r = 1
(y 2) = m(x 4) r m 2 + 1
(y 2) = 1(x 4) 1 1 + 1
y = x 2 2
So, the equations of tangent line to the circle (x 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 1 which
has slope 1 are y = x 2 + 2 or y = x 2 2

Module of Mathematics 11
B. The equation of tangent line of a circle, passes through at a point (the
point is outside the circle

A point of tangency

The 1st tangent line


P(x1 , y1)

The 2nd tangent line

A polar line

A point of tangency

A point P(x1 , y1) is outside the circle L. Through the point P can be
drawn tangent lines to the circle L. There are two tangent lines. There
some steps (algorithm) to determine the equation of tangent lines . The
steps are :
Step 1
Assumed the equation of tangent line is a line g. The line g is passes
through a point P(x1 , y1) and has a slope m. The equation of tangent line
g is:
y y1 = m(x x1)
y = mx mx1 + y1 equation 1.
Step 2
The line g is tangent to the circle L (x a)2 + (y b)2 = r2 if the line g has
a slope m then the equation of tangent line g is:
y b = m(x a) r m 2 + 1
y = mx ma + b r m 2 + 1 equation 2.
Step 3
From equations 1 and 2 we get:
mx mx1 + y1 = mx ma + b r m 2 + 1
ma mx1 + y1 b = r m 2 + 1
Square both sides to get the value of m.
Step 3
Substitute the value of m (from steps 2) to the equation 1, we will be able
to find the equation of tangent line.
A polar line of a point P(x1 , y1) is a line that intersects the circle at two
points of tangency
Example:
Known the circle L x2 + y2 = 25. A point P(1 , 7) that outside the
circle.
Determine:
a. the equation of a tangent line to the circle L which passes through
the point P.
b. the equation of a polar line of the point P.
c. The point of tangencies
Solution:

Module of Mathematics 12
a. Assumed a line g is the equation of tangent line that passes through
a point P(1 , 7).
The equation of line g is y 7 = m(x +1)
y = mx + m + 7 equation 1.
Assumed a line g is a tangent line to the circle that has a slope m.
y = mx r m 2 + 1
y = mx 5 m 2 + 1 equation 2.

From the equations 1 and 2 we get:

mx + m + 7 = mx 5 m 2 + 1
m + 7 = 5 m2 + 1
(m + 7)2 = 25 (m2 + 1)
m2 + 14m + 49 = 25m2 + 25
24m2 14m2 24 = 0
12m2 7m2 12 = 0
(3m 4) ( 4m + 3) = 0
4 3
m = or m =
3 4
4 4 4 3 3 3
For m = y = x + + 7 For m = y = x+ + 7
3 3 3 4 4 4
3y = 4x + 25 4y = 3x + 25
4x 3y + 25 = 0 3x + 4y 25 = 0
So, the equation of a tangent line to the circle L x2 + y2 = 25 which
passes through a point P(1 , 7) are 4x 3y + 25 = 0 and 3x + 4y
25 = 0.
b. The equation of a polar line of the point P(1 , 7) is
x1x + y1y = r2
(1)x + 7y = 25
x + 7y = 25
So, the equation of a polar line of the point P( , 7) is x + 7y = 25.
c. The points of tangency
The points of tangency are the intersection points between the polar
line and the circle.
The polar line x + 7y =25 x = 7y 25
Substitute x = 7y 25 to the circle x2 + y2 = 25
(7y 25)2 + y2 = 25
49y2 350y + 625 + y2 25 = 0
50y2 350y + 600 = 0
y2 7y + 12 = 0
(y 3)(y 4) = 0
y = 3 or y = 4
For y = 3 x = 7(3) 25 = 4 (4 , 3)
For y = 4 x = 7(4) 25 = 3 (3 , 4)
So, the points of tangency are (4 , 3) and (3 , 4).

Exercise 5:
1. Determine the equation of a tangent line to a circle passes through a
given points with the following conditions:
a. L x2 + y2 = 12, passes through a point (3 , 3)
b. L x2 + y2 = 10, passes through a point (1 , 3)
2. Determine the equation of a tangent line to a circle passes through a
given points with the following conditions:

Module of Mathematics 13
a. L (x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 16, passes through (0 , 2)
b. L (x + 2)2 + (y 4)2 = 45, passes through (4 , 1)
3. Determine the equation of a tangent line to a circle passes through a
given points with the following conditions:
a. L x2 + y2 4x 2y 3 = 0, passes through point (4, 3)
b. L 4x2 + 4y2 8x 4y 27 = 0, passes through a point (3 , )
4. Determine the equation of a tangent line for the following circles
with given a slope:
a. L x2 + y2 = 4 with a slope 3
12
b. L x2 + y2 = 25 with a slope
5
3
c. L (x 1)2 + (y + 2)2= 25 with a slope
4
d. L (x )2 + (y + 1 )2 = 16 with a slope 2
5. Find the equation of tangent line to a circle L(x2)2+(y+1)2= 9, if:
a. the tangent line is parallel to a line g 3x + 4y = 1
b. the tangent line is perpendicular to a line g 2x + y = 4.
6. Determine the equation of tangent line:
a. at a circle L x2 + y2 = 36 that pulled from a point (8 , 0)
b. at a circle L x2+y26x+2y+5=0, that pulled from a point (0, 0)
7. Find a polar line from a point P(5 , 4) for the circle L x2 + y2 + 4x
2y 11 = 0.

Module of Mathematics 14