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CONTENTS VOL 1

ENGINEERING MECHANICS
AM 1 Equilibrium of Forces AM 3
AM 2 Structure AM 40
AM 3 Friction AM 81
AM 4 Virtual Work AM 117
AM 5 Kinematics of Particle AM 128
AM 6 Kinetics of Particles AM 157
AM 7 Plane Kinematics of Rigid body AM 190
AM 8 Plane Kinetics of Rigid body AM 206

STRENGTH OF MATERIALS
SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 3
SM 2 Axial Loading SM 41
SM 3 Torsion SM 86
SM 4 Shear Force and Bending Moment SM 118
SM 5 Transformation of Stress and Strain SM 179
SM 6 Design of Beams and Shafts SM 226
SM 7 Deflection of Beams and Shafts SM 270
SM 8 Column SM 315
SM 9 Energy Methods SM 354

THEORY OF MACHINES
TM 1 Analysis of Plane Mechanism TM 3
TM 2 Velocity and Acceleration TM 20
TM 3 Dynamic Analysis of Slider - Crank and Cam TM 38
TM 4 Gear - Trains TM 59
TM 5 Fly Wheel TM 91
TM 6 Vibration TM 109

MACHINES DESIGN
MD 1 Static and Dynamic Loading MD 3
MD 2 Joints MD 22
MD 3 Shaft and Shaft Components MD 54
MD 4 Spur Gears MD 71
MD 5 Bearings MD 88
MD 6 Clutch and Brakes MD 105
CONTENTS VOL 2

FLUID MECHANICS
FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 3
FM 2 Pressure and Fluid Statics FM 33
FM 3 Fluid Kinematics & Bernouli Equation FM 80
FM 4 Flow Analysis Using Control Volumes FM 124
FM 5 Flow Analysis Using Differential Method FM 172
FM 6 Internal Flow FM 211
FM 7 External Flow FM 253
FM 8 Open Channel Flow FM 289
FM 9 Turbo Machinery FM 328

HEAT TRANSFER
HT 1 Basic Concepts & Modes of Heat-Transfer HT 3
HT 2 Fundamentals of Conduction HT 34
HT 3 Steady Heat Conduction HT 63
HT 4 Transient Heat Conduction HT 94
HT 5 Fundamentals of Convection HT 114
HT 6 Free and Force Convection HT 129
HT 7 Radiation Heat Transfer HT 155
HT 8 Heat Exchangers HT 181

THERMODYNAMICS
TD 1 Basic Concepts and Energy Analysis TD 3
TD 2 Properties of Pure Substances TD 28
TD 3 Energy Analysis of Closed System TD 52
TD 4 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volume TD 76
TD 5 Second Law of Thermodynamics TD 106
TD 6 Entropy TD 136
TD 7 Gas Power Cycles TD 166
TD 8 Vapor and Combined Power Cycles TD 199
TD 9 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning TD 226

***********
CONTENTS VOL 3

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

OPERATION RESEARCH
CONTENTS VOL 4

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
EM 1 Linear Algebra EM 1
EM 2 Differential Calculus EM 24
EM 3 Integral Calculus EM 46
EM 4 Directional Derivatives EM 67
EM 5 Differential Equation EM 79
EM 6 Complex Variable EM 103
EM 7 Probability and Statistics EM 123
EM 8 Numerical Methods EM 142

VERBAL ANALYSIS
VA 1 Synonyms VA 1
VA 2 Antonyms VA 16
VA 3 Agreement VA 26
VA 4 Sentence Structure VA 37
VA 5 Spellings VA 58
VA 6 Sentence Completion VA 87
VA 7 Word Analogy VA 111
VA 8 Reading Comprehension VA 135
VA 9 Verbal Classification VA 148
VA 10 Critical Reasoning VA 153
VA 11 Verbal Deduction VA 168

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
QA 1 Number System QA 1
QA 2 Surds, Indices and Logarithm QA 14
QA 3 Sequences and Series QA 28
QA 4 Average, Mixture and Alligation QA 44
QA 5 Ratio, Proportion and Variation QA 59
QA 6 Percentage QA 75
QA 7 Interest QA 89
QA 8 Time, Speed & Distance QA 99
QA 9 Time, Work & Wages QA 112
QA 10 Data Interpretation QA 126
QA 11 Number Series QA 145

SOLVED PAPER
SP 1 Engineering Mathematics SP 3
SP 2 Engineering Mechanics SP 65
SP 3 Strength of Materials SP 90
SP 4 Theory of Machines SP 138
SP 5 Machine Design SP 189
SP 6 Fluid Mechanics SP 218
SP 7 Heat Transfer SP 265
SP 8 Thermodynamics SP 303
SP 9 Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning SP 358
SP 10 Manufacturing Engineering SP 375
SP 11 Industrial Engineering SP 448
SP 12 General Aptitude SP 496
SM 1
STRESS AND STRAIN

Common Data For Q. 1 and 2


A long wire of tungsten ( gT = 190 kN/m3 ) hangs vertically from a high-altitude
balloon, is shown in figure.

SM 1.1 If the ultimate strength (or breaking strength) is 1500 MPa, the greatest length
that it can have without breaking, is
(A) 3950 m (B) 7900 m
(C) 1975 m (D) 790 m

SM 1.2 If the same wire hangs from a ship at sea ( gsea water = 10 kN/m3), the greatest
length is
(A) 8300 m (B) 2075 m
(C) 7500 m (D) 3750 m

Common Data For Q. 3 and 4


The 650 N load is applied along the centroidal axis of the member as shown in
figure. Take q = 60c.

SM 1.3 The resultant internal normal and shear forces in the member at section a - a ,
which passes through point A, is
(A) N = 0 , V = 0 (B) N = 50 N , V = 650 N
(C) N = 0 , V = 650 N (D) N = 650 N , V = 0
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SM 4 Stress and Strain SM 1

SM 1.4 The resultant internal normal and shear forces in the member at section b - b ,
which passes through point A, is
(A) N = 325 N , V = 563 N (B) N = 650 N , V = 563 N
(C) N = 563 N , V = 325 N (D) N = 325 N , V = 1126 N

SM 1.5 In the figure shown, link BC of 6 mm thickness is made of a steel with a 450 MPa
ultimate strength in tension. If the structure is being designed to support a 20 kN
load P with a factor of safety of 3, its width w should be

(A) 13.9 mm (B) 55.6 mm


(C) 27.8 mm (D) 41.7 mm

SM 1.6 In figure shown, the two-member frame is subjected to the distributed loading.
Member CB has a square cross section of 35 mm on each side and take w = 8 kN/m
. The average normal stress and average shear stress acting at section b-b, are

(A) s = 4.41 MPa , t = 5.88 MPa (B) s = 11.76 MPa , t = 4.41 MPa
(C) s = 8.82 MPa , t = 5.88 MPa (D) s = 5.88 MPa , t = 4.41 MPa

Common Data For Q. 8 and 9


A solid bar of circular cross section has a hole of diameter d/4 drilled laterally
through the center of the bar as shown in figure below. The allowable average
tensile stress on the net cross section of the bar is sallow .

SM 1.7 The formula for the allowable load Pallow that the bar can carrying in tension, is
(A) 0.27d 2 # sallow (B) 0.54d 2 # sallow
(C) 0.675d 2 # sallow (D) 0.54d # sallow

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 5

SM 1.8 If the bar is made of brass with diameter d = 40 mm and sallow = 80 MPa , the
value of Pallow is
(A) 86.5 kN (B) 70 kN
(C) 172 kN (D) 35 kN

SM 1.9 An axial load P is supported by a short W 250 # 0.67 column of cross-sectional


area A = 8580 mm2 and is distributed to a concrete foundation by a square plate
as shown in figure. If the average normal stress in the column must not exceed
150 MPa and the bearing stress on the concrete foundation must not exceed
12.5 MPa, the side a of the plate which will provide the most economical and safe
design is

(A) 103 mm (B) 321 mm


(C) 8.6 mm (D) 160 mm

SM 1.10 The column shown in figure, is subjected to an axial force of 8 kN at its top.
What is the average normal stress acting at section a -a ?

(A) 1.82 MPa (B) 3.64 MPa


(C) 0.91 MPa (D) 2.73 MPa

SM 1.11 A round bar of 10 mm diameter is made of aluminum alloy, as shown in figure.


When the bar is stretched by axial forces P , its diameter decreases by 0.016 mm
. The magnitude of the load P is
(Take E = 72 GPa , n = 0.33 , sY = 480 MPa )

(A) 27.4 kN (B) 54.8 kN


(C) 13.7 kN (D) 37.7 kN

SM 1.12 A steel bar of length 2.5 m with a square cross section 100 mm on each side is
subjected to an axial tensile force of 1300 kN as shown in figure. The increase in

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SM 6 Stress and Strain SM 1

volume of the bar is


(Take sY = 250 MPa , E = 200 GPa , n = 0.3 )

(A) 8112 mm3 (B) 4868 mm3


(C) 3245 mm3 (D) 6490 mm3

Common Data For Q.14 and 15


Three steel plates, each 16 mm thick, are joined by two 20 mm diameter rivets as
shown in the figure.

SM 1.13 If the load P = 50 kN , the largest bearing stress acting on the rivets is
(A) 39 MPa
(B) 156 MPa
(C) 78 MPa
(D) 117 MPa

SM 1.14 If the ultimate shear stress for the rivets is 180 MPa, what force Pu is required to
cause the rivets to fail in shear ? (Disregard friction between the plates.)
(A) 170 kN (B) 57 kN
(C) 226 kN (D) 113 kN

SM 1.15 The small block of 5 mm thickness is shown in figure. If the stress distribution
at the support developed by the load varies as shown, the force F applied to the
block and the distance d to where it is applied, respectively, are

(A) 220 mm (B) 110 mm


(C) 165 mm (D) 55 mm

SM 1.16 The bar has a cross-sectional area of (400 # 10-6) m2 . If it is subjected to a


uniform axial distributed loading along its length and to two concentrated loads
as shown in figure, the average normal stress in the bar as a function of x for

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 7

0 < x # 0.5 m , is

(A) ^47.5 - 20.0x h MPa (B) 67.5x MPa


(C) ^47.5 + 20.0x h MPa (D) 27.5x MPa

Common Data For Q. 18 and 19


In the figure shown, a hollow box beam ABC of length L is supported at end
A by a 20 mm diameter pin that passes through the beam and its supporting
pedestals. The roller support at B is located at distance L/3 from end A.

SM 1.17 If load P is equal to 10 kN, the average shear stress in the pin is
(A) 15.9 MPa (B) 31.8 MPa
(C) 63.6 MPa (D) 7.95 MPa

SM 1.18 If the wall thickness of the beam is equal to 12 mm, the average bearing stress
between the pin and the box beam will be
(A) 41.7 MPa (B) 125.1 MPa
(C) 83.4 MPa (D) 20.85 MPa

SM 1.19 Rods AB and BC shown in figure, have diameters of 4 mm and 6 mm, respectively.
The vertical load of 8 kN is applied to the ring at B . If the average normal stress
in each rod is equivalent then this stress will be

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SM 8 Stress and Strain SM 1

(A) 237 MPa (B) 316 MPa


(C) 474 MPa (D) 158 MPa

Common Data For Q. 20 amd 21


A steel plate ( g = 77 kN/m3 ) of dimensions 2.5 # 1.2 # 0.1 m is hoisted by a
cable sling that has a clevis at each end as shown in figure. The pins through the
clevises are 18 mm in diameter and are located 2.0 m apart. Each half of the cable
is at an angle of 32c to the vertical.

SM 1.20 For above conditions, the average shear stress taver in the pins will be
(A) 8.9 MPa (B) 6.7 MPa
(C) 13.4 MPa (D) 26.8 MPa

SM 1.21 The average bearing stress sb between the steel plate and the pins is
(A) 22.7 MPa (B) 15.2 MPa
(C) 7.57 MPa (D) 30.3 MPa

SM 1.22 Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded together at B and loaded as
shown in figure. If the average normal stress must not exceed 150 MPa in either
rod, the smallest allowable values of the diameters d1 and d2 are

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 9

(A) d1 = 45.2 mm , d2 = 20.1 mm (B) d1 = 22.6 mm , d2 = 40.2 mm


(C) d1 = 20.1 mm , d2 = 45.2 mm (D) d1 = 40.2 mm , d2 = 22.6 mm

SM 1.23 Members AB and AC of the truss as shown, consist of bars of square cross
section made of the same alloy. It is known that a 20 mm square bar of the same
alloy was tested to failure and that an ultimate load of 120 kN was recorded. If a
factor of safety of 3.2 is to be achieved for both bars, the required dimension of
the cross section of the bar AB is

(A) a = 27 mm (B) a = 12 mm
(C) a = 13.5 mm (D) a = 6 mm

SM 1.24 The two steel members are joined together using a 60c scarf weld as shown in
figure. The average normal and average shear stress resisted in the plane of the
weld are

(A) savg = 8 MPa , tavg = 4.62 MPa (B) savg = 4.62 MPa , tavg = 8 MPa
(C) savg = 4.62 MPa , tavg = 16 MPa (D) savg = 16 MPa , tavg = 4.62 MPa

SM 1.25 A steel pipe of 300 mm outer diameter is fabricated from 6 mm thick plate by
welding along a helix which forms an angle of 25c with a plane perpendicular to
the axis of the pipe. If a 250 kN axial force P is applied to the pipe, the normal
and shearing stresses in directions respectively normal and tangential to the weld
are

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SM 10 Stress and Strain SM 1

(A) - 18.5 MPa , 17.28 MPa (B) - 37.1 MPa , 34.56 MPa
(C) - 18.5 MPa , 34.56 MPa (D) - 37.1 MPa , 17.28 MPa

SM 1.26 A 6 kN load is supported by two wooden members of 75 mm # 125 mm uniform


rectangular cross section which are joined by the simple glued scarf splice as
shown in figure. The normal and shearing stresses in the glued splice respectively,
are

(A) 565 kPa, 206 kPa (B) 282 kPa, 206 kPa
(C) 565 kPa, 103 kPa (D) 282 kPa, 103 kPa

SM 1.27 In the figure shown, the wooden members A and B are to be joined by plywood
splice plates which will be fully glued on the surface in contact. If the clearance
between the ends of the members is to be 8 mm and the average shearing stress
in the glue is not to exceed 800 kPa, the smallest allowable length L will be

(A) 308 mm (B) 150 mm


(C) 300 mm (D) 292 mm

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 11

SM 1.28 In the figure shown, the frame is subjected to the distributed loading of 2 kN/m.
What is the required diameter of the pins at A and B if the allowable shear stress
for the material is tallow = 100 MPa ? Both pins are subjected to double shear.

(A) d = 2.6 mm (B) d = 7.8 mm


(C) d = 5.2 mm (D) d = 10.4 mm

SM 1.29 A specially designed wrench is used to twist a circular shaft by means of a square
key that fits into slots (or keyways) in the shaft and wrench as shown in the
figure. The shaft has diameter d, the key has a square cross section of dimensions
b # b and the length of the key is c . The key fits half into the wrench and half
into the shaft (i.e., the keyways have a depth equal to b/2). When a load P is
applied at distance L from the center of the shaft, the formula for the average
shear stress taver in the key is
( Hints : Disregard the effects of friction, assume that the bearing pressure between
the key and the wrench is uniformly distributed)

(A) PL (B) 2PL


bc ^2d + b h bc ^2d + b h
(C) 3PL (D) 4PL
bc ^2d + b h bc ^2d + b h
SM 1.30 The two wooden members shown in figure supports a 20 kN load, are joined
by plywood splices fully glued on the surface in contact. The ultimate shearing
stress in the glue is 2.8 MPa and the clearance between the members is 8 mm. If

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SM 12 Stress and Strain SM 1

a factor of safety of 3.5 is to be achieved, the required length L of each splice is

(A) 216 mm (B) 208 mm


(C) 200 mm (D) 104 mm

SM 1.31 A torque T0 is transmitted between two flanged shafts by means of four 20 mm


bolts as shown in figure. The diameter of the bolt circle is d = 150 mm . If the
allowable shear stress in the bolts is 90 MPa, the maximum permissible torque
will be

(A) 16.96 kN- m (B) 8.48 kN- m


(C) 12.72 kN- m (D) 4.24 kN- m

SM 1.32 The cross section of an aluminium tube serving as a compression brace in the
fuselage of a small airplane is shown in the figure. The outer diameter of the tube
is d = 25 mm and the wall thickness is t = 2.5 mm . If the factors of safety with
respect to the yield stress and the ultimate stress are 4 and 5 respectively, the
allowable compressive force Pallow is
(Take sY = 270 MPa , su = 310 MPa )

(A) 9.5 kN (B) 12.0 kN


(C) 11.0 kN (D) 13.7 kN

SM 1.33 In the figure shown, a long steel wire ( g = 77.0 kN/m3 ) hanging from a balloon
carries a weight W at its lower end. The 4 mm diameter wire is 25 m long. The
tensile yield stress for the wire is sY = 350 MPa and a margin of safety against
yielding of 1.5 is desired. The maximum weight Wmax that can safety be carried is
(Include the weight of the wire in the calculations.)

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 13

(A) 1783 N (B) 1711 N


(C) 1759 N (D) 1735 N

SM 1.34 What is the smallest dimensions of the circular shaft and circular end cap if
the load it is required to support is P = 150 kN ? The allowable tensile stress,
bearing stress and shear stress is (st) allow = 175 MPa , (sb) allow = 275 MPa and
tallow = 115 MPa .

(A) d1 = 15.8 mm , d 3 = 26.4 mm , t = 44.6 mm


(B) d1 = 26.4 mm , d 3 = 44.6 mm , t = 15.8 mm
(C) d1 = 44.6 mm , d 3 = 26.4 mm , t = 15.8 mm
(D) d1 = 44.6 mm , d 3 = 15.8 mm , t = 26.4 mm

SM 1.35 The assembly shown in figure, consists of three disks A, B and C are used to
support the load of 140 kN. The allowable bearing stress for the material is
(sb) allow = 350 MPa and allowable shear stress is tallow = 125 MPa . The smallest
diameter d1 of the top disk, the diameter d2 within the support space and the
diameter d 3 of the hole in the bottom disk are

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SM 14 Stress and Strain SM 1

(A) d1 = 27.6 mm , d2 = 22.6 mm , d 3 = 35.7 mm


(B) d1 = 22.6 mm , d2 = 35.7 mm , d 3 = 27.6 mm
(C) d1 = 22.6 mm , d2 = 27.6 mm , d 3 = 35.7 mm
(D) d1 = 35.7 mm , d2 = 22.6 mm , d 3 = 27.6 mm

SM 1.36 In the structure shown, an 8 mm diameter pin is used at A and 12 mm diameter


pins are used at B and D . The ultimate shearing stress is 100 MPa at all
connections and the ultimate normal stress is 250 MPa in each of the two links
joining B and D . If an overall factor of safety of 3.0 is desired, the allowable load
P is

(A) 7.7 kN (B) 14.04 kN


(C) 3.97 kN (D) 3.72 kN

SM 1.37 The bar shown in figure, is held in equilibrium by the pin supports at A and B
. The support at A has a single leaf and therefore it involves single shear in the
pin and the support at B has a double leaf and therefore it involves double shear.
The allowable shear stress for both the pins is tallow = 125 MPa . If x = 1 m and
w = 12 kN/m , the smallest required diameter of pins A and B are (Neglect any
axial force in the bar.)

(A) dA = 957 mm , dB = 20.6 mm (B) dA = 10.3 mm , dB = 9.57 mm


(C) dA = 19.14 mm , dB = 10.3 mm (D) dA = 9.57 mm , dB = 10.3 mm

SM 1.38 Two plates, each 3 mm thick, are used to splice a plastic strip as shown below. If
the ultimate shearing stress of the bonding between the surface is 900 kPa and
P = 1500 N , the factor of safety with respect to shear will be

(A) 2 (B) 3.6


(C) 5.4 (D) 1.8

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 15

SM 1.39 The cable shown in figure has a specific weight g (weight/volume) and cross-
sectional area A. If the sag s is small, so that its length is approximately L and
its weight can be distributed uniformly along the horizontal axis, the average
normal stress in the cable at its lowest point C is

gL2 gL
(A) s = (B) s =
2s 8s
gL2 gL2
(C) s = (D) s =
8s 4s

SM 1.40 An elastomeric bearing pad consisting of two steel plates bonded to a chloroprene
elastomer, is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test as shown in
figure. The pad has dimensions a = 150 mm , b = 250 mm and the elastomer has
thickness t = 50 mm . When the force V equals 12 kN, the top plate is found to
have displaced laterally 8.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate.

The shear modulus of elasticity G of the chloroprene is


(A) 0.5 MPa (B) 1 MPa
(C) 4 MPa (D) 2 MPa

SM 1.41 A metal bar AB of weight W is suspended by a system of steel wires arranged as


shown in the figure. The diameter of the wire is 2 mm and the yield stress of the
steel is 450 MPa. The maximum permissible weight Wmax for a factor of safety of
1.9 with respect to yielding, is

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SM 16 Stress and Strain SM 1

(A) 685 N (B) 1028 N


(C) 1370 N (D) 2740 N

Common Data For Q. 42 and 43


In figure shown below, link BD consists of a single bar 30 mm wide and 12 mm
thick. Each pin has a 10 mm diameter.

SM 1.42 If q = 0c, the maximum value of the average normal stress in link BD is
(A) zero (B) 72 MPa
(C) 24 MPa (D) 48 MPa

SM 1.43 If q = 90c, the maximum value of the average normal stress in link BD is
(A) 83 MPa (B) 125 MPa
(C) 42 MPa (D) 44.5 MPa

SM 1.44 The rigid beam AC shown in figure, is supported by a pin at A and wires BD
and CE . If the load P on the beam causes the end C to be displaced 10 mm
downward, the normal strain developed in wires CE and BD are

(A) eCE = 0.00025 , eBD = 0.0107 (B) eCE = 0.0025 , eBD = 0.00107
(C) eCE = 0.025 , eBD = 0.0107 (D) eCE = 0.00107 , eBD = 0.0025

SM 1.45 The rigid beam shown in figure, is supported by a pin at A and wires BD and
CE . If the load P on the beam is displaced 10 mm downward, the normal strain
developed in wires CE and BD are

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 17

(A) eCE = 1.43 # 10-3 , eBD = 3.58 # 10-3


(B) eCE = 1.43 # 10-3 , eBD = 1.79 # 10-3
(C) eCE = 1.79 # 10-3 , eBD = 1.43 # 10-3
(D) eCE = 2.86 # 10-3 , eBD = 1.79 # 10-3

SM 1.46 A steel pipe is to carry an axial compressive load P = 1200 kN as shown in figure.
A factor of safety of 1.8 against yielding is to be used. If the thickness t of the pipe
is to be one-eighth of its outer diameter, the minimum required outer diameter
d min is (Take sY = 270 MPa )

(A) 153 mm (B) 76.5 mm


(C) 114.75 mm (D) 38.25 mm

Common Data For Q. 47 and 48


A circular aluminum tube of length L = 400 mm is loaded in compression by
forces P as shown in figure. The out-side and inside diameters are 60 mm and
50 mm, respectively. A strain gage is placed on the outside of the bar to measure
normal strains in the longitudinal direction.

SM 1.47 If the measured strain is e = 550 # 10-6 , the shortening d of the bar is
(A) 0.220 mm (B) 2.20 mm
(C) 0.022 mm (D) 1.10 mm

SM 1.48 If the compressive stress in the bar is intended to be 40 MPa, the load P should be
(A) 17.35 kN (B) 34.6 kN
(C) 69.4 kN (D) 52.0 kN

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SM 18 Stress and Strain SM 1

Common Data For Q. 49 and 50


A suspender on a suspension bridge consists of a cable that passes over the main
cable is shown in figure and supports the bridge deck, which is far below. The
suspender is held in position by a metal tie that is prevented from sliding downward
by clamps around the suspender cable. Let P represent the load in each part of the
suspender cable and q represent the angle of the suspender cable just above the tie.
Also, let sallow represent the allowable tensile stress in the metal tie.

SM 1.49 The minimum required cross-section area of the tie is


(A) A min = P tan q (B) A min = 2P tan q/sallow
sallow
(C) A min = 2P cot q/sallow (D) A min = P cot q
sallow
SM 1.50 If P = 130 kN , q = 75c and sallow = 80 MPa , the minimum area will be
(A) 6064 mm2 (B) 12130 mm2
(C) 435 mm2 (D) 870 mm2

SM 1.51 An elastomeric bearing pad consisting of two steel plates bonded to a chloroprene
elastomer, is subjected to a shear force V during a static loading test as shown in
figure. The pad has dimensions a = 150 mm , b = 250 mm and the elastomer has
thickness t = 50 mm . When the force V equals 12 kN, the top plate is found to
have displaced laterally 8.0 mm with respect to the bottom plate.

The shear modulus of elasticity G of the chloroprene is


(A) 0.5 MPa (B) 1 MPa
(C) 4 MPa (D) 2 MPa

SM 1.52 Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a rigid member CBD and a

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SM 1 Stress and Strain SM 19

flexible cable AB . Originally the cable is unstretched. If a force is applied to the


end D of the member and causes a normal strain in the cable of 0.0035 mm/mm
, the displacement of point D is

(A) 21.9 mm (B) 4.38 mm


(C) 43.8 mm (D) 8.76 mm

Common Data For Q. 53 and 54


The material distorts into the dashed position is shown in figure.

SM 1.53 The average normal strains ex , ey and the shear strain gxy at A are
(A) ex = ey = 0 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(B) ex = 0 , ey = 0.00319 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(C) ex = 0.00319 , ey = 0 , gxy = 0.0798 rad
(D) ex = ey = 0.00319 , gxy = 0.0798 rad

SM 1.54 The average normal strain along line BE is


(A) - 0.179 mm/mm (B) 0.0179 mm/mm
(C) - 0.0179 mm/mm (D) 0.179 mm/mm

SM 1.55 In the figure shown, the bar is originally 300 mm long when it is flat. It is
subjected to a shear strain defined by gxy = 0.02x , where x is in millimeters. It
is distorted into the shape shown, where no elongation of the bar occurs in the x
direction. The displacement Dy at the end of its bottom edge will be

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SM 20 Stress and Strain SM 1

(A) 2.03 mm (B) 4.06 mm


(C) 1.015 mm (D) 3.045 mm

Common Data For Q. 56 and 57


The steel wires AB and AC support the 200 kg mass. The allowable axial stress
for the wires is sallow = 130 MPa . Take the unstretched length of AB to be 750 mm
and Est = 200 GPa .

SM 1.56 The required diameter of each wire is


(A) dAC = 3.23 mm , dAB = 7.08 mm (B) dAC = 3.54 mm , dAB = 3.23 mm
(C) dAC = 3.23 mm , dAB = 3.54 mm (D) dAC = 6.46 mm , dAB = 3.54 mm

SM 1.57 What is the new length of wire AB after the load is applied ?
(A) 749.51 mm (B) 750.49 mm
(C) 751 mm (D) 749.00 mm

SM 1.58 The plug shown in figure has a diameter of 30 mm and fits within a rigid sleeve
having an inner diameter of 32 mm. Both the plug and the sleeve are 50 mm long.
What is the axial pressure p, that must be applied to the top of the plug to cause
it to contact the sides of the sleeve ? (Take E = 5 MPa , n = 0.45 )

(A) 926.25 kPa (B) 370 kPa


(C) 741 kPa (D) 555.75 kPa

***********

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GATE
MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING

NODIA AND COMPANY


No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permission of the author.

Multiple Choice Questions


GATE
Mechanical Engineering
Vol 2, 1e

Copyright By Publishers
ISBN 9-788192-27629-8

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PREFACE
This book doesnt make promise but provide complete satisfaction to the readers.
The market scenario is confusing and readers dont find the optimum quality
books. This book provides complete set of problems appeared in competition
exam as well as fresh set of problems.
The book is categorized into units which are sub-divided into chapters.
The aim of the book is to avoid the unnecessary elaboration and highlights
only those concepts are techniques which are absolutely necessary. Again time
is crucial factor both from the point of view of preparation duration and time
taken for solving each problem in the book are those which take the least
distance to the solution.
But however to make a comment that the book is absolute for GATE
preparation will be an inappropriate one. The theory for the preparation of the
examination should be followed from the standard books.

Authors
SYLLABUS

ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS
Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value
theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative,
Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives,
Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Greens theorems.
Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchys and Eulers equations, Initial and
boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave
equations and Laplace equation.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchys integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.
Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional
probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson,Normal
and Binomial distributions.
Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration
by trapezoidal and Simpsons rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

APPLIED MECHANICS AND DESIGN


Engineering Mechanics: Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work;
kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and
momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.
Strength of Materials: Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants,
Mohrs circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment
diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Eulers
theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.
Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms;
dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.
Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping;
vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.
Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N
diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints,
shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches.

FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL SCIENCES


Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis
of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and
momentum; Bernoullis equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer;
elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.
Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept,
electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced
convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and
through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and
grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU
methods.
Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system
and processes; Carnot cycle. irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases,
properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; analysis of
thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.
Applications: Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration
and reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning:
Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air:
psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes. Turbomachinery: Pelton-wheel, Francis
and Kaplan turbines impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.

MANUFACTURING AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING


Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment,
stress-strain diagrams for engineering materials.
Metal Casting: Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating
design, design considerations.
Forming: Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes;
load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing,
bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.
Joining: Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in
welding.
Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining, single and multi-point
cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles
of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs
and fixtures
Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements;
comparators; gauge design; interferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing
methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools.
Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning,
scheduling, materials requirement planning.
Inventory Control: Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control
systems.
Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation,
assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

GENERAL APTITUDE
Verbal Ability: English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups,
instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.
Numerical Ability: Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and
data interpretation.
CONTENTS

FLUID MECHANICS
FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 3
FM 2 Pressure and Fluid Statics FM 33
FM 3 Fluid Kinematics & Bernouli Equation FM 80
FM 4 Flow Analysis Using Control Volumes FM 124
FM 5 Flow Analysis Using Differential Method FM 172
FM 6 Internal Flow FM 211
FM 7 External Flow FM 253
FM 8 Open Channel Flow FM 289
FM 9 Turbo Machinery FM 328

HEAT TRANSFER
HT 1 Basic Concepts & Modes of Heat-Transfer HT 3
HT 2 Fundamentals of Conduction HT 34
HT 3 Steady Heat Conduction HT 63
HT 4 Transient Heat Conduction HT 94
HT 5 Fundamentals of Convection HT 114
HT 6 Free and Force Convection HT 129
HT 7 Radiation Heat Transfer HT 155
HT 8 Heat Exchangers HT 181

THERMODYNAMICS
TD 1 Basic Concepts and Energy Analysis TD 3
TD 2 Properties of Pure Substances TD 28
TD 3 Energy Analysis of Closed System TD 52
TD 4 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volume TD 76
TD 5 Second Law of Thermodynamics TD 106
TD 6 Entropy TD 136
TD 7 Gas Power Cycles TD 166
TD 8 Vapor and Combined Power Cycles TD 199
TD 9 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning TD 226

***********
FM 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS

Common Data For Q. 1 and 2


In an automobile tire the pressure is 245 kPa and the air temperature is 298 K.
The volume of tire is 0.050 m3 and gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa- m3 /kgK .
FM 1.1 The pressure in the tire at air temperature of 322 K when volume of tire is
constant, will be
(A) 336 kPa (B) 26 kPa
(C) 310 kPa (D) 1854.02 kPa

FM 1.2 What amount of air should be come out to obtain pressure to its original value
at same temperature ?
(A) 0.1812 kg (B) 0.1672 kg
(C) 0.0140 kg (D) 0.3484 kg

FM 1.3 Consider Carbon dioxide at 12 atm and 400cC . What will be the density of
Carbon dioxide and c p at this state and the new pressure when the gas is cooled
isentropically to 150cC ? (For Carbon dioxide k = . and R = m2 s2 )
(A) = 0.797 kg/m3 , c p = 4 . , p2 = kPa
kg
(B) = 1.3 # 10-4 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 kPa
kg
(C) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 kPa
kg
(D) = 7.97 kg/m3 , c p = , p2 = 5.5 Pa
kg
FM 1.4 A Cane of beverage contains 455 ml of liquid. The mass of cane with liquid is
0.369 kg while an empty cane weighs 0.193 N . What will be the specific weight,
density and specific gravity of liquid respectively ?
(A) 0.977 kN/m3 , 99.6 kg/m3 , 0.0996
(B) 9.77 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996
(C) 9.77 N/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 9.96
(D) 97.7 kN/m3 , 996 kg/m3 , 0.996

FM 1.5 The specific gravity of a gas contained in a tank at the temperature of 25cC is
2 # 103 . If the atmospheric pressure is 10.1 kPa, the gage pressure is
(A) 70 kPa (B) 7 kPa
(C) 0.7 kPa (D) 70 kPa

FM 1.6 Consider steam at state near the saturation line : (p1, T1)= (1.31 MPa, 250cC),
Rsteam = 4 m2 s2 and k = . ). If the steam expands isentropically to a new
pressure of 414 kPa, what will be the density 1 and the density 2 ?
(A) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 5.04 kg/m3 (B) 1 = 2.28 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3
(C) 1 = 5.44 kg/m3, 2 = 2.28 kg/m3 (D) 1 = 5.04 kg/m3, 2 = 5.44 kg/m3

FM 1.7 A 30 m3 cylinder contains Hydrogen at 25cC and 200 kPa What amount of
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FM 4 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

Hydrogen must be bled off to maintain the Hydrogen in cylinder at 20cC and
600 kPa ? (R = 0.2968 kPa.m3 /kg.K)
(A) 271.35 kg (B) 206.99 kg
(C) 478.34 kg (D) 64.36 kg

FM 1.8 Wet air with 100% relative humidity, is at 30cC and 1 atm. If Rair = m s
, Rwater = 461 m /s K and vapor pressure of saturated water at 30cC is 4242 Pa,
2 2

what will be the density of this wet air using Daltons law of partial Pressures ?
(A) 1.12 kg/m3 (B) 1.09 kg/m3
(C) 0.03 kg/m3 (D) 1.147 kg/m3

FM 1.9 In a formula one race, at the start of the race the absolute pressure of a car tire is
362.5 kPa and at the end of the race the absolute pressure of car tire is measured
to be 387.5 kPa. If the volume of the tire remains constant at 0.022 m3 then
percentage increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is
(A) 6.9% (B) 69%
(C) 0.69% (D) Not increased

FM 1.10 A compressed air tank contains 24 kg of air at a temperature of 80cC . If the


reading of gage mounted on the tank is 300 kPa, what will be the volume of tank
in m3 ?
(A) 404 (B) 4.04
(C) 0.404 (D) 40.4

FM 1.11 A small submersible moves in 30cC water ( pv = 4.242 kPa ) at 2-m depth, where
ambient pressure is 133 kPa. Its critical cavitation number is Ca . 0.2 . At what
velocity will cavitation bubbles form ?
(A) 22.72 m/s (B) 32.66 m/s
(C) Zero (D) 32.13 m/s

FM 1.12 What will be the speed of sound of steam at 150cC and 400 kpa? (k = 1.33, R =
461 m2 /s2K )
(A) 50.9 m/s (B) 509 m/s
(C) 30.3 m/s (D) 303 m/s

FM 1.13 A liquid has a weight density of 9268 N/m3 and dynamic viscosity of 131.5 N s/m2

. What will be the kinematic viscosity of the liquid in m2/sec ?


(A) 0.0139 (B) 1.39
(C) 0.139 (D) 13.9

FM 1.14 A 72 m long and 30 m diameter blimp is approximated by a prolate spheroid


whose volume is given by v = 2 pLR2 . The weight of 20cC gas within the blimp
3
for (a) helium at 1.1 atm and (b) air at 1.0 atm, is
( RHe = 2077m2 /s2 , Rair = 287 m2 /s2K )
(A) WHe = 60.97kN , Wair = 401.1kN (B) WHe = 401.1kN , Wair = 6.97kN
(C) WHe = 6.2kN , Wair = 40.9kN (D) WHe = 40.9kN , Wair = 6.2kN

FM 1.15 The oil having viscosity of 4.56 # 102 N s/m2 , is contained between two parallel
plates. The bottom plate is fixed and upper plate moves when a force F is
applied. If the distance between the stationary and moving plates is 2.54 mm and
the area of the upper plate is 0.129 m2 , what value of F is required to translate

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 5

the plate with velocity of 1 m/ sec ?


(A) 2.32 N (B) 23.2 N
(C) 232 N (D) 0.232 N
FM 1.16 A thin moving plate is separated from two fixed plates by two fluids of different
viscosity as shown in figure below. If the contact area is A , the force required for
the flow to be steady laminar viscous flow, is

m2 m
(B) F = :
h2 h D
(A) F = ; h + h2 E VA VA
m m2
m m
(C) F = ; h2 h E VA (D) F = : + 2 D VA
m2 m h h2

FM 1.17 A large movable plate is located between two large fixed plates. Two fluids having
the different viscosities are contained between the plates. If the moving plate has
a velocity of 6 m/sec , what will be the magnitude of the shearing stresses on plate
1 and plate 2 respectively, that act on the fixed plates ?

(A) 10 N/m2 , 15 N/m2 (B) 20 N/m2 , 15 N/m2


(C) 15 N/m2 , 15 N/m2 (D) 15 N/m2 , 20 N/m2

FM 1.18 A thin flat plate of area A is moved horizontally between two plates, one stationary
and one moving with a constant velocity Vm as shown in figure below. If velocity
of flat plate is Vp and dynamic viscosity of oil is , the force must be applied on
the plate to manage this motion is

V V - Vm
(A) A ; p + p
h2 E
(B) A (Vp - Vm) h2
h1
AVp (V - Vm)
(D) A ; p - p E
V
(C)
h1 h1 h2
FM 1.19 A Newtonian fluid having the specific gravity of 0.91 and Kinematic viscosity of
4 # 104 m2 / sec , flows over a fixed surface. The velocity profile near the surface

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FM 6 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

is given by the relation:


u = sin py
U a 2d k
What will be the magnitude of the shearing stress developed on the plate in term
of U and ?
(A) 0.571U N/m2 (B) 5.71 N/m2
U
(C) 5.71U N/m2 (D) 0.571 N/m2
U
FM 1.20 A 50 cm # 30 cm # 20 cm block of 15 kg mass is to be moving at a constant
velocity of 0.8 m/s on an inclined plane. If a 0.8 mm thick oil film with a dynamic
viscosity of 0.006 Pa s is there between the block and inclined plane, what amount
of force is required in x -direction ? (g = 10 m/s2)

(A) 55 N (B) 55.55 N


(C) 6.42 N (D) 414.75 N

FM 1.21 A closed rectangular container is half filled with water at 45cC . If the air in
remaining half section of container is completely escaped. The absolute pressure
in the escaped space at same temperature (saturation pressure of water at 45cC
is9.593 kPa) is
(A) P > Psaturation (B) P < Psaturation
(C) P = Psaturation (D) Not determined

FM 1.22 Consider two parallel plates as shown in figure below. If the fluid is glycerin (
= 1264 kg/m3 , = 1.5 Ns/m2 ) and the distance between plates is 9 mm. What
will be the shear stress required to move the upper plate at V = m s and the
Reynolds number respectively ?

(A) 100 Pa, 460 (B) 10 Pa, 4600


(C) 10000 Pa, 4.6 (D) 1000 Pa, 46

FM 1.23 The velocity profile in a pipe flow is given by u = u ( rn Rn), where r is the
radial distance from the centre. If the viscosity of the fluid is then the drag
force applied by the fluid on the pipe wall in the direction of flow across length L

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 7

of the pipe is (R = radius of circular pipe).

(A) nu L (B) nu R
(C) 2nu 0 L (D) 2nu 0

FM 1.24 Consider air at 20cC with = 1.8 # 10-5 Pa - s . Its viscosity at 400C by (a) The
Power-law (n=0.7) (b) the sutherland law (S = 110 K) respectively, are
(A) p = . 1 # 10- - s, s = 1. # 10
-
-s

(B) p = . 1 # 10- - s, s = . # 10
-
-s

- -
(C) p = . # 10 - s, s = . 1 # 10 -s

(D) p = 1. # 10- - s, s = . 1 # 10- -s

FM 1.25 Consider a block of mass m slides down on an inclined plane of a thin oil film
as shown in figure below. The film contact area is A and its thickness is h . The
terminal velocity V of the block is

mgh sin q mgh cos q


(A) V = (B) V =
mA mA
mgA sin q mgA cos q
(C) V = (D) V =
mh mh
FM 1.26 A thin layer of glycerin flows down on an inclined plate of unit width with the
velocity distribution:
u = y y
U h h
If the plate is inclined at an angle with the horizontal, the expression for the
surface velocity U will be

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FM 8 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

gh
(A) U = h sin a (B) U =
gm m sin a
gh sin a gh
(C) U = (D)U =
m m sin a

FM 1.27 A shaft of 8.0 cm diameter and 30 cm length is pulled steadily at V = m s


through a sleeve of 8.02 cm diameter. The clearance is filled with oil of = 0.003 m2 /s
and S.G. = . , the force required to pull the shaft is (w = 998 kg/m3)
(A) 793 N (B) 795 N
(C) 79.3 N (D) 7.95 N

FM 1.28 Match List I (Properties of fluids) with List II (Definition/ Result) and select the
correct answer using the codes given below :
List-I List-II
a. Ideal fluid 1. Viscosity does not vary with rate of deformation
b. Newtonian fluid 2. Fluid of zero viscosity
c. / 3. Dynamic viscosity
d. Mercury in glass 4. Capillary depression
5. Kinematic viscosity
6. Capillary rise
Codes
a b c d
(A) 1 2 4 6
(B) 1 2 3 4
(C) 2 1 3 6
(D) 2 1 5 4
FM 1.29 Match List I (Fluid properties) with List II (Related terms) and select the correct
answer using the codes given below :
List-I List-II
a. Capillarity 1. Cavitation
b. Vapour pressure 2. Density of water
c. Viscosity 3. Shear forces
d. Specific gravity 4. Surfaces Tension
Codes
a b c d
(A) 1 4 2 3
(B) 1 4 3 2
(C) 4 1 2 3
(D) 4 1 3 2
FM 1.30 The hydrogen bubbles have diameter D - . 1 mm . Assume an air-water
interface at 30cC and surface tension = 0.0712 N/m . What will be the excess
pressure within the bubble ?
(A) 1.42 kPa (B) 2.85 kPa
(C) 28.5 kPa (D) 14.2 kPa

FM 1.31 The surface tension in a rain drop of 3 mm diameter is 7.3 # 102 N/m . The

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 9

excess pressure inside the rain drop is


(A) 973.3 Pa (B) 97.33 Pa
(C) 9.73 Pa (D) 97.33 kPa

FM 1.32 A shower head emits a cylindrical water jet of diameter 0.73 mm into air. The
pressure inside the jet is approximately 300 Pa greater than the air pressure.
What will be the surface tension of water ?
(A) 0.0365 N/m (B) 0.73 N/m
(C) 0.365 N/m (D) 0.073 N/m

FM 1.33 A thin wire ring of 6 cm diameter is lifted from a 20cC water surface. How much
lift force is required if = 0.0728 N/m ?
(A) 0.274 N (B) 0.0274 N
(C) 0.137 N (D) 0.0137 N

FM 1.34 A 4 mm diameter glass tube is immersed in water and mercury. The temperature
of the liquid is 20cC and the values of the surface tension of water and mercury
at 20cC in contact with air are 0.0734 N/m and 0.51 N/m, respectively. The
angle of contact for water is zero and that for mercury is 128c. What will be the
capillary effect for water and mercury in millimeters, respectively ?
(A) 4.60, 3.82 (B) 2.35, 7.48
(C) 3.82, 4.60 (D) 7.48, 2.35

FM 1.35 The system shown in figure below is used to estimate the pressure inside the
tank by measuring the height of liquid in the 1 mm diameter tube. The fluid is
at 60cC . What will be the capillary rise if the fluid is (a) water ( = 0.0662 N/m
, = 983 kg/m2 , , 0c) and (b) Mercury ( = 0.47 N/m , = 13500 kg/m3 ,
, 130c) ?

(A) hw = 0.0275m , hm = 0.0456 m (B) hw = 0.0275 m , hm = 0.00 1m


(C) hw = 0.0275 m , hm = 0.00 1 m (D) hw = 0.0137 m , hm = 0.00456 m

FM 1.36 A glass tube of 4.6 mm diameter is inserted into milk and milk rises upto 3.5
mm in the tube. If the density of milk is 960 kg/m3 and contact angle is 15c, the
surface tension of milk is
(A) 0.2315 N/m (B) 0.025 N/m
(C) 0.0236 N/m (D) 0.02315 N/m

FM 1.37 A liquid film suspended on a rectangle wire frame of one movable side of 12 cm.
What amount of surface tension is required if the movable side of frame is to be
moved with 0.018 N ?
(A) 0.075 N/m (B) 0.00432 N/m
(C) 0.055 N/m (D) 0.75 N/m

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FM 10 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

FM 1.38 In figure shown, a vertical concentric annulus with outer radius ro and inner
radius ri is lowered into the fluid of surface tension and contact angle < 45c
. If the gap is very narrow, what will be the expression for the capillary rise h in
the annulus gap ?

(A) h = s cos q s cos q


(B) h =
rg (ro ri) rg (ro ri)
(C) h = s cos q (D) h = s cos q
rg (ro ri) rg (r o r i )
FM 1.39 A solid cylindrical needle of diameter 1.6 mm and density 7824 kg/m3 may float
on a liquid surface. Neglect buoyancy and assume a contact angle of 0c. What
will be the surface tension ?
(A) 0.0772 N/m (B) 0.154 N/m
(C) 0.772 N/m (D) 0.0154 N/m

Common Data For Linked Answer Q. 40 and 41


A Frustum-shaped body is rotating at a uniform angular velocity = 200 rad/s
in a container. The gap of 1.2 mm on all sides between body and container is
filled with oil of viscosity 0.1 Pa s at 20cC .

FM 1.40 The power required at the top surface to maintain this motion is
2 D3 2 D 4
(A) (B)
24h 32h
2 D 4 2 D 2
(C) (D)
4h 16h
FM 1.41 The reduction in power required at the top surface when oil viscosity is 0.0078 Pa s
at 80cC , will be
(A) 5.29 W (B) 67.824 W
(C) 62.533 W (D) No reduction

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 11

FM 1.42 A fluid of surface tension = 0.0728 N/m and contact angle = 0c is filled
between 0.75 mm apart two parallel plates as shown in figure. If the density of
fluid is = 998 kg/m3 , the capillary height h will be

(A) 2 mm (B) 10 mm
(C) 20 mm (D) 1 mm

FM 1.43 A 56 kg block slides down on a smooth inclined plate. A gap of 0.1 mm between
the block and plate contains oil having viscosity 0.4 N s/m2 . If the velocity
distribution in the gap is linear and the area of the block in contact with the oil
is 0.4 m2 , the terminal velocity of the block is
(A) 0.03125 m/s (B) 0.3125 m/s
(C) 3.125 m/s (D) 0.03125 mm/s

FM 1.44 Two 50 cm long concentric cylinders are mounted on a shaft. The inner cylinder is
completely submerged in fluid and is rotating at 200 rpm and the outer cylinder
is fixed. The fluid film thickness between two cylinders is 0.12 cm and outer
diameter of the inner cylinder is 20 cm. If the torque transmitted by the shaft to
rotate inner cylinder is 0.8 N, the viscosity of the fluid is

(A) 0.0173 N s/m2 (B) 0.0231 N s/m2


(C) 0.173 N s/m2 (D) 0.0346 N s/m2

FM 1.45 A layer of water having the viscosity of 1.2 # 103 N s/m2 flows down on inclined
fixed surface with the velocity distribution as given by:

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FM 12 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

u = y y
U h h
If the velocity of water U = m sec and h = m , what will be the magnitude
of the shearing stress that the water exerts on the fixed surface in N/m2 ?

(A) 7.20 (B) 0.720


(C) 7.2 # 103 (D) 0.072

FM 1.46 A 2.5 mm diameter aluminum sphere ( = 2700 kg/m3 ) falls into an oil of density
875 kg/m3 . If the time to fall 75 cm is 48 s then the oil viscosity is
(A) 0.0589 kg/m s
(B) 0.589 kg/m s
(C) 0.397 kg/m s
(D) 0.0397 kg/m s
FM 1.47 Consider a concentric shaft fixed axially and rotates inside the sleeve. If the shaft
of radius ri rotates at rad/s inside the sleeve of radius r0 and length L and
the applied Torque is T, what will be the relation for the viscosity of the fluid
between shaft and sleeve ?
2T (ri - r0) T( 0 - )
(A) = (B) =
r i L 2 03
T( 0 - ) T( 0 + )
(C) = (D) =
2 3 2 3
FM 1.48 The velocity profile for laminar one-dimensional flow through a circular pipe is
given as u (r) = u max ( r2 R2), where R is the radius of the pipe and r is the
radial distance from the centre of the pipe. If an oil at 40cC flows through a 15 m
long pipe with R = 0.0 m and maximum velocity of u max = m s , what will
be the friction drag force applied by the fluid on inner surface of the pipe when
= 0.0010 kg/m - s ?

(A) 0.0942 N (B) 0.942 N


(C) 0.856 N (D) 0.916 N

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 13

FM 1.49 A 1 m diameter cylindrical tank has a length of 5 m long and weight 125 N. If it
is filled with a liquid having a specific weight of 10.9 kN/m3 , the vertical force
required to give the tank an upward acceleration of 2.75 m/ sec2 is
(A) 550 kN (B) 55 N
(C) 5.5 N (D) 55 kN

FM 1.50 A cylindrical rod of diameter D , length L and density s falls due to gravity
inside a tube of diameter Do . The clearance, (Do D) << D is filled with a film
of viscous fluid (, ).The expression for terminal fall velocity would be
D (Do D) rs gD (Do + D)
(A) V = rs g (B) V =
m m
r g (Do D) r gD (D Do)
(C) V = s (D) V = s
m m

FM 1.51 The belt as shown in figure below moves at steady velocity of 2.5 m/s and skims
the top of a tank of oil SAE 30 W ( = 0.29 kg/m -s) at 20cC with L = m ,
b = 0 cm and h = cm . What power P in watts is required to remain belt in
motion ?

(A) 11 Watts (B) 44 Watts


(C) 109 Watts (D) 1.1 Watts

FM 1.52 Two balls of Steel and Aluminum can float on water due to surface tension effect.
The density of steel and aluminium balls are to be 7800 kg/m3 and 2700 kg/m3 ,
respectively. Which metal ball would have maximum diameter to float on water
at 20cC and what will be the diameter of that ball when surface tension of water
at 20cC is 0.073 N/m ?
(A) steel, 4.1 mm (B) Aluminium, 2.4 mm
(C) Aluminium, 4.1 mm (D) Steel, 2.4 mm

FM 1.53 For a cone-plate viscometer of radius R = cm , the angle = 3c and the gap is
filled with liquid as shown in figure. If the viscous torque T = . and rotation
rate is 94.2 rad/s, the liquid viscosity will be

(A) 0.0116 kg/m s


(B) 0.116 kg/m s
(C) 0.193 kg/m s
(D) 0.0193 kg/m s

FM 1.54 A solid cone of base r0 and initial angular velocity 0 is rotating inside a conical
seat as shown in figure below. If there is no applied torque and air drag is

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FM 14 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

neglected, the cones angular velocity is

5r 03 t
(A) = 0 exp ;- 3mh sin (B) = 0 exp ;-
5r 0 t E
3
3mh sin E
5r 04 t 5r 02 t
(C) = 0 exp ;-
3mh sin E
(D) = 0 exp ;-
3mh sin E

FM 1.55 The rotating-cylinder viscometer as shown in figure below shears the fluid in a
narrow clearance R = (r - R) with a linear velocity distribution in the gap. If
the driving torque measured is T and the bottom friction is included then the
expression for is

T (r - R) ( - )
(A) = (B) =
R (L + R ) 2 3 ( + /4)
( - ) ( - )
(C) = (D) =
2 ( + /4)
2
2 3 ( - /4)
FM 1.56 For a 300 mm long sliding lubricated bearing, the viscosity of oil is 0.008 kg/m s
during steady operation at 80cC . The average oil film thickness between the shaft
and journal is 1.2 mm. If shaft of 80 mm diameter is rotated at 750 rpm, the
amount of torque needed to overcome bearing friction would be
(A) 0.0063 N m (B) 0.063 Nm
(C) 0.63 N m (D) 6.3 N m

FM 1.57 = 0.063 N m A disk of radius R = cm , rotates at 1200 r.p.m inside an oil


container of viscosity = 0.29 kg/m -s as shown in figure below. The oil film
thickness is h = mm . If the velocity profile is linear and neglecting shear on the
outer disk edges, the viscous torque on the disk is

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 15

(A) 0.716 N m (B) 6.83 N m


(C) 0.0716 N m (D) 14.3 N m

FM 1.58 A soap bubble of diameter D coalesces with another bubble of diameter D to


form a single bubble D with the same amount of air. For an isothermal process,
D as a function of D , D , patm and surface tension is
(A) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) + (pa D + sD )
(B) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) (pa D + sD )
(C) pa D sD = (pa D sD ) + (pa D sD )
(D) pa D + sD = (pa D + sD ) + (pa D sD )

FM 1.59 A skater of mass m moving at constant speed Vo , suddenly stands stiff with skates
pointed directly forward and allows herself to coast to a stop. If blade length is L
, water film thickness h , water viscosity and blade width is b then how far will
she travel (on two blades) before she stops ?
mLb
(A) x = Vo mh (B) x =
mLb Vo mh
mLb
(C) x = Vo mh (D)x =
mLb Vo mh
FM 1.60 Two thin flat plates are tilted at an angle and placed in a tank of surface
tension and contact angle as shown in figure below. At the free surface of the
liquid in the tank, the distance between two plates are L and width is b into the
paper. What will be the expression for in terms of other variables ?

gbh (L - h tan ) gh (L - h tan )


(A) = (B) =
2 cos ( - ) 2 cos
gh (L - h tan ) gh (L + h tan )
(C) = (D) =
2 cos ( - ) 2 cos ( + )

***********

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FM 16 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

SOLUTIONS

FM 1.1 Option (A) is correct.


We have p = 310 kPa, v = . m R= . a - m3 /kgK
T = 298 K and T =
Treating air as an Ideal gas, the final pressure in the tire from the ideal gas law,
pv pv
=
T T
p = T # p = 323 # 310 = 336 kPa v = v (constant)
T 298
FM 1.2 Option (C) is correct.
Amount of air needs to be bled off to restore pressure (p2 = 310 kPa) is
m = m - m
pv
m = = 310 # 0.050 = 0.1812 kg
RT 0.287 # 298
pv
and m = = 310 # 0.050 = 0.1672 kg
RT 0.287 # 323
Hence m = 0.1812 0.1672 = 0.014 kg

FM 1.3 Option (C) is correct.


We have p = 10 atm = 1013250 Pa
T = 400cC = 400 + 273 = 673 K
From ideal gas law
p g
= = = .
RT ( )#( ) m
. #( )
c p = kR = =
k . g
For gas cooled isentropically to T = cC = , the formula is
p k k
= bT l
p T
k k .
p = p # bT l = a #b l
.
= 135.5 kPa
T
FM 1.4 Option (B) is correct.
Weight of fluid mg W
Specific weight = = g = =
Volume of fluid v v
Total weight weight of Cane
=
Volume of fluid
mg 0.153 0.369 # 9.81 0.153
= =
355 # 106 355 # 106
= 3.47 = 9.77 kN/m3
355 # 106
g
Density = = = . g m - g m
g .

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 17

r
Specific gravity S.G = = =
rwater
FM 1.5 Option (D) is correct.
We have S .G . = # , T = c = ( + )= , patm. = a
Density of gas = S.G. # Density of ater
= 2 # 103 # 1000 = 2 kg/m3
From gas equation p = rRT
= 2 # 287 # 298 = 171 kPa (absolute pressure)
Also pabsolute = patmospheric + pgage
pgage = 171 101 = 70 kPa

FM 1.6 Option (C) is correct.


For ideal gas 1 =
p
= 1.31 # 106 6
= 1.31 # 10 = 5.44 kg/m3
RT 461 # (273 + 250) 461 # 543
For isentropic expansion
k
T = p k
T b p l
.
p k
T = T #b l k = #c m
# .
= 393 K
p . #
3
p
Now 2 = = 414 # 10 = 2.28 kg/m3
RT 461 # 393
FM 1.7 Option (D) is correct.
We have v= m, p = a, T = cC = + =
p = a, T = cC = + =
The initial mass of Hydrogen in cylinder
pv
m = = 800 # 30 = 271.35 kg
RT 0.2968 # 298
Final mass of Hydrogen in cylinder
pv
m = = 600 # 30 = 206.99 kg
RT 0.2968 # 293
Thus the amount of Hydrogen that must be bled off is
m = 271.35 206.99 = 64.36 kg

FM 1.8 Option (D) is correct.


Daltons law of Partial Pressure is
ptotal = pair + pwater = ma Ra T + mw Rw T
v v
p v p v
or mtotal = ma + mw = a + w For an ideal gas
Ra T Rw T
Since ptotal = pair + pwater = atm = Pa
pair = 101325 pwater = 101325 4242 = 97083 Pa
= ma + mw = a + w
p p
Now
v Ra T Rw T
= 97083 + 4242 = 97083 + 4242
287 # (30 + 273) 461 # 303 287 # 303 461 # 303
= 1.147 kg/m3

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FM 18 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

FM 1.9 Option (A) is correct.


We have p = . a p = . a v =v =v= . m
From ideal gas law,
pv pv
=
T T
T =p v =v
T p
p
T = T = 387.5 # T1 = 1.069T1
p # 362.5
Increase in temperature = T T
= 1.069T1 T1 = T1 (1.069 1)
= 0.069T1
or 6.9% of T1

FM 1.10 Option (B) is correct


We have m= g, T = c =( + ) = , pgage = 300 kPa
pabsolute
From gas equation =
RT
patm. + pgage ( + )#
= = = 3.96 kg/m3
RT #
Thus, Volume of tank v = m = 16 = 4.04 m3
r 3.96
FM 1.11 Option (D) is correct
2 (pa pv)
By definition Cacritical = 0.25 =
rV 2
2 (133000 4242)
0.25 =
998 # V 2
2 (133000 4242)
V = = 32.13 m/s
998 # 0.25
FM 1.12 Option (B) is correct
The ideal gas formula Predicts:
Speed of sound a, kRT = # .#( + )
= 1.33 # 461 # 423 = 509 m/s

FM 1.13 Option (C) is correct.


We have = 9268 N/m3 , = 131.5 Ns/m2
Weight density = rg

= 9268 = 944.75 kg/m3


9.81
m
Kinematic viscosity = = 131.5
r 944.75
= 0.139 N sec.m/kg = 0.139 m2 / sec.
FM 1.14 Option (A) is correct.
The volume of blimp is
v = 2 pR2 L = 2 # p # (15) 2 # 72 = 33929 m3
3 3
From the ideal gas law, the respective densities of helium and air

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 19

(a) He =
pHe
= #( )
=
RHe T #
pair
(b) air = = =
Rair # T #
Then the respective gas weights are
WHe = rHe gv = # # =
Wair = rair gv = # # =

FM 1.15 Option (A) is correct.

We have = 4.56 # 10-2 Ns/m2 , y = . # , V = sec., A = .


When force F is applied on the plate, shear force comes in the action.
F = t # A = m #V # A = V
y y
= 4.56 # 102 # 1
# 0.129 = 2.32 N
2.54 # 103
FM 1.16 Option (D) is correct.
Assuming a linear velocity distribution on each side of the plate.
F = t1 A + t2 A = b m1 V l A + b m2 V l A
h1 h2
mV mV m m
=;
h E
+ A = : + D VA
h h h
FM 1.17 Option (C) is correct.
From Newtons law of viscosity
= m du = mU
dy y
1 = 0.02 # 6 = 15 N/m2
0.008
and 2 = 0.01 # 6 = 15 N/m2
0.004
FM 1.18 Option (A) is correct.
The magnitudes of shear forces acting on the upper and lower surfaces of the
plate are
Fshear, upper = tw, upper A = mA du
dy
V mAVp
= mA p =
h h
Fshear, lower = tw, lower A = mA du
dy
(V Vm)
= mA p
h
Both shear forces are acting in the opposite direction of motion of the plate,

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FM 20 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

therefore from force balancing


F = Fshear upper + Fshear lower
mAVp mA Vp Vm
= +
h h
V V Vm
= mA ; p + p E
h h
FM 1.19 Option (A) is correct.
We have S.G. = . , = 4 # 10-4 m2 / sec.
From Newtons law of viscosity (at the surface of plate)
(y = 0) = m c du m ...(i)
dy y =
y
c dy m
du = : p U cos a p kD = pU
y=
2 d 2 d y=0
2d
From equation (i) = nr # p U =
2d
= n # (S.G. # 1000) # p # U
2 d
= 4 # 104 # (0.91 # 1000) # 1.57 # U
d
= 0.571U N/m2
d
FM 1.20 Option (B) is correct.
We have m= g, V = 0.8 m/s, = 0.006 Pa - s
y = 0.8 mm = 8 # 104 m
The force balance from figure gives
Fx = F Fshear cos c FN sin c = ...(i)
Fy = FN cos c Fshear sin c W = ...(ii)

Weight W = m#g = # = N
and Fshear = ts As
= mA s V = ( . ) # ( . # . ) # .
y
#
Fshear = 0.9 N
(F sin 20c + W)
Equation (ii) gives FN = shear
cos 20c
= 0.9 # sin 20c + 150 = 159.95 N
cos 20c
By substituting the value of Fshear and FN in equation (i),we get
F = Fshear cos c + FN sin c
= 0.9 # cos 20c + 159.95 # sin 20c = 55.55 N

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 21

FM 1.21 Option (C) is correct.


We have
The saturation pressure of water at 45cC = 9.593 kPa
When air is fully escaped, the space is filled with vapor and the container have a
two-phase mixture of saturated water vapor.
Then vapor pressure Pv = Psaturation ( cC) = . a

FM 1.22 Option (D) is correct.


Shear stress is given by
= mV = . # = a
L .
and the Reynolds Number is
rVL # # .
Re = = b
m .
FM 1.23 Option (C) is correct.
Velocity profile u = u ( r n Rn )
We know that the wall shear stress in pipe flow
w = mdu
dr r = R
n
mu n
= mu ; nrn E
n
= mu d : r n D =
dr R r=R R r=R
R
Then the drag force applied by the fluid on the pipe wall becomes
nm u
F = tw Aw = ( pR) # L = npmu L
R #
FM 1.24 Option (B) is correct.
(a) From the Power-law for air
p = m0 b T l = 1.8 # 105 # b 673 l = 3.221 # 105 kg/m s
n 0.7

T0 293
(b) From the sutherland law

(T/T0) 1.5 (T0 + S)


s = m0 ; E
T+S
(673/293) 1.5 # (293 + 110)
= 1.8 # 105 = G
(673 + 110)
= 3.225 # 105 kg/m s

FM 1.25 Option (A) is correct.


Assume a linear viscous velocity distribution in the film below the block. Then a
force balance in x - direction gives:
Fx = W sin q tA
= W sin q :mV D A = maX =
h
or W sin = mV A
h
mgh sin q
V = hW sin q = W = mg
mA mA
FM 1.26 Option (C) is correct.
Due to the flow of glycerin, shear force acting in the opposite direction to this

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FM 22 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

flow. The FBD is shown below.

In equilibrium condition
Fx = W sin = t#l# b=
mg sin = t#l
vg sin = t#l m = rV

vg sin = t#l =
g g
# l # h # sin = t # l
= gh sin a ...(i)
From the Newtons law of viscosity, shear stress at the plate ( = 0)
Uy mU
= m c du m = m; U E = ...(ii)
dy y = h h y= h
From equation (i) and (ii), we get
U
= gh sin a
h
g 2 sin a
U =
2m
FM 1.27 Option (A) is correct.
Assuming a linear velocity distribution in the clearance, the force is balanced by
resisting shear stress in the oil.
F = tAwall = b m V l # (pDi L)
DR
mVpDi L
F = ...(i)
R Ri
For the given oil
= rn = ( #r )#n

= 0.87 # 998 # 0.003 = 2.63 kg/m s


Then by substituting in equation (i), we get
F = 2.63 # 0.4 # p # 0.08 # 0.3 = 792.79 b 793 N
(0.0401 0.0400)

FM 1.28 Option (D) is correct


List-I List-II
a. Ideal fluid 2. Fluid of zero viscosity
b. Newtonian fluid 1. Viscosity does not vary with rate of deformation
c. / 5. Kinematic viscosity
d. Mercury in glass 4. Capillary depression.
So , correct pairs are a-2, b-1, c-5, d-4.

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 23

FM 1.29 Option (D) is correct.


List-I List-II
a. Capillarity 4. Surface tension
b. Vapour pressure 1. Cavitation
c. Viscosity 3. Shear forces
d. Specific gravity 2. Density of water
So, correct pairs are a-4, b-2, c-3, d-2.

FM 1.30 Option (C) is correct


For a droplet or bubble with one spherical surface
p = 2s = 2 # 0.07123 = 2 # 0.0712
R 0.005 # 10 5 # 106
= 28480 Pa - 28.5 kPa

FM 1.31 Option (B) is correct.


We have d=3 , = 7.3 # 10-2 N/m
We know that surface tension on liquid droplet is given by the relation,
2
p = 4s = 4 # 7.3 #10
d 3 # 10 3
= 97.33 Pa

FM 1.32 Option (D) is correct


For a liquid cylinder, the internal excess pressure is
p = s
R
(0.00073)
= Dp # R = 200 #
2
= 200 # 0.000365 = 0.073 N/m

FM 1.33 Option (B) is correct


There are two surface, inside and outside the ring. So the total force measured is
F = 2 (spD) = 2psD
= 2 # p # 0.0728 # (0.06) = 0.0274 N

FM 1.34 Option (D) is correct.


We have d = 4 mm = 4 # 3 m
The capillary effect is given by the equation,
h = 4s cos q
r#g#d
where = Surface tension in N/m
= Angle of contact
Capillary effect for water
= 0.0734 N/m , = 0c, = 1000 kg/m3

h = 4 # 0.0734 cos 0c
1000 # 9.81 # 4 # 103
= 7.48 # 103 m = 7.48 mm
Capillary effect for mercury

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FM 24 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

= 0.51 N/m , = 128c


=SG # = 13.6 # 1000 = 13600 kg/m3
h = 4 # 0.51 # cos 128c 3
13600 # 9.81 # 4 # 10
= 2.35 # 103 m = 2.35 mm
Here the negative sign indicates the capillary depression.
In magnitude h = 2.35 mm

FM 1.35 Option (C) is correct.


(a) For water, capillary rise
hw = s cos q = # . # cos c = 0.0275 m
rgD # . #( . )
(b) For Mercury
hm = s cos q = # . # cos c = 0.00912 m
rgD # . # .
Here negative sign shows the capillary depression.

FM 1.36 Option (D) is correct.


We have = 960 kg/m3, D = . mm = . # m
3
R = D = 3.8 # 10 = 1.9 # 103 m
2
h = . mm = 0.0025 m, contact angle = 15c
The surface tension of milk
rgRh 3 3
milk = = 960 # 9.81 # 1.9 # 10 # 2.5 # 10
2 cos f 2 # cos 15c
= 0.02315 N/m

FM 1.37 Option (A) is correct.

We have b = cm , = 0.12 m, F = .
From the surface tension force relation,
s = F = 0.018 = 0.075 N/m
2b 2 # (0.12)

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 25

FM 1.38 Option (B) is correct.


From the figure above, the force balance on the annular fluid is
Force in vertical direction = Weight of fluid film
cos # (2ro + 2ri) = rg # p (r o r i ) h
h = s cos q
rg (ro ri)
FM 1.39 Option (A) is correct.

The needle dents the surface downward and the surface tension forces are
upward as shown in figure. Then a vertical force balance gives:
Vertical forces = Weight of needle
2 cos # L = rg p D # L

2 cos = rg pD

2 = rg pD = 0c " cos 0c = 1

7824 # 9.81 # 3.14 # (0.0016) 2


= r g pD =
# 8
= 0.0772 N/m
FM 1.40 Option (B) is correct.
The wall shear stress anywhere on the surface of the frustum at a distance r from
the axis of rotation is
w = m du = mV = m wr
dr h h
The shear force on the area dA,
dF = tw dA = m wr dA
h

Torque dT = rdF = m wr dA
h
mw
T =
h
r dA #
A
The shaft power required at top surface is
mw
Pshaft, top = wT = w #
h A
r dA #
mw
=
h #r
A
dA ...(i)

For the top surface dA = 2prdr


mw D
Hence Pshaft, top =
h r=#r ( pr) dr

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FM 26 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

pmw D
pmw r D = pmw D
2 4
=
h # r dr =
h # : D 32h
r= r=
FM 1.41 Option (C) is correct.
By putting the value in expression of shaft power at top (20cC),
pmw 2 D 4 3.14 # (0.1) # (200) 2 # (0.12) 4
Pshaft, top = =
32h 32 # (0.0012)
= 67.824 W
The power is proportional to viscosity. Thus the power required at 80cC is
m
Pshaft, top, cC = 80cC # Pshaft, top, 20cC
m20cC
= 0.0078 # 67.824 = 5.29 W
0.1
Therefore, the reduction in the required power input at 80cC is
Pshaft, top, cC Pshaft, top, cC = 67.824 5.29
= 62.533 W
FM 1.42 Option (C) is correct
With b the width of the plates into the paper, the capillary forces on each wall
together balance the weight of fluid held above the free surface.
Weight of fluid = Surface tension force
g # ( . ) # h # b = 2 # (sb cos q)

or h = s cos q
rg # ( . )
= 2 # 0.0728 # cos 0c , 0.020 m = 20 mm
998 # 9.81 # (0.00075)

FM 1.43 Option (A) is correct.


We have m= g , y = . mm , A = . m , = 30c, = 0.4Ns/m2
The FBD of the block shown below.

In equilibrium condition
Fx = 0 W sin c = tA
mg sin c = m #V A y = film thickness
y
mgy sin c
V = W = mg
m#A
4
= 10 # 10 # 10 # 0.5 = 0.03125 m/ sec
0.4 # 0.4
FM 1.44 Option (A) is correct.
We have L= cm = m, N = rpm, h = . cm = . m
D = cm, R = = . cm = . m, T = .
Torque transmitted by the shaft

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 27

mw pmwR L
T = # R # pRL = ...(i)
h h
and = 2pN = 2 # p # 200 = 20.94 rad/s
60 60
From equation (i),we get
= T # 3h =
0.8 # (0.0012)
2pwR L 2 # 3.14 # 20.94 # (0.075) 3 # 1
= 0.0173 N s/m2

FM 1.45 Option (D) is correct.


We have = 1.2 # 10-3 Ns/m2 , U = m sec , h = . m
From Newtons law of viscosity
= m du ...(i)
dy
At the fixed surface (at y = )
du = U Uy
dy ;h E
h y=
= U
h
From equation (i) = m # U = 1.2 # 103 # 2 # 3 = 0.072 N/m2
h 0.1
FM 1.46 Option (C) is correct.
According to stokes law
= Wnet # t ...(i)
3pDL
The net weight of the sphere in the fluid is
Wnet = (rsphere rfluid ) g # v fluid = (rsphere rfluid ) # g # pD
3

6
= (2700 875) # 9.81 # p # (0.0025) 3 = 1.46 # 104 N
6
Then from equation (i),we get
^1.46 # 104h # 48
= = 0.397 kg/m s
3 # p # (0.0025) # (0.75)

FM 1.47 Option (C) is correct


Assuming a linear velocity distribution inside the annular clearance, the shear
stress is
= m DV = m wri ...(i)
Dr r ri
This stress causes a force
dF = tdA = t (ri dq) L ...(ii)
The torque of this force about the shaft axis is
dT = ri dF ...(iii)
Put equation (i), (ii) and (iii) together
ri m # wri # ri Ldq
p p
T = # ri dF = # r t (r Ldq) = #
i i
r ri
mwr i L
p mwr i L p pmwr i L
= # r ri
dq =
r ri # dq = r ri
T (r0 ri)
=
2pwr i3 L

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FM 28 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

FM 1.48 Option (B) is correct.


The velocity profile is given by
u (r) = u max c r m
R
The shear stress at pipe surface is expressed as
mu max
s = mdu = mu max # d ; r E =
dr r = R dr R r=R R
Then the friction drag force
mu max
FD = ts As = ( pRL) As = pRL
R
FD = 4pmLu max ...(i)
By substituting the given values in equation (i), we get
FD = 4 # 3.14 # (0.0010) # (15) # 5 = 0.942 N

FM 1.49 Option (D) is correct.

In the figure WT = Weight of tank = 125 N


WL = Weight of liquid = mg = rvg = gv
where = specific weight of liquid = 10.9 kN/m3
WL = 10.9 # 103 # p # (1) 2 # 5 = 42.8 kN
4
From the Newtons law of motion in vertical direction
Fy = may
FV WT WL = may
FV = b 125 + 42800 l 2.75
9.81
FV = 12033
FV = 54958 N - 55 kN
FM 1.50 Option (A) is correct.
At terminal velocity, the rod weight should equal the viscous drag.
W = Viscous Drag

s g # v = ;m V
(Do D) /2 E #
pDL
mVpDL
s g # D # L =
(Do D) /2
r gD (Do D)
V = s
8m
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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 29

FM 1.51 Option (C) is correct


The power is the viscous resisting force times the belt velocity.
P = Viscous resisting force # Velocity
= toil # Abelt # Vbelt
= b mV l # ^b # L h # V = mV b L
h h
By substituting the values, we get
P = 0.29 # (2.5) 2 # (0.9) # 4 = 108.75 W , 109 W
0.06
FM 1.52 Option (C) is correct.

We have steel = g m , aluminum = g m , water = . m


From surface tension force relation,
Fs = pDss and W = mg = rvg = rgpD

When the ball floats Fs = W


Ds = rgpD

D = ss
rg

For Steel Dsteel = ss = #( . )


= . #
m
rsteel g ( )# .
= 2.4 mm

For Aluminum Daluminum = ss = #( . )


= . #
m
raluminium # g # .
= 4.1 mm
Hence Daluminum > Dsteel
So aluminum ball would be larger in size.

FM 1.53 Option (C) is correct


For any radius r # R , the liquid gap is h = r tan q . Then
dT = tdA w r
= am wr kb pr dr l .r L = dr
r tan q cos q cos q
2pwm 2pwm 3
T =
sin q 0 # 2
=
3 sin q
= 3 sin 3q
2pw

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FM 30 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

Substituting the numerical values, we get


= 3 # 0.157 # sin 3c 3 = 0.193 kg/m s
2p # (94.2) # (0.06)
FM 1.54 Option (D) is correct.
At any radial position r < r on the cone surface and instantaneous rate
dT = r tdA w
mw
= r 9m # rw C # : pr dr D = pr dr
h sin q h sin q #
mw pmwr 04
#
r
Torque T = pr dr = ....(i)
h sin w 2h sin q
Since for cone T = I dw = 3 mr 02 # dw For cone I 0 = 3 mr 02
dt 10 dt 10
Then from equation (i),
pmr 04 w
3 mr 02 dw =
10 dt 2h sin q
Separating the variables and integrating both the sides,
d 10 # pmr 04 t


#
=
3mr 0 # 2h sin q 0
2 dt #
5pmr 02 t
= w0 exp ;
3mh sin q E
or

FM 1.55 Option (B) is correct.


For the fluid in the annular region
R # b m wR l RLdq
p
TA = # RdF = # R # t # dA = # DR
pmwR L
=
DR
pwm
r am wr k prdr =
R R
Now Tbottom = # r tdA = # DR DR # r dr

2pwmR 4
=
4DR
pwmR L pwmR
Ttotal = +
DR DR
= T DR
2pwR3 (L + R/4)
T (r R)
=
2pwR3 (L + R/4)
FM 1.56 Option (B) is correct.
We have L= mm = . m, = 0.008 kg/m.s, t film = . mm = . m
D = mm = . m, N = rpm
mw
Torque is given by T = R Area
t film # #
mwR pmwR L
T = pRL = As = pRL
t film # t film
pm ( pN ) # R L
T = = 2N
t film 60
4p2 mNR3 L
T =
60 # t film

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FM 1 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 31

By substituting numerical values


4 p2 0.008 # 750 # (0.04) 3 # 0.3
T = # #
60 # 0.0012
FM 1.57 Option (A) is correct.
At any r # R , the viscous shear on both sides of the disk
mwr
total = 2 # t = 2 #
h
and viscous force
mwr
dF = ttotal # dA w = ( prdr)
h #
Then viscous torque
pmwr pmwr
dT = dF.r = dr.r = dr
h h
Integrating both the sides
pmw R pmw R = pmwR
T =
h r= #
r .dr =
h # h
Substituting the numerical values
p 0.29 # 2p # N # (0.05) 4
T = # = 2N
(0.001) # 60 60
2 p 2
0.29 # 1200 # (0.05) 4
= # # = 0.716 Nm
(0.001) # 60

FM 1.58 Option (A) is correct


The masses remain the same for an isothermal process of an ideal gas
m +m = m
1 v1 + 2 v2 = r3 v 3
p p p p
or 9RT C # 9 D C + 9RT C # 9 D C = 9RT C # 9 D C
,v = D
p
=
RT

pa + s r p pa + s r p pa + s r p
; RT E # 9 D C + ; RT E # 9 D C = ; RT E # 9 D C

P Pa = s
R
The temperature cancels out, and we may clean up and rearrange as follows
pa D + sD = (pa D 23 + 8sD 22) + (pa D 13 + 8sD 12)

FM 1.59 Option (C) is correct

The skate bottom and the melted ice are like two parallel plates.

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FM 32 Basic Concepts and Properties of Fluids FM 1

= mV
h
mVLb
F = tA =
h
Using F = ma to find the stopping distance
mVLb
Fx = F = = max = m dV The 2 is for two blades
h dt
Separate and integrate once to find the velocity
V
dV = t mLb dt
V
#o
V mh #
2mLb
or log e :V D = t
Vo mh
2mLb
or V = Vo e mh t
Integrate once again to find distance
2mLb
# Vdt = #
3 3
x = Vo e mh
t
dt

= Vo mh
2mLb
FM 1.60 Option (C) is correct

Consider the right side of the liquid column, the surface tension acts tangent to
the local surface that is along the dashed line at right. This force has magnitude
F = sb as shown. Its vertical component is F cos ( - ) as shown. There are two
plates, therefore the total vertical force on the liquid column is
Fvertical = 2sb cos (q f)
Then the vertical force holds up the entire weight of liquid column between
plates, which is
W = rgbh (L h tan f)
Set W equal to F, we get
2 cos ( - ) = rgbh (L h tan f)
r ( tan f)
or =
2 cos (q f)

***********

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